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Verma A.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Tyagi B.S.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Meena A.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Gupta R.K.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Chatrath R.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
Bangladesh Journal of Botany | Year: 2017

Highly significant effects due to environments, genotypes and genotype x environment interaction were observed during evaluation of 12 wheat genotypes across 17 environments in the central zone in India. The environmental effect explained larger proportion (68.5%) of total variation followed by genotype x environment interaction effect (15.2%) and marginally by genotype effects (2.5%). Interaction effect partitioned into four significant interaction principal components with respective contributions as 33.7, 18.3, 15.2 and 9.6%, respectively. Biplots based on AMMI analysis identified G3(GW 451), G9 (GW 322), G4(HI 8750) and G11 (HI 8498) as the stable genotypes and E12 (Rewa), E11 (Bhopal), E1 (Anand) and E13 (Sagar) environments contributed largest to interaction effects. GGE biplot analysis pointed out G5 (MP 3382) as ideal genotype followed by G3 (GW 451). © 2017, Bangladesh Botanical Society. All rights reserved.


Kumar S.,Guru Nanak Institutions | Kumar A.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Kumar J.,Azad University of Agriculture and Technology
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding | Year: 2017

The assessment of nature of gene effect for yield and its contributing traits and detection of epistasis in wheat was studied in five crosses involving seven parents through generation mean analysis. Scaling test and joint scaling test were showed significant for almost traits all crosses. Additive gene effects (d) were positively significant for days to maturity and tillers per plant in cross II; for seed per plant in cross IV. Dominance gene effects (h) were highly significant for days to 75% heading in cross II, III and IV; for days to maturity and grains per spike in cross II, for grain yield per plant and grains per spike in cross I. Additive x additive type of gene (i) were positive significant effect for days to 75% heading in cross II, III and IV; for days to maturity in cross II and grains per spike in crosses I, II; for 1000 grain weight in cross II and IV; for grain yield per plant in cross I. Additive x dominance type of gene effect (j) was positive significant for days to 75% heading in cross III; for days to maturity in cross II and III; for plant height in cross III; tillers per plant in cross II; for grain per spike and seed per plant in cross III and grain yield in cross IV. Dominance x dominance effect (l) were positively significant for days to 75% heading, plant height in cross I; for plant height in cross III, IV and V; for tillers per plant in cross II and for grains per spike in cross IV and V; seed per plant, grain yield in cross IV. Therefore, it has been suggested that selection of studied characters based on different gene action of generation mean to be used further crop improvement through ideal breeding programme.


Dwivedi S.K.,ICAR Research complex for Eastern Region | Basu S.,Assam University | Kumar S.,ICAR Research complex for Eastern Region | Kumar G.,Central University of Bihar | And 6 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2017

Delayed sowing of spring wheat due to late harvesting of long duration rice varieties sown in Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (EIGP), results in yield loss associated with high temperatures. Present study intended to evaluate the consequences of high temperature on physiology, yield attributes and yield of spring wheat genotypes (n = 30) sown in the field for three consecutive winter seasons with different sowing windows; November (timely), December (late) and January (very late). The average temperature during anthesis stage of late (LS) and very late sowing (VLS) conditions were 2.7 °C and 5.2 °C higher than that of the timely sowing (TS) condition, which caused an average yield reduction of 18% under LS and 34% under VLS conditions as compared to the TS condition. Heat stress induced 8.6 days reduction in average grain filling duration under LS and 12.6 days under VLS condition, in turn caused 17 and 39% respective decrease in the test weight. High heritability was observed for tiller no. m−2, spike length, membrane stability index and grain no. spike−1 while low heritability for grain yield and thousand grain weight among the genotypes studied. In our study, genotypic variation was obvious in all traits regarding thermal susceptibility. Halna, one of the wheat lines studied, displayed extreme heat tolerance among the considered genotypes with the lowest heat susceptibility index for grain yield (HSI < 0.5). NW1012 and Raj4238 presented high yield under TS conditions but could not sustain their ability when exposed to heat stress (HSI > 1.0). Furthermore, high temperature driven degradation of chlorophyll probably reduced photosynthetic capacity. Moreover, impaired transport of photosynthate (starch mobilization) from green foliage (source) to anther tissues (sink) leaded to high pollen mortality and thereby decreased grain yield. The results suggested that high temperature caused the significant negative influence on wheat genotypes at anthesis stage establishing a direct association of photosynthesis with starch mobilisation, pollen viability and grain yield. The study also introduced a crop model system for further revelation of the molecular background of thermo-tolerance in plants. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Singh Y.P.,Ch Charan Singh University | Gaurav S.S.,Ch Charan Singh University | Kumar P.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Ojha A.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
Medicinal Plants | Year: 2015

Genetic variability was studied in seven diverse crosses of basil (Ocimum basilicum) in the F2 segregating generations. A high range of coefficient of variation was observed for dry herb yield and fresh herb yield /plant, leaf area and number of branches. The magnitude of expected genetic advance in F2 population was higher for some traits such as number of inflorescence in all crosses, except to Cl and CII, days to maturity in cross I, III, VI and VII, fresh herb yield in cross VII, dry herb yield in cross VI, and oil content in cross VI. High values of genetic advance with high heritability were achieved in traits such as fresh herb yield per plant, dry herb yield per plant indicating the involvement of additive gene action in the inheritance of these traits. Oil content showed highly significant positive correlation with all the characters excepting number of branches, days to flowering and dry herb yield in different F2 crosses. Fresh herb yield per plants showed positive correlation in all F2 crosses with all the traits such as oil content, plant height in cross II, V and VII, number of branches in cross IV and VII. However, fresh herb yield per plant showed desirable significant correlation with oil yield and its contributing traits, indicating that high fresh herb yield per plant directly correlates with high oil content in the concerned genotypes. The results suggested that the higher dry herb yield per plant would be the most valuable for these traits. © 2015, IndianJournals.com. All rights reserved.


Singh V.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Singh V.,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology | Singh G.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Chaudhury A.,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2016

Spot blotch is a major foliar disease of wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana in warm and humid environments of the world including South Asian countries. In India, it has a larger impact in Indo-Gangetic plains of the country. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to phenotype a mapping population at different hot spots of India and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to spot blotch in wheat. For this study, 209 single seed descent (SSD) derived F8, F9, F10 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross ‘Sonalika’ (an Indian susceptible cultivar)/‘BH 1146’ (a Brazilian resistant cultivar) were assessed for spot blotch resistance at two hot spot locations (Coochbehar and Kalyani) for three years and for two years under controlled conditions in the polyhouse (Karnal). The population showed large variation in spot blotch reaction for disease severity in all the environments indicating polygenic nature of the disease. Microsatellite markers were used to create the linkage maps. Joint and/or individual year analysis by composite interval mapping (CIM) and likelihood of odds ratio (LOD) >2.1, detected two consistent QTLs mapped on chromosome 7BL and 7DL and these explained phenotypic variation of 11.4 percent and 9.5 percent over the years and locations, respectively. The resistance at these loci was contributed by the parent ‘BH 1146’ and shown to be independent of plant height and earliness. Besides, association of some agro-morphological traits has also been observed with percent disease severity. These identified genomic regions may be used in future wheat breeding programs through marker assisted selection for developing spot blotch resistant cultivars. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


PubMed | Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, North Bengal Agricultural University and Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular biology reports | Year: 2016

Spot blotch is a major foliar disease of wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana in warm and humid environments of the world including South Asian countries. In India, it has a larger impact in Indo-Gangetic plains of the country. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to phenotype a mapping population at different hot spots of India and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to spot blotch in wheat. For this study, 209 single seed descent (SSD) derived F


Garg M.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Tsujimoto H.,Tottori University | Gupta R.K.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Kumar A.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Wheat cultivars with wide introgression have strongly impacted global wheat production. Aegilops geniculata (MgUg) is an important wild relative with several useful traits that can be exploited for wheat improvement. Screening of Ae. geniculata addition lines indicated a negative effect of 1Ug and the positive effect of 1Mg chromosome on wheat dough strength. Negative effect of 1Ug is probably associated with variation in number and position of the tripeptide repeat motif in the high molecular weight glutenin (HMW-G) gene. To utilize the positive potential of 1Mg chromosome, three disomic substitution lines (DSLs) 1Mg(1A), 1Mg(1B) and 1Mg(1D) were created. These lines were characterized for morphological, cytogenetic properties and biochemical signatures using FISH, 1D-, 2D-PAGE and RPHPLC. Contribution of wheat 1A, 1B and 1D chromosomes towards dough mixing and baking parameters, chapatti quality, Fe/Zn content and glume color were identified. Observed order of variation in the dough mixing and baking parameters {1Mg(1D) wheat 1Mg(1B) ≤1Mg(1A)} indicated that chromosome specific introgression is desirable for best utilization of wild species' potential. © 2016 Garg et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Ravika,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Chhabra A.K.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Chawla V.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Baniwal R.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Biology | Year: 2016

The studies were conducted to screen mapping population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) along with parental genotypes (Aldan and WH 542) of wheat for Karnal bunt resistance. The study was conducted in the Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (India). To achieve the objectives, 82 RILs of wheat cross, Aldan (resistant)/WH 542 (susceptible) were used in the crop seasons of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. The screening for Karnal Bunt (Neovossia indica) incidence was done under artificial epiphytotic conditions. Screening for disease was done at boot leaf stage. The distribution of RILs based on Karnal bunt disease was highly skewed towards the resistant parent (Aldan) and wide variations were observed among the RILs for Karnal bunt resistance expression during the years 2012 and 2013. During both the years, 11 RILs were found to be under highly resistant category with 0% infection, whereas 42 RILs in 2012 and 46 RILs in 2013 showed resistant reaction (0.1-5%). The plants showed ratio of disease to the tune of 3: 1 for resistant and susceptible lines. The ratio indicated that resistance was under the control of single dominant gene. In first year (2011-12) study, the maximum disease per cent in susceptible parent WH 542 was higher (35.56%) than the second year (2012-13) study (27.45%) and coefficient of infection in susceptible parent (WH 542) was 17.63 and 14.44% in the years 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. Variations in susceptibility indicated environmental correlations with the pathogen activities under field conditions. The study evidently showed that the lines that showed resistance to Karnal bunt in the first year also showed resistance to Karnal bunt in the second year of study. Therefore, the resistance is governed genetically. However, the level of susceptibility varied in two years in the RILs with susceptible reactions indicated differences in favourable environment for the pathogen to incite disease in field conditions.


Pandey B.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Saini M.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Sharma P.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
Plant Gene | Year: 2016

Dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitors serve protection against insects that are highly dependent on starch for their energy. In order to study the molecular evolution and sequence variation, we have sequenced dimeric α-amylase inhibitors gene from different genomes in Triticeae including Indian bread and durum wheat genotypes. Using BLAST, obtained sequences show very high homology with other inhibitors available at GenBank database and had common conserved 10 cysteine residues. Investigated frequency of significant SNPs in the α-amylase inhibitor gene was 1 out of 60 bases. The phylogenetic analysis based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the genes encoding dimeric α-amylase inhibitors formed three groups and genes isolated from Indian bread wheat clustered with 0.19 inhibitors. In addition, we predicted that dimeric α-amylase inhibitors co-localized into chloroplast and mitochondria expect for the sequences isolated from Aegilops tauschii. Fingerprinting analysis done with ScanProsite confirmed biologically meaningful signatures. Multiple sequence alignment of dimeric α-amylase proteins from different plant species revealed a conserved secondary structure region, indicating homology at the sequence and structural levels. Analysis of the protein sequences obtained from wheat and its wild related species are very similar, indicates a highest conservation of these proteins. © 2016 The Authors.


Verma A.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Chatrath R.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Sharma I.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding | Year: 2016

In this investigation 23 genotypes of wheat were tested for stability in 19 locations of North Western plains of the country, Yield data generated from the trials were analysed using AMMI analysis. The distribution of genotype by AMMI revealed that the genotypes 10,13, 20,12,15 and 14 scattered close to the origin, indicating minimal interaction of these genotypes with environments. Studied environments explained 57.2% of the total variation, whereas G and GxE captured 6.2% and 24.3%, respectively. First two principal components (PC1 and PC2) were used to create a 2-dimensional GGE biplot and explained 26.4% and 14.3% of GGE sum of squares (SS), respectively. Environments of Karnal, Ludhiana and Gurdaspur fall in same sector with genotypes 23 & 16. The spearman correlations calculated based on ranks by stability methods varied from positive value 0.97 to negative correlation of 0.759. The cultivar superiority estimate (Pi) maintained negative correlation with other estimates ranking.

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