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The Indian Institutes of Technology is a prestigious group of autonomous public engineering and management institutes of India. The IITs are governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 which has declared them as "institutions of national importance", and lays down their powers, duties, framework for governance etc. The Institutes of Technology Act, 1961 lists sixteen institutes located at Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Delhi, Gandhinagar, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Indore, Jodhpur, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Mandi, Mumbai, Patna, Ropar, Roorkee and Varanasi. Each IIT is an autonomous institution, linked to the others through a common IIT Council, which oversees their administration. The IITs award degrees ranging from B.Tech to PhD.The IITs have a common admission process for undergraduate admissions. It was called IIT-JEE, which was replaced by Joint Entrance Examination in 2013. The post-graduate level program that awards M.Tech degree in engineering is administered by the older IITs . M.Tech admission is done on the basis of Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering . In addition to B.Tech and M.Tech programs IITs also award other graduate degrees such as M.Sc in Engineering, Maths, Physics and Chemistry, MBA, PhD etc. Admission to these programs of IITs is done through Common Admission Test, Joint Admission Test for Masters and Common Entrance Examination for Design . Wikipedia.

The Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) in the Bhagirathi river section (India) on fieldwork reveals two extensional ductile top-to-N/NE shear sub-zones-the 'South Tibetan Detachment System' and the 'Basal Detachment'-besides a preceding top-to-S/SW ductile shear. A top-to-N/NE brittle shear was identified as backthrusts from the HHC (except its northern portion) that occur repeatedly adjacent to numerous top-to-S/SW brittle shears as fore-thrusts. The northern portion of the HHC-the Gangotri Granite-exhibits infrequent total six extensional and compressional brittle shear senses. The backthrusts could be due to a low friction between the lower boundary of the HHC (i.e. the Main Central Thrust-Zone) and the partially molten hot rock materials of the HHC. Subduction of the Eurasian plate towards S/SW below the Indian plate more extensively in the Garhwal sector could be the second possible reason. Presence of two ductile extensional shear sub-zones may indicate channel flow (or several exhumation mechanisms) of the HHC in a shifting mode (similar to Mukherjee et al. in Int J Earth Sci 101:253-272, 2012). The top-to-S/SW extensional brittle shear exclusively within the upper (northern portion) of the HHC and a top-to-S/SW brittle shear within the remainder of it is a possible indicator of critical taper deformation mechanism. Thus, this work provides the field evidences of possibly both channel flow and critical taper conditions from a Higher Himalayan section, besides that by Larson et al. (Geol Soc Am Bull 122:1116-1134, 2010). © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Poojari R.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs | Year: 2014

Introduction: Embelia ribes or Embelia tsjeriam-cottam, more commonly known as vidanga, is a type of ayurvedic medicine that has been used to treat various diseases for a number of years. Bright orange embelin-rich fruits have been well established as ethnomedicinals, for a number of years with their pharmacological actions attributed to their hydroxybenzoquinone active constituent. Embelin has become known specifically for its antihelminthic and contraceptive use. Areas covered: This drug evaluation provides a historical summary of embelin along with its therapeutic use, phytochemistry and toxicology. Embelin's pharmacotherapeutical properties are also discussed along with its molecular targets. It is hoped that this article will help to draw the attention of researchers and biopharmaceutical companies to the untapped potential in bioprospection for the development of new drugs. Expert opinion: Embelin is the only known non-peptide small-molecule X-linked inhibitor of the apoptosis protein (XIAP)-an anti-apoptotic protein considered a promising cancer therapeutic target. Embelin acts as an NF-κB blocker and potential suppressor of tumorigenesis. It also exhibits potent cytotoxic, antioxidant and cancer chemopreventive effects. Given the potential uses of embelin, it is recommended that further investigations take place to properly explore its pharmacological and clinical effects. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Mukhopadhyay A.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay | Sheldon B.W.,Brown University
Progress in Materials Science | Year: 2014

Structural stability and mechanical integrity of electrode materials during lithiation/delithiation influence the performance of Li-ion batteries. Significant dimensional and volume changes are associated with variations in lattice parameters and transformations of crystalline/amorphous phases that occur during electrochemical cycling. These phenomena, which occur during Li-intercalation/deintercalation, Li-alloying/dealloying and conversion reactions, result in deformations and stress generation in the active cathode and anode materials. Such stresses can cause fragmentation, disintegration, fracturing, and loss in contact between current collectors and the active electrode materials, all of which can also expose fresh surfaces to the electrolyte. These degradation processes ultimately lead to capacity fade with electrochemical cycling for nearly all electrode materials, and are some of the major causes for the eventual failure of a Li-ion cell. Furthermore, severe stresses have made it nearly impossible to use higher capacity anode materials (e.g., Si, Sn) in practical batteries and also limit the 'usable' capacity of the present cathode materials (e.g., LiCoO2, LiMn2O 4) to nearly half the theoretical capacity. Against this backdrop, this review presents an overview of the causes and the relative magnitudes of stresses in the various electrode materials, highlights some of the more recent discoveries concerning the causes (such as stress development due to passivation layer formation), introduces the recently developed techniques for in situ observations of lithiation induced deformations and measurement of stresses, analyses the strategies adopted for addressing the stress-related issues, and raises various issues that still need to be addressed to overcome the stress related problems that are some of the major bottlenecks towards the development of new high-capacity electrode materials for Li-ion batteries. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kulkarni P.M.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Water Research | Year: 2012

The effect of nitrophenolic shock loads on the performance of three lab scale SBRs was studied using a synthetic feed. Nitrophenols were biotransformed by Simultaneous heterotrophic Nitrification and aerobic Denitrification (SND) using a specially designed single sludge biomass containing Thiosphaera pantotropha. Reactors R1, R2 and R3 were fed with 200. mg/L concentration of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP), and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (2,4,6-TNP) whereas reactor R was used as a background control. Three nitrophenolic shock loadings of 400, 600 and 800. mg/L. d were administrated by increasing the influent nitrophenolic concentration while keeping the hydraulic retention time as 48. h. The shocks were given continuously for a period of 4 days before switching back to normal nitrophenolic loading (200. mg/L. d). The reactors were allowed to recover to normal performance level before administrating the next nitrophenolic shock load. The study showed that a nitrophenolic shock load, as high as 600. mg/L. d was completely degraded by the 4-NP & 2,4-DNP bioreactors while almost half degraded by the 2,4,6-TNP bioreactor without affecting the reactor's performance irreversibly. After resuming the normal nitrophenolic loading, it took almost 8-10 days for the reactors to recover from the shock effect. The study was further extended to evaluate the maximum possible mixed nitrophenolic loading (4-NP:2,4-DNP:2,4,6-TNP 1:1:1) to which a reactor (R3) containing 2,4,6-TNP acclimated single sludge biomass can be exposed without hampering the reactor performance irreversibly. The reactor was able to achieve pseudo-steady-state at a mixed nitrophenolic loading of 300. mg/L. d with more than 90% removal of all the three nitrophenols, but could remove half of the mixed nitrophenolic loading of 600. mg/L. d. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Madhu S.,Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
The Analyst | Year: 2013

Cyanide is one of the most toxic inorganic anions, it is very harmful to human health but extremely useful in industrial activities. Herein, we used our recently reported boradiazaindacene (BODIPY) dye, 3,5-diformyl-borondipyrromethene (BODIPY 1) as an exclusive chemodosimetric and colorimetric sensor for CN(-) ion. Cyanide ion attacks the carbonyl groups of 1 via a nucleophilic addition reaction and converts to cyanohydrin which is reflected in the clear colour change as well as by the absorption, emission and electrochemical properties. Thus BODIPY 1 can be used as a colorimetric and chemodosimetric sensor for CN(-) ion. Furthermore, to show that the position of the formyl group on BODIPY plays an important role in the ability of BODIPY dye to act as a chemodosimetric sensor for CN(-) ion, we synthesized another formyl group containing BODIPY dye, 3, in which the formyl group is present at the para-position of the meso-phenyl group. (1)H NMR studies confirmed the formation of the cyanohydrin form of BODIPY dye 3 on addition of CN(-) ion but dye 3 cannot be used as a chemodosimetric sensor for CN(-) ion, as verified by absorption and fluorescence studies. The detection of cyanide with BODIPY dye 1 for biological application was also performed in MDA-MB-231 cells.

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