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Coventry D.R.,University of Adelaide | Poswal R.S.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Yadav A.,Haryana Agricultural University | Riar A.S.,University of Adelaide | And 10 more authors.
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2015

An extensive stratified survey was conducted in two different wheat growing seasons in all districts of Haryana (India) to evaluate current agronomic practices and assess performance in wheat production with the purpose of identifying where farmers can make further changes in practices. The survey involved 116 villages (927 farmers) in 2008 and 103 villages (823 farmers) in 2010. Different sized farming operations from each village were surveyed to represent all socio-economic categories of farmers. Agronomic inputs (tillage method, fertilizer practice, variety choice, time of sowing, irrigation, and rotation practice) and yield data are presented as mean data, and individual farmer's information is represented by regression tree (RT) analysis to highlight primary associations between cropping management and wheat yield and the technical efficiency (TE) measure. TE was calculated using the key agronomic variables obtained from the survey, and the farms with the highest TE values were assessed as having the superior 'best practice' technology. In the districts where the rice-wheat rotation was adopted, there was an overall higher level of TE. Where rice-wheat rotation is the main cropping practice (for example in Kaithal and Kurukshetra), many of the farmers have adopted zero tillage farming methods, with one third of farmers in Kaithal using zero tillage for planting wheat. In contrast, in Sirsa district where cotton was favoured by the farmers as their monsoon season crop, there were no farms where zero tillage was practised. Also, there was also no zero tillage farming where the pearl millet/cluster bean rotation was used as the monsoon season crop. In most cases farmers use a two applications of nitrogen fertilizer applied post-emergence, particularly in the rice-wheat and cotton-wheat districts. The survey also showed that application of potassium fertilizer and use of zinc is regionally specific and this is consistent with the soil maps that show the potential for deficiency of these nutrients in Haryana districts. Sowing in the rice-wheat districts was mostly at the recommended time in early November. The highest number of irrigations occurred in the districts using the pearl millet-wheat and cluster bean-wheat rotations where sprinkler irrigation is the main application practice. The analysis of TE provides a useful comparison when the 5 different farm size categories are separated. There was no difference in TE with farm size, suggesting the message concerning best practice for wheat production is available to and adopted by farmers irrespective of scale of operation. This analysis highlights where extension messages could be focused, whether for zero tillage in the non-rice districts, management of macro-nutrients, or the targeted use of micronutrients. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Singh Y.P.,Ch Charan Singh University | Gaurav S.S.,Ch Charan Singh University | Kumar P.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Ojha A.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
Medicinal Plants | Year: 2015

Genetic variability was studied in seven diverse crosses of basil (Ocimum basilicum) in the F2 segregating generations. A high range of coefficient of variation was observed for dry herb yield and fresh herb yield /plant, leaf area and number of branches. The magnitude of expected genetic advance in F2 population was higher for some traits such as number of inflorescence in all crosses, except to Cl and CII, days to maturity in cross I, III, VI and VII, fresh herb yield in cross VII, dry herb yield in cross VI, and oil content in cross VI. High values of genetic advance with high heritability were achieved in traits such as fresh herb yield per plant, dry herb yield per plant indicating the involvement of additive gene action in the inheritance of these traits. Oil content showed highly significant positive correlation with all the characters excepting number of branches, days to flowering and dry herb yield in different F2 crosses. Fresh herb yield per plants showed positive correlation in all F2 crosses with all the traits such as oil content, plant height in cross II, V and VII, number of branches in cross IV and VII. However, fresh herb yield per plant showed desirable significant correlation with oil yield and its contributing traits, indicating that high fresh herb yield per plant directly correlates with high oil content in the concerned genotypes. The results suggested that the higher dry herb yield per plant would be the most valuable for these traits. © 2015, IndianJournals.com. All rights reserved.

Singh V.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Singh V.,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology | Singh G.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Chaudhury A.,Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2016

Spot blotch is a major foliar disease of wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana in warm and humid environments of the world including South Asian countries. In India, it has a larger impact in Indo-Gangetic plains of the country. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to phenotype a mapping population at different hot spots of India and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to spot blotch in wheat. For this study, 209 single seed descent (SSD) derived F8, F9, F10 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross ‘Sonalika’ (an Indian susceptible cultivar)/‘BH 1146’ (a Brazilian resistant cultivar) were assessed for spot blotch resistance at two hot spot locations (Coochbehar and Kalyani) for three years and for two years under controlled conditions in the polyhouse (Karnal). The population showed large variation in spot blotch reaction for disease severity in all the environments indicating polygenic nature of the disease. Microsatellite markers were used to create the linkage maps. Joint and/or individual year analysis by composite interval mapping (CIM) and likelihood of odds ratio (LOD) >2.1, detected two consistent QTLs mapped on chromosome 7BL and 7DL and these explained phenotypic variation of 11.4 percent and 9.5 percent over the years and locations, respectively. The resistance at these loci was contributed by the parent ‘BH 1146’ and shown to be independent of plant height and earliness. Besides, association of some agro-morphological traits has also been observed with percent disease severity. These identified genomic regions may be used in future wheat breeding programs through marker assisted selection for developing spot blotch resistant cultivars. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Choudhary G.L.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Choudhary G.L.,Tilka Manjhi Bhagalpur University | Rana K.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Rana D.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

A field study was conducted during kharif seasons of 2012 and 2013 at the research farm of ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to find out the effect of moisture management and zinc fortification on economics, quality and nutrient uptake of pearlmillet (Pennisetum glaucum L.) in pearlmillet-chickpea cropping system under rainfed conditions. Sowing of pearlmillet on flat bed with 5.0 tonnes/ha crop residue fetched significantly higher net returns of R 25408/ha with production efficiency of R 279.2/ha/day and protein content in grain during first year and B:C ratio during both the years as compared to flat bed without crop residue. However, in terms of net returns (R 30578/ha), production efficiency (R 397.1/ha/day) and protein content during second year and zinc content in both grain and stover and total uptake of N, P, K, Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu during both the years of study, flat bed with 5.0 tonnes/ha crop residue proved to be significantly superior over flat bed without crop residue as well as flat bed with 2.5 tonnes/ha crop residue and performed in statistically similar way to narrow bed and furrow with 2.5 tonnes/ha crop residue. Under zinc fortification treatments direct application of 2.5 and 5.0 kg Zn/ha being at par with each other and recorded significantly higher net returns, B:C ratio, production efficiency, protein content and total uptake of P, K and Cu during both the years and total uptake of Fe and Mn during second year over control. Content of Zn in both grain and stover and total uptake of N and Zn during both the years of study were improved significantly with increasing levels of zinc fortification up to 5.0 kg Zn/ha. Residual effect of zinc fortification was observed during second and showed significant response up to 5.0 kg Zn/ha on net returns, B:C ratio, production efficiency, Zn content in both grain and stover and total uptake of N, K and Zn and up to 2.5 kg Zn/ha on protein content and total uptake of P, Fe, Mn and Cu by pearlmillet.

PubMed | Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, North Bengal Agricultural University and Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular biology reports | Year: 2016

Spot blotch is a major foliar disease of wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana in warm and humid environments of the world including South Asian countries. In India, it has a larger impact in Indo-Gangetic plains of the country. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to phenotype a mapping population at different hot spots of India and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to spot blotch in wheat. For this study, 209 single seed descent (SSD) derived F

Garg M.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | Tsujimoto H.,Tottori University | Gupta R.K.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Kumar A.,National Agri Food Biotechnology Institute | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Wheat cultivars with wide introgression have strongly impacted global wheat production. Aegilops geniculata (MgUg) is an important wild relative with several useful traits that can be exploited for wheat improvement. Screening of Ae. geniculata addition lines indicated a negative effect of 1Ug and the positive effect of 1Mg chromosome on wheat dough strength. Negative effect of 1Ug is probably associated with variation in number and position of the tripeptide repeat motif in the high molecular weight glutenin (HMW-G) gene. To utilize the positive potential of 1Mg chromosome, three disomic substitution lines (DSLs) 1Mg(1A), 1Mg(1B) and 1Mg(1D) were created. These lines were characterized for morphological, cytogenetic properties and biochemical signatures using FISH, 1D-, 2D-PAGE and RPHPLC. Contribution of wheat 1A, 1B and 1D chromosomes towards dough mixing and baking parameters, chapatti quality, Fe/Zn content and glume color were identified. Observed order of variation in the dough mixing and baking parameters {1Mg(1D) wheat 1Mg(1B) ≤1Mg(1A)} indicated that chromosome specific introgression is desirable for best utilization of wild species' potential. © 2016 Garg et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Virdi R.,Punjab Agricultural University | Mavi G.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | Bala R.,Punjab Agricultural University | Sohu V.S.,Punjab Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2016

Genetic analysis of multiple disease resistance was carried out in segregating populations of bread wheat line W8627 and PBW343 against stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis), leaf rust (Puccinia triticina), Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) isolates and cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae). Seedling response of W 8627, PBW 343 and F1 against 78S84 race of Puccinia striiformis, 77-5 race of P. triticina reflected that the wheat line W8627 possessed seedling resistance genes against both the races. Based on the segregation pattern of F2 generation and F3 families, two complementary recessive genes for resistance to 78S84 race of Puccinia striiformis and one recessive gene each for resistance to 77-5 race P. triticina, mixture of Tilletia indica isolates and Ha 41 biotype of H. avenae were identified. Co-segregation studies revealed no linkage between concerned resistance genes. © 2016, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

Ravika,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Chhabra A.K.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Chawla V.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | Baniwal R.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Biology | Year: 2016

The studies were conducted to screen mapping population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) along with parental genotypes (Aldan and WH 542) of wheat for Karnal bunt resistance. The study was conducted in the Department of Genetics & Plant Breeding, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar (India). To achieve the objectives, 82 RILs of wheat cross, Aldan (resistant)/WH 542 (susceptible) were used in the crop seasons of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. The screening for Karnal Bunt (Neovossia indica) incidence was done under artificial epiphytotic conditions. Screening for disease was done at boot leaf stage. The distribution of RILs based on Karnal bunt disease was highly skewed towards the resistant parent (Aldan) and wide variations were observed among the RILs for Karnal bunt resistance expression during the years 2012 and 2013. During both the years, 11 RILs were found to be under highly resistant category with 0% infection, whereas 42 RILs in 2012 and 46 RILs in 2013 showed resistant reaction (0.1-5%). The plants showed ratio of disease to the tune of 3: 1 for resistant and susceptible lines. The ratio indicated that resistance was under the control of single dominant gene. In first year (2011-12) study, the maximum disease per cent in susceptible parent WH 542 was higher (35.56%) than the second year (2012-13) study (27.45%) and coefficient of infection in susceptible parent (WH 542) was 17.63 and 14.44% in the years 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. Variations in susceptibility indicated environmental correlations with the pathogen activities under field conditions. The study evidently showed that the lines that showed resistance to Karnal bunt in the first year also showed resistance to Karnal bunt in the second year of study. Therefore, the resistance is governed genetically. However, the level of susceptibility varied in two years in the RILs with susceptible reactions indicated differences in favourable environment for the pathogen to incite disease in field conditions.

Pandey B.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Saini M.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Sharma P.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
Plant Gene | Year: 2016

Dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitors serve protection against insects that are highly dependent on starch for their energy. In order to study the molecular evolution and sequence variation, we have sequenced dimeric α-amylase inhibitors gene from different genomes in Triticeae including Indian bread and durum wheat genotypes. Using BLAST, obtained sequences show very high homology with other inhibitors available at GenBank database and had common conserved 10 cysteine residues. Investigated frequency of significant SNPs in the α-amylase inhibitor gene was 1 out of 60 bases. The phylogenetic analysis based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the genes encoding dimeric α-amylase inhibitors formed three groups and genes isolated from Indian bread wheat clustered with 0.19 inhibitors. In addition, we predicted that dimeric α-amylase inhibitors co-localized into chloroplast and mitochondria expect for the sequences isolated from Aegilops tauschii. Fingerprinting analysis done with ScanProsite confirmed biologically meaningful signatures. Multiple sequence alignment of dimeric α-amylase proteins from different plant species revealed a conserved secondary structure region, indicating homology at the sequence and structural levels. Analysis of the protein sequences obtained from wheat and its wild related species are very similar, indicates a highest conservation of these proteins. © 2016 The Authors.

Verma A.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Chatrath R.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research | Sharma I.,Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research
Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding | Year: 2016

In this investigation 23 genotypes of wheat were tested for stability in 19 locations of North Western plains of the country, Yield data generated from the trials were analysed using AMMI analysis. The distribution of genotype by AMMI revealed that the genotypes 10,13, 20,12,15 and 14 scattered close to the origin, indicating minimal interaction of these genotypes with environments. Studied environments explained 57.2% of the total variation, whereas G and GxE captured 6.2% and 24.3%, respectively. First two principal components (PC1 and PC2) were used to create a 2-dimensional GGE biplot and explained 26.4% and 14.3% of GGE sum of squares (SS), respectively. Environments of Karnal, Ludhiana and Gurdaspur fall in same sector with genotypes 23 & 16. The spearman correlations calculated based on ranks by stability methods varied from positive value 0.97 to negative correlation of 0.759. The cultivar superiority estimate (Pi) maintained negative correlation with other estimates ranking.

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