Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology

Ranchi, India

Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology

Ranchi, India
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Rajpal S.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology | Kumar S.R.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2017

ZnO is a II-VI compound semiconductor with wide bang gap and hexagonal wurtzite structure. Zinc oxide films were deposited by electrodeposition technique, containing very low concentrations of sodium citrate and hydrogen peroxide. Ammonium hydroxide were added to control the reaction. The as deposited films were annealed in air at 400°C The analysis were initially studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Optical properties. The average grain size is measured to be 48nm.The grains are spherical, well connected and uniformly distributed. The energy band gap is found to be 3.35 eV in as deposited case and 3.23 eV in annealed case. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mukerjee D.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology
Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals | Year: 2017

Strategic metals and materials, including steels, are crucial to technological and economic advancement of countries. Restricted and sometimes non availability of such strategic materials, to be employed especially in strategic industries/sectors, compels a nation to evolve strategies to combat such situation. India is unfortunately not so comfortably placed in terms of availability of strategic metals/minerals, as compared to our neighbour China, and would require deployment of scientific management of strategies/policies to be pursued in future. Geographical mapping of scarce deposits followed by their economic exploitation, close government to government level interactions, pursuit of synergistic research and development (R&D) programmes through collaborations, recycling etc. has to be a part of the overall strategic policy shift in future. Apart from being metals, steels do acquire strategic importance, especially when employed in defence, energy, space and other emerging technology areas. Development of high end assets, through careful manipulation of microstructure, such as in nano structured steels, can assist the country in the path of self reliance. There is a pressing need for the development of technologies of futuristic grades, like, cold rolled grain oriented steel for power, low density steels for automobiles, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMR 1700) grade for defence purposes etc., within the country. For such strategic steels, indigenous and intense collaborative R&D work, with government support, can be highly beneficial and successful. © 2017 The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM

Equbal M.A.,Cambridge institute of Technology | Ohdar R.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology
International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development | Year: 2017

Supply chain management (SCM) has gained a tremendous amount of attention by both practitioners and academics since the last two decades. Supply chain performance measurement (SCPM) plays a vital role for set-up the concrete strategy and a driving force for improvement in organizational productivity. An important component in supply chain design and analysis is the establishment of an appropriate performance measurement and evaluation system. The purpose of such performance measurement system is to monitor and control the supply chain performance. Also, the selection of factors or different variables affecting performance of any organization is an important or vital step in developing a performance measurement system. In this paper, a comprehensive supply chain performance measurement and evaluation (CSCPME) methodology has been developed. The critical performance measures reflect the five specific criteria, viz. effectiveness, efficiency, quality, productivity, and profitability. The developed CSCPME methodology may be applicable for the performance measurement and evaluation of almost all the entities of a supply chain. © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

Malapati M.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology | Bhattacharyya B.,Jadavpur University
Materials and Manufacturing Processes | Year: 2011

Electrochemical micromachining (EMM) appears to be very promising as a future micromachining process due to higher machining rate, better precision and control, and wide range of materials that can be machined. The present article highlights the experimental study of EMM process parameters, i.e., pulse frequency, machining voltage, duty ratio, electrolyte concentration, and micro-tool feed-rate, and their influences on micromachining criteria such as material removal rate (MRR) and machining accuracy during micro-channel generation. Scanning type strategy is considered for the movement of micro-tool during micro-channel generation Experiments are planned based on response surface methodology (RSM) and conducted on the indigenously developed EMM system setup. Empirical mathematical models of various process parameters on MRR and machining accuracy in EMM process are developed through RSM. The validity of the models is tested through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Optimal values for multiobjective optimization of the process parameters have been found out as pulse frequency of 52.2818kHz, machining voltage of 10.1033V, duty ratio of 68.3890%, electrolyte concentration of 85.1515g/l, and micro-tool feed-rate of 208.5860m/sec for the maximum MRR and improved accuracy. Response surface plots for each response are analyzed. Condition of machined micro-channels is also analyzed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. The developed models will be very useful to find out the optimal parametric setting to produce high accuracy micro-channels utilizing scanning movement strategy of micro-tool. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Yadav S.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology | Srivastava V.,Indian Institute of Technology BHU Varanasi | Banerjee S.,Allahabad University | Weng C.-H.,I - Shou University | Sharma Y.C.,Indian Institute of Technology BHU Varanasi
Catena | Year: 2013

The objective of this study is to investigate the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions by using modified sand as adsorbent. The modified sand was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and FTIR. pH zpc of the raw and modified sands was found to be 6.98 and 6.66, respectively. Removal efficiency of the modified sand was investigated by using batch adsorption experiments. The effect of important parameters such as initial concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage, pH and temperature on removal of Cr(VI) was investigated. It was demonstrated that the removal efficiency increased from 67.24% to 80.40% by the decreasing initial metal concentration from 15 to 5mgL -1. Effect of pH was investigated by varying the solution pH from 2.0 to 8.0. The optimum pH for adsorption of Cr(VI) on modified sand was found to be 2.5 with a maximum removal of ~80.40%. Extent of removal decreases by increasing the temperature from 25°C to 35°C confirming exothermic nature. Kinetics of removal process was studied by applying pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Pseudo-first order rate constant was found to be 0.037min -1 while the rate constant for pseudo-second order reaction was found to be 0.0236gmg -1min -1 at 25°C. Values of thermodynamic parameters viz. {increment}G°, {increment}H° and {increment}S° were calculated and found to be -3.67kJmol -1, -68.74kJmol -1and -0.243kJmol -1K -1, respectively at 25°C. The values of δG° were found to be negative at all temperatures indicating the spontaneity of the removal process. A negative value of {increment}H° further confirms the exothermic nature of removal process. The experimental data were fitted to Langmuir as well as Freundlich adsorption isotherm equations. The results obtained in the present study show the modified sand to be a better adsorbent for removal of Cr(VI). © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Sood A.K.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology | Ohdar R.K.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology | Mahapatra S.S.,National Institute of Technology Rourkela
Materials and Design | Year: 2010

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a fast growing rapid prototyping (RP) technology due to its ability to build functional parts having complex geometrical shape in reasonable time period. The quality of built parts depends on many process variables. In this study, five important process parameters such as layer thickness, orientation, raster angle, raster width and air gap are considered. Their influence on three responses such as tensile, flexural and impact strength of test specimen is studied. Experiments are conducted based on central composite design (CCD) in order to reduce experimental runs. Empirical models relating response and process parameters are developed. The validity of the models is tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Response surface plots for each response is analysed and optimal parameter setting for each response is determined. The major reason for weak strength may be attributed to distortion within or between the layers. Finally, concept of desirability function is used for maximizing all responses simultaneously. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Mahapatra S.S.,National Institute of Technology Rourkela | Sood A.K.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2012

Fused deposition modeling has a complex part building mechanism making it difficult to obtain reasonably good functional relationship between responses and process parameters. To solve this problem, present study proposes use of artificial neural network (ANN) model to determine the relationship between five input parameters such as layer thickness, orientation, raster angle, raster width, and air gap with three output responses viz., roughness in top, bottom, and side surface of the built part. Bayesian regularization is adopted for selection of optimum network architecture because of its ability to fix number of network parameters irrespective of network size. ANN model is trained using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, and the resulting network has good generalization capability that eliminates the chance of over fitting. Finally, bacterial foraging optimization algorithm which attempts to model the individual and group behavior of Escherichia coli bacteria as a distributed optimization process is used to suggest theoretical combination of parameter settings to improve overall roughness of part. This paper also investigates use of chaotic time series sequence known as logistic function and demonstrates its superiority in terms of convergence and solution quality. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Mandal S.K.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology | Chan F.T.S.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Tiwari M.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2012

The generation of leak along the pipeline carrying crude oils and liquid fuels results enormous financial loss to the industry and also affects the public health. Hence, the leak detection and localization problem has always been a major concern for the companies. In spite of the various techniques developed, accuracy and time involved in the prediction is still a matter of concern. In this paper, a novel leak detection scheme based on rough set theory and support vector machine (SVM) is proposed to overcome the problem of false leak detection. In this approach, 'rough set theory' is explored to reduce the length of experimental data as well as generate rules. It is embedded to enhance the decision making process. Further, SVM classifier is employed to inspect the cases that could not be detected by applied rules. For the computational training of SVM, this paper uses swarm intelligence technique: artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, which imitates intelligent food searching behavior of honey bees. The results of proposed leak detection scheme with ABC are compared with those obtained by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) and one of its variants, so-called enhanced particle swarm optimization (EPSO). The experimental results advocate the use of propounded method for detecting leaks with maximum accuracy. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kumar S.R.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology | Nuthalapati M.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology | Maity J.,National Institute of Technology Durgapur
Scripta Materialia | Year: 2012

A nanocrystalline thin film of ZnSe was successfully electrodeposited on a copper substrate using a non-aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the deposition of crystalline ZnSe with a 12 nm crystallite size. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies revealed a densely packed non-porous granular deposit. The Schottky diode characteristic corroborated a typical semiconducting behaviour of ZnSe deposit. The band gap (2.71 eV) obtained through spectroscopic analysis and the measured resistivity (1.5 Ω cm) were also in good agreement with the reported data of semiconducting ZnSe. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Shrivastava A.K.,Indian National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology
Indian Journal of Environmental Protection | Year: 2010

Zinc is one of the toxic metals which is present in air, soil, water and food. It is emitted into the environment from various industries and plants (zinc smelters, zinc plating, galvanizing, in making alloys, etc.). In the present paper, adsorption studies are carried out. Here adsorbent point of use granular activated carbon (POU-GACFC) impregnated with waste tea leaves carbon (WTLC) has been used for sorption of zinc(II) from water/wastewater. A design of treatment system for water containing zinc is shown. © 2010 - Kalpana Corporation.

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