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Sen B.K.,Bibliometrics Experts Committee | Sen B.K.,Indian National Science Academy
Annals of Library and Information Studies | Year: 2014

India publishes around 130 library and information science journals. A methodology has been developed to identify the top journals. The study identified the seven journals as India's leading journals. These include Annals of Library and Information Studies, SRELS Journal of Information Management, DESIDOC Journal of Library & Information Technology, Information Studies, COLLNET Journal of Scientometrics and Information Management, IASLIC Bulletin and Library Herald. © 2014, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.

Agarwal K.N.,Indian National Science Academy
Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series: Pediatric Program | Year: 2011

Infant feeding and weaning practices in India continue to demonstrate that a significant number of infants do not receive colostrum (62.8% according to the National Family Health Survey, NFHS-2), though breastfeeding is universal and continued for a longer period. In NFHS-3 (2005-2006), there is improving trend for breastfeeding within the first hour of birth (23.4%) and exclusive breastfeeding up to 5 months (46.3%); however, weaning for semisolids is delayed (55.8% only at 6-9 months of age). The infant weaning foods are inadequate in energy-protein and micronutrients. Further, weaning foods and feeding/cooking utensils are contaminated with bacteria, resulting in frequent episodes of diarrhea. Indeed, these are the factors responsible for initiation and continuation of early malnutrition which the country has failed to control as observed in the three NFHS. Over a span of 7 years, i.e. from NFHS-2 (1998-1999) to NFHS-3, there was only marginal reduction in undernutrition. Thus, uncontrolled fetal malnutrition, poor initiation of breastfeeding, inadequate and delayed weaning, and contaminated food and water demand urgency to develop affordable hygienic weaning foods, education to clean utensils, timely weaning and available potable chlorinated water to prevent and control malnutrition. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Mir B.A.,National Institute of Technology Srinagar | Sridharan A.,Indian National Science Academy
Geotechnical and Geological Engineering | Year: 2013

At present, nearly 100 million tonnes of fly ash is being generated annually in India posing serious health and environmental problems. To control these problems, the most commonly used method is addition of fly ash as a stabilizing agent usually used in combination with soils. In the present study, high-calcium (ASTM Class C-Neyveli fly) and low-calcium (ASTM Class F-Badarpur fly ash) fly ashes in different proportions by weight (10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 %) were added to a highly expansive soil [known as black cotton (BC) soil] from India. Laboratory tests involved determination of physical properties, compaction characteristics and swell potential. The test results show that the consistency limits, compaction characteristics and swelling potential of expansive soil-fly ash mixtures are significantly modified and improved. It is seen that 40 % fly ash content is the optimum quantity to improve the plasticity characteristics of BC soil. The fly ashes exhibit low dry unit weight compared to BC soil. With the addition of fly ash to BC soil the maximum dry unit weight (γdmax) of the soil-fly ash mixtures decreases with increase in optimum moisture content (OMC), which can be mainly attributed to the improvement in gradation of the fly ash. It is also observed that 10 % of Neyveli fly ash is the optimum amount required to minimize the swell potential compared to 40 % of Badarpur fly ash. Therefore, the main objective of the study was to study the effect of fly ashes on the physical, compaction, and swelling potential of BC soils, and bulk utilization of industrial waste by-product without adversely affecting the environment. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Engineering behavior of fine-grained soils depends upon the clay mineralogical composition of the soils and the pore medium chemistry as well. A greater part of the soil–pore liquid interaction is both physical and physico-chemical in nature. This can be attributed to the charge deficiency on the surfaces and edges of the clay platelets and the associated electrical attractive and repulsive forces. Clay minerals that are present in the finegrained soils can be broadly grouped into kaolinitic and montmorillonitic types. This paper discusses in detail the physical and engineering behavior of fine-grained soils as influenced by the dominant clay minerals composing them and by the pore medium chemistry. It has been brought that the liquid limit, sediment volume, undrained shear strength and compressibility behavior of kaolinitic and montmorillonitic clayey soils are quite opposite to changes in the pore medium chemistry. The drained strength and secondary compression coefficient of both kaolinitic and montmorillonitic fine-grained soils are primarily controlled by the modified effective stress (i.e., net contact stress at the particle level), which takes into consideration both attractive and repulsive forces in addition to the conventional effective stress. The hydraulic conductivity of fine-grained soils is significantly influenced by the nature of the fluid, especially so in montmorillonitic soils. © Indian Geotechnical Society 2014.

Rani S.,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology | Kumar R.,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology | Singh S.J.,Indian National Science Academy
International Journal of Geomechanics | Year: 2010

An analytical solution of the fully coupled system of equations governing the axisymmetric quasistatic deformation of a poroelastic medium with anisotropic permeability and compressible fluid and solid constituents is obtained by employing the Laplace-Hankel integral transforms. This solution is used to study the consolidation of a poroelastic clay layer with free permeable surface resting on a rough-rigid impermeable base. The problem of axisymmetric normal loading is discussed in detail. Numerical computations are performed for normal disk loading. The effects of the anisotropy in permeability and the compressibility of the fluid and solid constituents on the consolidation process are studied. The compressibility of the pore fluid increases the initial settlement but has no effect on the final settlement. For a thin layer, the surface settlement increases steadily from its undrained value, attains a maximum, and decreases steadily to the drained value. This kind of behavior is not observed for a thick layer or a uniform half-space. © 2011 ASCE.

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