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Balaji S.,Manipal University India | Chempakam B.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

Turmeric belongs to the ginger family Zingiberaceae. Currently, cheminformatics approaches are not employed in any of the spices to study the medicinal properties traditionally attributed to them. The aim of this study is to find the most efficacious molecule which does not have any toxic effects. In the present study, toxicity of 200 chemical compounds from turmeric were predicted (includes bacterial mutagenicity, rodent carcinogenicity and human hepatotoxicity). The study shows out of 200 compounds, 184 compounds were predicted as toxigenic, 136 compounds are mutagenic, 153 compounds are carcinogenic and 64 compounds are hepatotoxic. To cross validate our results, we have chosen the popular curcumin and found that curcumin and its derivatives may cause dose dependent hepatotoxicity. The results of these studies indicate that, in contrast to curcumin, few other compounds in turmeric which are non-mutagenic, non-carcinogenic, non-hepatotoxic, and do not have any side-effects. Hence, the cost-effective approach presented in this paper could be used to filter toxic compounds from the drug discovery lifecycle. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Ramakrishnan Nair R.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
Caryologia | Year: 2016

Pollen fertility in 21 germplasm collections of ginger was determined by glycero-carmine staining and in vitro germination. Pollen fertility based on staining ranged from 5.59% to 67.73%, while in vitro germination ranged from 2.35% to 60.31% in different collections analyzed. High pollen stainability was not always followed by high in vitro germination in collections analyzed. However, the in vitro germination percentage was always lower than the percentage of stainability in all the collections. Highest in vitro pollen germination was recorded in acc. no. 195 (60.31%) followed by acc. no. 821 (50.67%). Somatic chromosome number analysis of the collections revealed that the two collections with high pollen fertility (acc. nos. 195 and 821) were tetraploids with 2n = 44 while most of the other collections had 2n = 22, the normal chromosome number. One collection with aneuploid chromosome number of 2n = 24 had lower pollen germination (4.82%), similar to many diploid collections. Tetraploids are identified for the first time from germplasm collections of ginger. The role of polyploidy in improving pollen fertility in ginger is discussed. © 2016 Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Università di Firenze

Siljo A.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Bhat A.I.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Cardamom being a perennial and propagated vegetatively, Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) in cardamom spreads mainly through infected material. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for easy and quick detection of the virus. The following conditions proved optimal for amplification: 4 mM of magnesium sulphate, 1.2 M of betaine, 65 °C, and 1 h of reaction time. The results were assessed visually by turbidity and green fluorescence (induced by adding manganese chloride and calcein) in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected the virus in infected plants whereas no cross-reaction was recorded with healthy plants. The detection limit for RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional RT-PCR and on a par with that for real-time RT-PCR. The assay was validated by testing field samples of cardamom plants from different cardamom-growing tracts in Kerala, India. © 2014 KNPV.

Kizhakkayil J.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Sasikumar B.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

A sample of world germplasm of ginger consisting of 46 accessions was profiled for its volatile oil constituents, using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) and grouped with three similarity coefficients, besides analyzing its pungent principles using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 60 compounds were identified in the essential oil. Two of the three similarity coefficients (Jaccard's and Sorensen - Dice similarity coefficients) placed the accessions in 14 groups. The dendrograms constructed using this two similarity coefficients were similar in form and content. However, the grouping pattern of the accessions in the third dendrogram (Simple Matching similarity coefficient) was slightly different. Three accessions namely, 'Kintoki', 'Brazil' and 'Pink Ginger' were unique. HPLC analysis of the pungent principles showed 6-gingerol as the predominant pungent principle in all the ginger accessions except the exotic ginger, 'Oman', in which 8-shogaol was the predominant one. © 2012 Academic Journals.

Retheesh S.T.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Bhat A.I.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
Crop Protection | Year: 2010

Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia G. Jackson), a perennial fleshy vine infected by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) was freed from infection through meristem culture. Apical meristem measuring 0.1-0.25. mm were isolated and cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.45μM thidiazuron for 40-45 days to initiate the growth. Following enlargement of meristem, it was transferred to MS medium supplemented with 4.43μM 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and 2.68μM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) for regeneration. The regenerated plantlets were hardened in insect-free glasshouse and confirmed for the elimination of viruses using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) with virus specific primer pairs. The frequency of CMV elimination was 79.4% while that of CymMV was 82.4% when tested individually. We obtained a frequency of 75% simultaneous elimination of both viruses. This is the first report of meristem culture and virus elimination in vanilla. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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