The Indian Institutes of Technology is a prestigious group of autonomous public engineering and management institutes of India. The IITs are governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 which has declared them as "institutions of national importance", and lays down their powers, duties, framework for governance etc. The Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 lists sixteen institutes located at Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Delhi, Gandhinagar, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Indore, Jodhpur, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Mandi, Mumbai, Patna, Ropar, Roorkee and Varanasi. Each IIT is an autonomous institution, linked to the others through a common IIT Council, which oversees their administration. The IITs award degrees ranging from B.Tech to PhD.The IITs have a common admission process for undergraduate admissions. It was called IIT-JEE, which was replaced by Joint Entrance Examination in 2013. The post-graduate level program that awards M.Tech degree in engineering is administered by the older IITs . M.Tech admission is done on the basis of Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering . In addition to B.Tech and M.Tech programs IITs also award other graduate degrees such as M.Sc in Engineering, Maths, Physics and Chemistry, MBA, PhD etc. Admission to these programs of IITs is done through Common Admission Test, Joint Admission Test for Masters and Common Entrance Examination for Design . Wikipedia.
Singh A.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Water Resources Management | Year: 2014
Proper planning and management of irrigation is vital in achieving food security for the burgeoning global population and sustaining livelihoods. Because irrigated agriculture is expected to provide more food, if managed properly. The comprehensive reviews on the use of various programming techniques used for planning and management of irrigation have been provided in this paper. The literature review revealed that the management models used in the past mainly considered the objectives of maximization of net farm income, minimization of waterlogging, and minimization of groundwater depletion. These objectives were achieved by optimizing the allocation of available land and water resources. The past reviews are grouped into four sections based on the programming techniques adopted. The sections include: linear programming, nonlinear programming, dynamic programming, and genetic algorithms. This review provides the basis for the selection of appropriate methodology for the planning and management of irrigation. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Singh A.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2014
The coastal aquifers of the world are facing environmental problem of seawater intrusion. This problem is the results of indiscriminate and unplanned groundwater exploitation for fulfilling the growing need of freshwater for the burgeoning global population. There is a need to develop appropriate management models for assessing the maximum feasible pumping rates which protects seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. The comprehensive reviews on the use of various programming techniques for the solution of seawater intrusion management problem of coastal aquifers have been provided in this paper. The literature review revealed that the management models used in the past mainly considered the objectives of maximization of pumping rate, minimization of drawdown, minimization of pumped water, minimization of seawater volume into the aquifer, and/or minimization of pumping cost. The past reviews are grouped into five sections based on the programming techniques adopted. The sections include: linear programming, nonlinear programming, genetic algorithms, artificial neural networks, and multiobjective optimization models. Conclusions are drawn where gaps exist and more research needs to be focused. This review provides the basis for the selection of appropriate methodology for the management of seawater intrusion problems of coastal aquifers. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Singh A.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2012
The optimal use of available resources is of paramount importance in the backdrop of the increasing food, fiber, and other demands of the burgeoning global population and the shrinking resources. The optimal use of these resources can be determined by employing an optimization technique. The comprehensive reviews on the use of various programming techniques for the solution of different optimization problems have been provided in this paper. The past reviews are grouped into nine sections based on the solutions of the theme-based real world problems. The sections include: use of optimization modelling for conjunctive use planning, groundwater management, seawater intrusion management, irrigation management, achieving optimal cropping pattern, management of reservoir systems operation, management of resources in arid and semi-arid regions, solid waste management, and miscellaneous uses which comprise, managing problems of hydropower generation and sugar industry. Conclusions are drawn where gaps exist and more research needs to be focused. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Shaikh R.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015
We show that it is possible to construct a wide class of Lorentzian wormholes in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity with a stress energy which does not violate the weak or null energy condition. The wormholes exist in a certain region of the parameter space. In fact, it is shown that there is a critical value of a parameter defined in our work, below which we have wormholes. Above the critical value, we have a regular black hole spacetime. We put a restriction on the equation of state parameter α (pθ=αρ) to have wormholes. We also put a lower limit on both the theory parameter |κ| and the throat radius, to restrict the tidal acceleration (at the throat) below one Earth gravity. As a special case of our general solution, we retrieve the wormhole supported by an electric field for a charge-to-mass ratio greater than the critical value (QM)c≈1.144. © 2015 American Physical Society.
Pradhan P.M.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014
We study oscillating string solutions in the Klebanov-Witten and its non-Abelian T-dual background dualized along an SU(2) isometry. We find the string energy as the function of the oscillation number and angular momentum. We show that for a particular set of T-dual coordinates both the backgrounds have equal string states. We also study the string states where the strings are expanding and contracting in the T-dual coordinate direction. We expect the presence of the superconformal field theory dual operators whose anomalous dimensions depend on the T-dual coordinate. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Date: 2016-09-19
Disclosed are processes to treat water having halide ions and organohalides. The process comprises contacting a plant biomass with an alkaline solution to give an alkaline plant biomass, and contacting the alkaline plant biomass with water to give a biomass material. An aqueous sample with organohalides or halide ions is contacted with the biomass material to provide a low halide filtrate and a spent biomass.
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Date: 2015-11-12
Processing of polymer-metal blend composition involving viscosity control under ambient conditions suitable for shape forming and homogeneous green body preparation. The advancement involves effective controlling of the rate of settling of the metal particles in polymer-metal blend under ambient conditions to generate a cost effective and simple process for producing shape formable dough. Advantageously, the present invention provides a rapid, energy saving process involving minimum material loss and utilizing non hazardous solvent system such as water.
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur | Date: 2015-01-16
The present invention relates to an apparatus and a method to spin hollow fibres of dialysis grade with diameter around 220 microns and thickness of around 35-40 microns, by wet spinning technique. The present invention spinning is carried out by using an apparatus having a nitrogen cylinder (1), water bucket (2), polymer cylinder (6), water cylinder (7), automatic winding machine (5) characterized by a cheap assembly of syringes (dispo van (8) and insulin syringes (9)) wherein no electrical power is required for the spinning, making the fibres extremely easy to manufacture and affordable at the consumer end.
Mandal P.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Lab on a chip | Year: 2012
We demonstrate the occurrence of electrokinetic phenomenon in paper substrates, by developing a simple "paper-and-pencil" device. The underlying electrokinetic phenomenon results in enhanced liquid transport through the paper-fibre matrix, which exhibits significant active electrical controllability and improved repeatability. These bear far-ranging consequences towards opening up a new paradigm of fluidics over small scales.
Biradha K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur |
Santra R.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013
Solid state reactions offer a unique opportunity for synthesizing complex molecules with amazing regio- and stereo-specificity otherwise difficult to synthesize by conventional organic synthetic methodologies. In particular, the solid state [2 + 2] reaction is a well studied reaction in terms of a crystal engineering perspective. The main challenge in performing solid state reactions is bringing the molecules into reactive orientations such that the reactive groups are within a certain proximal distance. The out surge in organic and inorganic crystal engineering studies offers several strategies for bringing the molecules together in the crystal lattice. These strategies include from weak interactions (halogen bonds, halogen⋯halogen, π⋯π, cation⋯π) to strong hydrogen bonds (O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and N-H⋯N) to coordination complexes/polymers. To date many studies are available which use such strategies for conducting single, double, triple or multiple [2 + 2] reactions, [4 + 4] reactions, Diels-Alder reactions and polymerization reactions of acetylene molecules. Some of the crystal engineering strategies include the use of external templates which can be removed after the reaction and some of the other strategies deals with the modification of reactant molecules. In this review, the current status of various strategies will be outlined with respect to the nature of the interactions involved. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.