Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Date: 2015-02-25
Nanobrushes, methods of forming nanobrushes, and methods of altering material with a nanobrush are disclosed herein. A nanobrush may include a substrate having a surface and a plurality of bristles deposited on at least one portion of the surface. The plurality of bristles may be arranged into a plurality of bunches. Each of the plurality of bunches may be spaced from an adjacent bunch at a bunch interval equal to or less than about 100 m.
Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur | Date: 2015-01-20
Method of forming micro channels in a polymeric nanocomposite film is provided. The method includes combining one or more monomers to form a mixture and adding a plurality of carbon fibers with metal nanoparticles dispersed therein to the mixture prior to or concurrently with formation of a polymer from the monomers. The method also includes adding at least one hydrophobic agent and at least one plasticizer to the polymer to form the polymeric nanocomposite film and forming a plurality of laser-etched micro channels in a surface of the polymeric nanocomposite film.
News Article | August 7, 2017
Students – from high school through doctoral candidates – can begin registering for the preliminary rounds of the varied contests in the hope that they will win a chance to play among the world's best in the final rounds of competition November 9-17, 2017, in Brooklyn, Abu Dhabi, France, India, and Israel. Also for the first time this year, students from Canada and Mexico can qualify for the finals in Brooklyn. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Beer-Sheva (BGU) will be one of five global hubs for the event's signature competition, Capture the Flag (CTF). CSAW Israel, organized by BGU's Department of Software and Information Systems Engineering and the IBM Cyber Security Center of Excellence (CCoE), is accepting registrations for the qualification round on September 5-6, 2017. The CSAW CTF finals in Israel will be held November 16-17, 2017 at the BGU campus in Beer-Sheva. Final rounds at the other global hubs will be November 9-11. In 2016, NYU Tandon joined with the NYU Abu Dhabi Center for Cyber Security, and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (IIT-Kanpur) to widen CSAW beyond Brooklyn, New York, for the first time by staging simultaneous final rounds for students in the Middle East, North Africa, and India. Earlier this year, Grenoble INP - Esisar, based in Valence, France, part of the Grenoble Institute of Technology, became the European hub for CSAW. In 2012, Ben-Gurion University became the first Israeli university and one of the first in the world to offer graduate study tracks in cyber security. IBM's Cyber Security Center of Excellence at BGU, established in 2014, is a home for an influential team of IBM security researchers and engineers who investigate emerging cyber threats and solutions in collaboration with BGU researchers. The Cyber Security Research Center at BGU conducts applied cyber security research. It is located in the new Advanced Technology Park in the Negev, Israel's new 'cyber alley.' "The launch of a new CSAW hub at Ben-Gurion University reflects the spirit of the collaborative innovation between IBM and the university," said Dr. Yaron Wolfsthal, director of IBM's Cyber Center of Excellence at BGU. "This collaboration has previously had many forms, such as joint research on cognitive computing methods for cyber security, and participation of IBM's National CERT analysts in BGU educational programs. The latest introduction of the local CTF competition in Beer-Sheva makes our partnership even more influential in establishing Israel as a cyber security leader." "I believe that the new CSAW initiative with IBM in collaboration with the BGU Software and Information Systems Engineering Department (SISE) and the BGU Cyber Security Research Center is a great opportunity for the advancement of cyber security research at BGU" said Prof. Bracha Shapira, head of the SISE Department. NYU Tandon, NYU Abu Dhabi, Grenoble INP - Esisar, and IIT-Kanpur are now also accepting registrations for the CSAW elimination rounds in September, which last year pitted more than 10,000 students – from high schools through doctoral programs – against global competitors, all working from their own computers. The competitions will challenge their knowledge of virtually every aspect of information security, from hardware and software penetration testing and protection to digital forensics and government policy. This year, the best students from India, parts of the Middle East and North Africa, Europe, the United States, Canada, and Mexico will participate in the final rounds, which will be held November 9-11, 2017. Travel awards and prizes vary by region. At the regional CSAW campuses, students will network with top professionals who serve as judges, hear experts address emerging issues, meet recruiters eager to fill what is expected to be a shortfall of 1.5 million cyber security professionals by 2020, and face tough competition from teams from other schools. The CSAW games were founded by Professor Nasir Memon of the NYU Tandon Department of Computer Science and Engineering and his students. Students continue to design the contests under the mentorship of information security professionals and faculty and run them from NYU Tandon's student-led Offensive Security, Incident Response and Internet Security (OSIRIS) lab, home also to weekly Hack Nights. "Since data knows no borders, and national boundaries offer no impediment to attackers, data security is indeed a global issue," said Ramesh Karri, professor of electrical and computer engineering at NYU Tandon and lead faculty member for CSAW. "Collaboration is critical: those who protect our personal privacy and institutions must transcend borders and work across regions. A key challenge will be cultivating new data-security talent to meet demand; CSAW's expansion to Israel and four other global hubs is an acknowledgement of the important role white-hat competitions play in cultivating that talent worldwide." Each of the regional CSAW conferences will have a slightly varied agenda in terms of competitions and events. Winners of the final rounds can walk away with cash prizes, scholarships, and more. Bragging rights are often the biggest motivator – CSAW has become a boldface line for recruiters and university admissions officers. The roster of events (with registration available at linked websites) includes: The 2017 CSAW in North America is supported by Gold Sponsors IBM, Palo Alto Networks, and the Office of Naval Research; Silver Sponsor BAE Systems; Bronze Sponsors Bloomberg, Jane Street, Jefferies, JP Morgan Chase; Supporting Sponsors Cubic, Rhymetec, the Ruth & Jerome A. Siegel Foundation, and the United States Secret Service; and Contributing Sponsors Applied Computer Security Associates and CTFd. For more information and to register, visit csaw.engineering.nyu.edu. Follow @CSAW_NYUTandon. About the NYU Tandon School of Engineering The NYU Tandon School of Engineering dates to 1854, when the NYU School of Civil Engineering and Architecture as well as the Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute (widely known as Brooklyn Poly) were founded. Their successor institutions merged in January 2014 to create a comprehensive school of education and research in engineering and applied sciences, rooted in a tradition of invention, innovation and entrepreneurship. In addition to programs at its main campus in downtown Brooklyn, it is closely connected to engineering programs in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, and it operates business incubators in downtown Manhattan and Brooklyn. http://engineering.nyu.edu. About NYU Abu Dhabi NYU Abu Dhabi consists of a highly selective liberal arts and science college (including engineering), and a world center for advanced research and scholarship — all fully integrated with each other and connected to NYU in New York. Together, NYU New York, NYU Abu Dhabi, and NYU Shanghai form the backbone of a unique global network university, with faculty and students from each campus spending "semesters away" at one or more of the numerous study-abroad sites NYU maintains on six continents. For more information, visit nyuad.nyu.edu/en. About IIT Kanpur Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, is one of the premier institutions set up by the Government of India. Registered in 1959, the institute was assisted by nine leading institutions of U.S.A in the setting up of its academic programs and laboratories during the period 1962-72. With its record of path-breaking innovations and cutting-edge research, the institute is known the world over as a learning centre of repute in engineering, science and several inter-disciplinary areas. In addition to formal undergraduate and postgraduate courses, the institute has been active in research and development in areas of value to both industry and government. For more information, visit www.iitk.ac.in. About Grenoble INP - Esisar Grenoble INP - Esisar is part of the Grenoble Institute of Technology, which brings together six renowned engineering schools, close to the industrial world and open to international exchanges. The Grenoble Institute of Technology is one of Europe's leading technology universities, at the heart of innovation from more than a century. It offers a range of engineering, masters and doctoral courses both in French and in English, driven by world-class research in 37 laboratories, and 6 state-of-the-art technology platforms, developed in partnership with other institutions. Esisar engineers are trained in Embedded Systems and IT technologies, with a cutting-edge curriculum spanning Electronics, Computer Sciences/IT, Control and Networks. Esisar and the associated research laboratory LCI host the industrial chair of Excellence Trust which aims at developing innovative teaching and research programs in cyber security. About Ben-Gurion University Ben-Gurion University of the Negev is the fastest growing research university in Israel, fulfilling the vision of David Ben-Gurion, Israel's first prime minister, who envisaged the future of Israel emerging from the Negev. From medicine to the humanities to the natural sciences, BGU conducts groundbreaking research and offers insightful instruction. The University is at the heart of Beer-Sheva's transformation into the country's cyber capital, where leading multi-national corporations leverage BGU's expertise to generate innovative R&D. A third of Israel's engineers graduate from BGU, with that number destined to rise as the IDF moves south and sends its brightest to swell the ranks of BGU's student body. To accommodate that growth, BGU has launched an ambitious campaign to double the size of its main campus. As it counts up to its fiftieth anniversary, the University's research becomes ever more relevant as its global reach broadens. http://www.bgu.ac.il./
Sahu N.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur |
Gadre S.R.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2014
CONSPECTUS: Chemistry on the scale of molecular clusters may be dramatically different from that in the macroscopic bulk. Greater understanding of chemistry in this size regime could greatly influence fields such as materials science and atmospheric and environmental chemistry. Recent advances in experimental techniques and computational resources have led to accurate investigations of the energies and spectral properties of weakly bonded molecular clusters. These have enabled researchers to learn how the physicochemical properties evolve from individual molecules to bulk materials and to understand the growth patterns of clusters. Experimental techniques such as infrared, microwave, and photoelectron spectroscopy are the most popular and powerful tools for probing molecular clusters. In general, these experimental techniques do not directly reveal the atomistic details of the clusters but provide data from which the structural details need to be unearthed. Furthermore, the resolution of the spectral properties of energetically close cluster conformers can be prohibitively difficult. Thus, these investigations of molecular aggregates require a combination of experiments and theory. On the theoretical front, researchers have been actively engaged in quantum chemical ab initio calculations as well as simulation-based studies for the last few decades. To obtain reliable results, there is a need to use correlated methods such as Møller-Plesset second order method, coupled cluster theory, or dispersion corrected density functional theory. However, due to nonlinear scaling of these methods, optimizing the geometry of large clusters still remains a formidable quantum chemistry challenge. Fragment-based methods, such as divide-and-conquer, molecular tailoring approach (MTA), fragment molecular orbitals, and generalized energy-based fragmentation approach, provide alternatives for overcoming the scaling problem for spatially extended molecular systems. Within MTA, a large system is broken down into two or more subsystems that can be readily treated computationally. Finally, the properties of the large system are obtained by patching the corresponding properties of all the subsystems. Due to these approximations, the resulting MTA-based energies carry some error in comparison with calculations based on the full system. An approach for correcting these errors has been attempted by grafting the error at a lower basis set onto a higher basis set. Furthermore, investigating the growth patterns and nucleation processes in clusters is necessary for understanding the structural transitions and the phenomena of magic numbers in cluster chemistry. Therefore, systematic building-up or the introduction of stochastics for generating molecular assemblies is the most crucial step for studying large clusters. In this Account, we discuss the working principle of MTA for probing molecular clusters at ab initio level followed by a brief summary of an automated and electrostatics-guided algorithm for building molecular assemblies. The molecular aggregates presented here as test cases are generated based on either an electrostatic criterion or the basin hopping method. At MP2 level computation, the errors in MTA-based grafted energies are typically reduced to a submillihartree level, reflecting the potential of finding accurate energies of molecular clusters much more quickly. In summary, MTA provides a platform for effectively studying large molecular clusters at ab initio level of theory using minimal computer hardware. (Figure Presented). © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Joshi Y.M.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering | Year: 2014
Many household and industrially important soft colloidal materials, such as pastes, concentrated suspensions and emulsions, foams, slurries, inks, and paints, are very viscous and do not flow over practical timescales until sufficient stress is applied. This behavior originates from restricted mobility of the constituents arrested in disordered structures of varying length scales, termed colloidal glasses and gels. Usually these materials are thermodynamically out of equilibrium, which induces a time-dependent evolution of the structure and the properties. This review presents an overview of the rheological behavior of this class of materials. We discuss the experimental observations and theoretical developments regarding the microstructure of these materials, emphasizing the complex coupling between the deformation field and nonequilibrium structures in colloidal glasses and gels, which leads to a rich array of rheological behaviors with profound implications for various industrial processes and products. © 2014 by Annual Reviews.
Ghosh E.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Cell | Year: 2014
G-protein-coupled receptors enable cells to recognize numerous external stimuli and to transmit corresponding signals across the plasma membrane to trigger appropriate cellular responses. Crystal structures of a number of these receptors have now been determined in inactive and active conformations bound to chemically and functionally distinct ligands. These crystal structures illustrate overall receptor organization and atomic details of ligand-receptor interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Upadhyay S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015
The BRST quantizations of worldsheet gravity corresponding to final more acceptable derivative gauge and the standard conformal gauge are studied. We establish a mapping between these two gauges utilizing FFBRST formulation in standard way. Therefore, we are able to declare that the problems associated with Virasoro constraints are the gauge artifact. © 2014 The Author.
Upadhyay S.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Annals of Physics | Year: 2015
We consider effective actions of the cosmological Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) models and discuss their fermionic rigid BRST invariance. Further, we demonstrate the finite field-dependent BRST transformations as a limiting case of continuous field-dependent BRST transformations described in terms of continuous parameter κ. The Jacobian under such finite field-dependent BRST transformations is computed explicitly, which amounts an extra piece in the effective action within functional integral. We show that for a particular choice of a parameter the finite field-dependent BRST transformation maps the generating functional for FRW models from one gauge to another. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Chowdhury D.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Biophysical Journal | Year: 2013
A molecular machine is either a single macromolecule or a macromolecular complex. In spite of the striking superficial similarities between these natural nanomachines and their man-made macroscopic counterparts, there are crucial differences. Molecular machines in a living cell operate stochastically in an isothermal environment far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In this mini-review we present a catalog of the molecular machines and an inventory of the essential toolbox for theoretically modeling these machines. The tool kits include 1), nonequilibrium statistical-physics techniques for modeling machines and machine-driven processes; and 2), statistical-inference methods for reverse engineering a functional machine from the empirical data. The cell is often likened to a microfactory in which the machineries are organized in modular fashion; each module consists of strongly coupled multiple machines, but different modules interact weakly with each other. This microfactory has its own automated supply chain and delivery system. Buoyed by the success achieved in modeling individual molecular machines, we advocate integration of these models in the near future to develop models of functional modules. A system-level description of the cell from the perspective of molecular machinery (the mechanome) is likely to emerge from further integrations that we envisage here. © 2013 Biophysical Society.
Chowdhury D.,Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Physics Reports | Year: 2013
A molecular motor is made of either a single macromolecule or a macromolecular complex. Just like their macroscopic counterparts, molecular motors "transduce" input energy into mechanical work. All the nano-motors considered here operate under isothermal conditions far from equilibrium. Moreover, one of the possible mechanisms of energy transduction, called Brownian ratchet, does not even have any macroscopic counterpart. But, molecular motor is not synonymous with Brownian ratchet; a large number of molecular motors execute a noisy power stroke, rather than operating as Brownian ratchet. We review not only the structural design and stochastic kinetics of individual single motors, but also their coordination, cooperation and competition as well as the assembly of multi-module motors in various intracellular kinetic processes. Although all the motors considered here execute mechanical movements, efficiency and power output are not necessarily good measures of performance of some motors. Among the intracellular nano-motors, we consider the porters, sliders and rowers, pistons and hooks, exporters, importers, packers and movers as well as those that also synthesize, manipulate and degrade "macromolecules of life". We review mostly the quantitative models for the kinetics of these motors. We also describe several of those motor-driven intracellular stochastic processes for which quantitative models are yet to be developed. In part I, we discuss mainly the methodology and the generic models of various important classes of molecular motors. In part II, we review many specific examples emphasizing the unity of the basic mechanisms as well as diversity of operations arising from the differences in their detailed structure and kinetics. Multi-disciplinary research is presented here from the perspective of physicists. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.