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Chowdhury D.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Physics Reports | Year: 2013

A molecular motor is made of either a single macromolecule or a macromolecular complex. Just like their macroscopic counterparts, molecular motors "transduce" input energy into mechanical work. All the nano-motors considered here operate under isothermal conditions far from equilibrium. Moreover, one of the possible mechanisms of energy transduction, called Brownian ratchet, does not even have any macroscopic counterpart. But, molecular motor is not synonymous with Brownian ratchet; a large number of molecular motors execute a noisy power stroke, rather than operating as Brownian ratchet. We review not only the structural design and stochastic kinetics of individual single motors, but also their coordination, cooperation and competition as well as the assembly of multi-module motors in various intracellular kinetic processes. Although all the motors considered here execute mechanical movements, efficiency and power output are not necessarily good measures of performance of some motors. Among the intracellular nano-motors, we consider the porters, sliders and rowers, pistons and hooks, exporters, importers, packers and movers as well as those that also synthesize, manipulate and degrade "macromolecules of life". We review mostly the quantitative models for the kinetics of these motors. We also describe several of those motor-driven intracellular stochastic processes for which quantitative models are yet to be developed. In part I, we discuss mainly the methodology and the generic models of various important classes of molecular motors. In part II, we review many specific examples emphasizing the unity of the basic mechanisms as well as diversity of operations arising from the differences in their detailed structure and kinetics. Multi-disciplinary research is presented here from the perspective of physicists. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Date: 2014-07-18

Techniques described herein generally relate to methods of manufacturing devices and systems including devices including a substrate with a surface, a conductive polymer film arranged on the surface of the substrate, wherein the conductive polymer film has one or more temperature reactive characteristics, and a pair of electrodes coupled to the polymer film, wherein the pair of electrodes are configured to communicate electrical signals to the conductive polymer film effective to measure the one or more temperature reactive characteristics. The conductive polymer film may be arranged on the surface of the substrate such that a thickness and dopant ratio of the conductive polymer film on the substrate is configurable.

A non-invasive method for estimation of strain profile and dynamic evolution of the strain at a location interposed inside a block of soft material, includes forming a tracer grid consisting of microscopic lines or regularly spaced microscopic dots on a single plane buried inside the soft block; preparation of a deformable object embedded with the tracer grid in three primary steps: i. preparing a block of crosslinked material by crosslinking a first predetermined quantity of a pre-polymer solution containing a monomer, a crosslinking agent, and an initiator and promoter all mixed in a solvent at a known stoichiometric weight ratio; ii. transferring a grid comprising of lines or dots onto the face by direct writing or transferring from an easy release surface; and iii. crosslinking a second predetermined quantity of the same pre-polymer solution on the gel surface, such that this second crosslinked material gets welded to the first one.

A novel light-emitting device includes an organic thin-film structure that is merged with an organic light-emitting diode structure by utilizing a part of the electron accumulation layer in the organic thin-film transistor as a common electrode for each structure. The organic thin-film structure and the organic light-emitting diode structure each include an organic semiconductor that comprises a material in which hole mobility is greater in a bulk region of the material than electron mobility in the bulk region. The advantages of such a light-emitting device include less complex processing and a simpler pixel circuit structure in comparison to separately fabricating OTFT and OLED structures and subsequently interconnecting them to form a pixel. Furthermore, relative to a light-emitting transistor, some embodiments offer the advantage of a broader light emission area more suitable for use in display devices.

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Date: 2015-06-11

A method of forming a shadow mask is provided. The method includes annealing at least one polymeric sheet to form at least one annealed polymeric sheet. The method also includes transferring a pattern from a primary mask to the annealed polymeric sheet using laser micromachining to form the shadow mask.

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