Indian Institute of Technology Madras

www.iitm.ac.in
Chennai, India

The Indian Institutes of Technology is a prestigious group of autonomous public engineering and management institutes of India. The IITs are governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 which has declared them as "institutions of national importance", and lays down their powers, duties, framework for governance etc. The Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 lists sixteen institutes located at Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Delhi, Gandhinagar, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Indore, Jodhpur, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Mandi, Mumbai, Patna, Ropar, Roorkee and Varanasi. Each IIT is an autonomous institution, linked to the others through a common IIT Council, which oversees their administration. The IITs award degrees ranging from B.Tech to PhD.The IITs have a common admission process for undergraduate admissions. It was called IIT-JEE, which was replaced by Joint Entrance Examination in 2013. The post-graduate level program that awards M.Tech degree in engineering is administered by the older IITs . M.Tech admission is done on the basis of Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering . In addition to B.Tech and M.Tech programs IITs also award other graduate degrees such as M.Sc in Engineering, Maths, Physics and Chemistry, MBA, PhD etc. Admission to these programs of IITs is done through Common Admission Test, Joint Admission Test for Masters and Common Entrance Examination for Design . Wikipedia.

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Patent
Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Date: 2015-05-22

This invention relates to a system and method for measuring the permeability of drugs/toxin chemical compounds utilizing phospholipid monolayer. A phospholipid monolayer can be deposited onto a cellulose membrane by vertical lifting or Langmuir Schafer technique. The phospholipid monolayer or Langmuir Blodgett (LB) film can be coated on the cellulose membrane or porous support.


The embodiments herein provide an energy storage battery system constituting multiple banks of individual batteries, each of which may have different characteristics, and methods of operation of the system. The multiple battery banks configuration is based on split battery configuration derived by a splitter based on a probability distribution function (pdf) of expected usage pattern, optimization goal, and battery characteristics of a corresponding single battery system. The energy system optimizes at least one of cost, weight or size of the overall system by rotating usage of various battery banks based on usage pattern.


The embodiments herein provide an energy storage battery system constituting multiple banks of individual batteries, each of which may have different characteristics, and methods of operation of the system. The multiple battery banks configuration is based on split battery configuration derived by a splitter based on a probability distribution function (pdf) of expected usage pattern, optimization goal, and battery characteristics of a corresponding single battery system. The energy system optimizes at least one of cost, weight or size of the overall system by rotating usage of various battery banks based on usage pattern.


The embodiments herein provide an energy storage battery system constituting multiple banks of individual batteries, each of which may have different characteristics, and methods of operation of the system. The multiple battery banks configuration is based on split battery configuration derived by a splitter based on a probability distribution function (pdf) of expected usage pattern, optimization goal, and battery characteristics of a corresponding single battery system. The energy system optimizes at least one of cost, weight or size of the overall system by rotating usage of various battery banks based on usage pattern.


Patent
The Regents Of The University Of California and Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Date: 2015-07-15

Compositions comprising an antagonist of pancreastatin are provided. The beneficial use of the compositions for treating insulin resistance, diabetes, especially type II diabetes, inflammation, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases is described as well.


News Article | May 9, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Researchers use a Fano resonance in Raman scattering to gain further understanding into the superconductive properties of boron-doped diamond WASHINGTON, D.C., May 9, 2017 -- More than a decade ago, researchers discovered that when they added boron to the carbon structure of diamond, the combination was superconductive. Since then, growing interest has been generated in understanding these superconducting properties. With this interest, a research group in India focused on a Fano resonance in a heavily boron-doped diamond (BDD) that involves the vibrational mode of diamond. The researchers, from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, report their findings this week in Applied Physics Letters, from AIP Publishing. In probing the vibrational properties of BDD films, the researchers used Raman scattering and presented a comprehensive analysis of the Fano effect as a function of boron concentration and the excitation frequency used in the Raman measurement. The Fano resonance in a diamond can be seen in Raman scattering, which is a resonant scattering of light that involves an incident photon interacting with a vibrational mode of the diamond and in the process shifting the photon energy, and therefore its frequency, up or down by the energy of the vibrational mode. Interference between scattering from a discrete transition like the zone center vibrational mode in diamond, and that from a continuum background resulting from the boron-induced impurity band, produces an asymmetric-shaped signal known as a Fano resonance. "Fano parameterization is a well-thought-out experiment by us to understand the nature of impurity band evolution with boron doping that leads to superconductivity in diamond," said Ramachandra Rao, a co-author of the paper. "Our objective was to gain a deeper understanding of the interaction of light with the impurity band by varying the boron concentrations in diamond films and also by using various laser excitations." "An increase in boron concentrations increases the impurity bandwidth," said Dinesh Kumar, the paper's first author. "The Fano resonance is sensitive to modification in the impurity bandwidth brought about by the increased boron concentration in BDD." The group looked closely at the interaction, systematically studying heavily doped samples in the semiconducting and superconducting regimes using ultraviolet and visible wavelengths of the laser excitation sources for the Raman measurement. The asymmetric Fano line shape revealed that the phase shift in diamond undergoes a remarkable change that can be tuned either by the impurity bandwidth or by the scattering frequency. The researchers also wanted to gain better understanding of the relationship between the doping and superconductivity to learn how the superconducting transition temperature in BDD can be increased. Superconductors offer no electrical resistance to the flow of current. To reach this state, however, the materials must typically be in extremely cold temperatures, close to absolute zero. Over the last 10 years the superconducting transition temperature in diamond has increased and is now near 10 kelvins (or about -263 degrees Celsius). This is much less than the theoretically predicted value of 55 K. While 55 K is still too low for practical applications, understanding why BDD's transition temperature is so far below the theoretical limit may provide insights into how to improve the transition temperatures of other superconductors. Increasing the temperature in BDD remains a problem in the doping process, during which researchers inadvertently damage the structure of the diamond lattice. "Due to heavy boron doping, the diamond lattice undergoes a complex transformation resulting in an increase in the disorder of the system, which is detrimental to the superconducting properties. We have explored this problem at length by tuning the boron concentration in the present study," Rao said. The article, "Effect of boron-doping on first-order Raman scattering in superconducting boron-doped diamond films," is authored by Dinesh Kumar, Maneesh Chandran and Ramachandra Rao. The article will appear in Applied Physics Letters May, 9, 2017 [10.1063/1.4982591]. After that date, it can be accessed at http://aip. . Applied Physics Letters features concise, rapid reports on significant new findings in applied physics. The journal covers new experimental and theoretical research on applications of physics phenomena related to all branches of science, engineering, and modern technology. See http://apl. .


With this interest, a research group in India focused on a Fano resonance in a heavily boron-doped diamond (BDD) that involves the vibrational mode of diamond. The researchers, from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, report their findings this week in Applied Physics Letters. In probing the vibrational properties of BDD films, the researchers used Raman scattering and presented a comprehensive analysis of the Fano effect as a function of boron concentration and the excitation frequency used in the Raman measurement. The Fano resonance in a diamond can be seen in Raman scattering, which is a resonant scattering of light that involves an incident photon interacting with a vibrational mode of the diamond and in the process shifting the photon energy, and therefore its frequency, up or down by the energy of the vibrational mode. Interference between scattering from a discrete transition like the zone center vibrational mode in diamond, and that from a continuum background resulting from the boron-induced impurity band, produces an asymmetric-shaped signal known as a Fano resonance. "Fano parameterization is a well-thought-out experiment by us to understand the nature of impurity band evolution with boron doping that leads to superconductivity in diamond," said Ramachandra Rao, a co-author of the paper. "Our objective was to gain a deeper understanding of the interaction of light with the impurity band by varying the boron concentrations in diamond films and also by using various laser excitations." "An increase in boron concentrations increases the impurity bandwidth," said Dinesh Kumar, the paper's first author. "The Fano resonance is sensitive to modification in the impurity bandwidth brought about by the increased boron concentration in BDD." The group looked closely at the interaction, systematically studying heavily doped samples in the semiconducting and superconducting regimes using ultraviolet and visible wavelengths of the laser excitation sources for the Raman measurement. The asymmetric Fano line shape revealed that the phase shift in diamond undergoes a remarkable change that can be tuned either by the impurity bandwidth or by the scattering frequency. The researchers also wanted to gain better understanding of the relationship between the doping and superconductivity to learn how the superconducting transition temperature in BDD can be increased. Superconductors offer no electrical resistance to the flow of current. To reach this state, however, the materials must typically be in extremely cold temperatures, close to absolute zero. Over the last 10 years the superconducting transition temperature in diamond has increased and is now near 10 kelvins (or about -263 degrees Celsius). This is much less than the theoretically predicted value of 55 K. While 55 K is still too low for practical applications, understanding why BDD's transition temperature is so far below the theoretical limit may provide insights into how to improve the transition temperatures of other superconductors. Increasing the temperature in BDD remains a problem in the doping process, during which researchers inadvertently damage the structure of the diamond lattice. "Due to heavy boron doping, the diamond lattice undergoes a complex transformation resulting in an increase in the disorder of the system, which is detrimental to the superconducting properties. We have explored this problem at length by tuning the boron concentration in the present study," Rao said. Explore further: Applying diamond coatings at lower temperatures expands options for electronic devices More information: "Effect of boron-doping on first-order Raman scattering in superconducting boron-doped diamond films," Applied Physics Letters May, 9, 2017. DOI: 10.1063/1.4982591


Patent
Indian Institute of Technology Madras | Date: 2015-04-27

The invention includes a method for predicting the operational state of equipment with turbulent flow characterized by time series data relating to its operation. The invention further includes a system and method for predicting the onset of an impending oscillatory instability. Further, the invention includes a system and method for identifying an impending absorbing transition such as flame blowout in combustion systems. A variable representing the dynamics of operation is measured with the help of a sensor, to obtain time series data. A complex network is then derived from the measured time series data. Network properties are then calculated using the complex network to identify the state of stability relating to operation of the equipment. The stability information may include one of thermoacoustic instability, aero-elastic instability such as flutter, flow-induced vibration, magneto-hydrodynamic, aerodynamic, aeromechanical, aero-acoustic instability or onset of flame blowout of a combustor.


News Article | May 9, 2017
Site: www.accesswire.com

DUBAI, UAE / ACCESSWIRE / May 9, 2017 / A water purification system that uses nanotechnology to remove bacteria, viruses, and other contaminants may be the solution to delivering clean drinking water to rural communities. The best part - it could cost as low as $3 per family. Researchers from the Indian Institute of Technology Madras in Chennai, India developed a purification device. This device filters water through a crafted mixture of nanoparticles to remove harmful contaminants. The National Academy of Sciences published this study in their journal proceedings on May 6, 2013. Professor Thalappil Pradeep, of the Department of Chemistry at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, says the device is currently being tested in some small communities in India. According to Pradeep, the system can offer an affordable way to provide families with at least 10 liters (2.6 gallons) of safe drinking water per day. Is It Enough For A Family? "For a family of five in a rural Indian village, you probably need some water in the morning for cooking and some water for drinking," Pradeep explained. "We figure 9 to 10 liters is good enough for those purposes. Then, you can fill it up again, and you now have 20 liters for the day." 11% of the global population, or 783 million people, do not have access to clean drinking water, according to the World Health Organization and UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Pradeep thinks this new system could fulfill the need for clean affordable water in rural areas around the globe. "We're implementing this already on a community scale, looking at regional water problems," Pradeep said. "But arsenic is a big problem in Africa and other places, and we are interacting with people about it." What this Means for Yemen Currently, the water supply and sanitation in Yemen is facing many challenges. The biggest one, water, especially in the Highlands, quoting The Times of London that, "Yemen could become the first nation to run out of water." 50% of the population struggle daily to find or buy enough clean water to drink or grow food. As a result, 14.7 million Yemenis depend on humanitarian aid. Due to the country's hot climate, Yemen is prone to water shortage. The problem has worsened due to an increasing population and poor water management. Rather than collecting and storing rainwater, drilling for limited groundwater became the trend. Various estimates foresee capital Sana'a could run out of water within a decade. In Sana'a, which is an urban area, 40% of the houses are connected to pipes. However, In the rural areas, some women spend up to 5 hours of their day collecting water. This new purification system gives hope that there could soon be a solution for the current water shortage in Yemen. Haitham Alaini is a Yemeni entrepreneur and philanthropist. He received a degree in economics from George Washington University, and upon his return to Yemen, created his own construction business specializing in oil and gas infrastructure. Over the course of the last twenty years, the Yemeni patriot has gained invaluable experience, as well as attained a profound respect for the professionals of Yemen and its surrounding regions. Alaini is passionate about exploring innovative technology that will help improve Yemen, his native country. To learn more about Haitham Alaini visit:


Padmanabhan T.,Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics | Kothawala D.,Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Physics Reports | Year: 2013

Lanczos-Lovelockmodels of gravity represent a natural and elegant generalization of Einstein's theory of gravity to higher dimensions. They are characterized by the fact that the field equations only contain up to second derivatives of the metric even though the action functional can be a quadratic or higher degree polynomial in the curvature tensor. Because these models share several key properties of Einstein's theory they serve as a useful set of candidate models for testing the emergent paradigm for gravity. This review highlights several geometrical and thermodynamical aspects of Lanczos-Lovelockmodels which have attracted recent attention. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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