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Singh B.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Singh J.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Bhatnagar P.,Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology | Upadhyay V.K.,Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute
Mausam | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to analyze the rainfall variability and trend, and examine vulnerability of fruits production to rainfall variability in Jhalawar district of Rajasthan. A time series data were used to carry out a comprehensive study of the effect of rainfall variability on fruit crops. It was observed that inter-annual and seasonal variabilities of rainfall were major cause of fluctuations in production of fruits in the study area. The district had 910 mm average rainfall with a standard deviation of 218 mm and coefficient of variation of 24 per cent. The annual rainfall as evident from analysis of data (1973-2010) showed negative trend (- 0.23 to - 17.41 mm/year) in the district. Productions of mandarin showed stronger correlations with the post-monsoon rainfall while those of mango, guava, lemon, mosambi, papaya, custard-apple and ber showed strong correlation with pre-monsoon and south-west monsoon rainfall. Source

Rajulu K.Ch.V.,Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute | Rao K.S.,Andhra University | Tilak B.,Andhra University | Gangadharudu G.,Andhra University | Swathi A.,Andhra University
Indian Journal of Physics | Year: 2012

Lead-free nano crystalline (Na 0.5Bi 0.5) 1-xBa xTiO 3 (BNBT) ceramics with (x = 0.026, 0.055 and 0.065) have been prepared by solid state sintering technique. In BNBT-6.5 resulted in a splitting of the (2 0 0) peak into two peaksof (0 0 2)and (2 0 0) reflections. Splitting in the peak position reveals the composition is well in morphotropic phase boundary region. Average particle sizes have been calculated and found to be in nanometer range. In the energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectrum elements present in the prepared compositions are Na, Bi, Ba, Ti and O only. Impedance (real Z′) plots provide an indication of increasing conduction with temperature andfrequency i.e., negative temperature coefficient of resistance behaviour like semiconductor. The activation energy, E τ is found to be 0.56, 0.88 and 0.55 eV for BNBT-2.6, BNBT-5.5 and BNBT-6.5 respectively; this suggests strongly that theelectrical behaviour of rhombohedral structure in studied materials. BNBT-6.5 ceramics have good properties with piezoelectric constant d 33 = 211 pC/N and electromechanical coupling factors k p = 28 % and k t= 25 %. These high d 33 BNBT materials can be used for transducer applications. The observed dispersion of the imaginarydielectric constant (ε″) is stronger than that of real dielectric constant (ε′). © 2012 IACS. Source

Kalawate A.,Western Regional Center | Kalawate A.,Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute | Mehetre S.,Bhabha Atomic Research Center | Mehetre S.,Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2015

This article describes the isolation, identification, and characterization of wood-rotting fungi and insects, and their inhibition was studied using gamma radiation. Products manufactured from plantation timber species are deteriorated by wood-rotting fungi such as Hypocrea lixii, Fusarium proliferatum, and Aspergillus flavus, and insects such as powderpost beetles. Proper preservation methods are necessary for ensuring a long service life of wood products. In this study, wood samples were treated with 2.5% copper ethanolamine boron (CEB) (10% w/. v) and subsequently irradiated with gamma rays (10. kGy). It was observed that CEB-treated and gamma-irradiated samples controlled fungi and powderpost beetles significantly. As wood is a dead organic material, penetration of chemicals into it is very difficult. Gamma rays easily pass through wooden objects with hidden eggs and dormant spores of insects and fungi, respectively. Gamma irradiation was proved very effective in reducing damage caused by both fungi and insects. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kalawate A.,Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute | Pandey C.N.,Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute
Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science | Year: 2011

Colemanite, also called as hydrated calcium borate hydroxide, is a borate mineral found in evaporite deposits of alkaline lacustrins environments. It is a secondary mineral that forms by alternation of borax and ulexite. As this chemical is not toxic to human beings and other mammals, it has been chosen for the present preliminary work on assessing the efficacy against mould fungi on rubber wood veneers. Colemanite at two different levels of concentrations, 3 and 5 % was tested against moulds and it has been found that 5 % concentration acts as an effective mouldicide. In India this is the first report where colemanite was used against mould fungi. © Indian Academy of Wood Science 2012. Source

Nath S.K.,Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute | Chawla V.K.,Indian Plywood Industries Research and Training Institute
Journal of the Indian Academy of Wood Science | Year: 2011

A number of recyclable bio-materials are available in India which can be used as raw material base for production of alternate products to wood and wood composites. Bamboo has emerged as a single largest material from which almost all products can be made as is usually made from timber. Perhaps the future generation will use more bamboo based materials due to their availability and versatility than wood and wood products. Besides bamboo, huge quantity of agro and forest residues are available every year in the country. A number of useful products have been developed from rice husk, coconut husk (coir), cotton stalk, bagasse and pine needle. Products made from coir, bamboo, cotton stalk and bagasse are already commercialized in India. © Indian Academy of Wood Science 2012. Source

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