Indian Institute of Spices Research

Kozhikode, India

Indian Institute of Spices Research

Kozhikode, India
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Thampi A.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Bhai R.S.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
Biological Control | Year: 2017

The experiment was conducted with an objective to survey potential black pepper growing tracts of Kerala and Karnataka for the isolation and characterization of rhizosphere actinobacterial strains for exploiting its antagonistic potential against major pathogens of black pepper as well as for growth promotion. Accordingly fifty actinobacterial strains were isolated and were morphologically characterized and studied for its antagonism against major soil borne pathogens of black pepper viz., Phytophthora capsici and Sclerotium rolfsii. Three isolates (IISRBPAct1, IISRBPAct25 and IISRBPAct42) showed more than 90% inhibition against the targeted pathogens. The isolate IISRBPAct1 showed 91–94% inhibition to both of the pathogens followed by IISRBPAct42 (68–94%) and IISRBPAct25 (86–90%). The potential isolates were characterized morphologically using light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Molecular characterization was done by 16S-rDNA sequencing using two sets of actinomycetes specific primers viz., 1) S-C-Act-235-S-20 and S-C-Act-878-A-19 and 2) 27f and1525r were identified as belonging to Streptomyces sp. The isolates exhibited production of different hydrolytic enzymes such as amylases, proteases, lipases, and cellulases. Further the isolates were evaluated for their Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) traits and biocontrol traits such as production of Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) and siderophores. IISRBPAct1 showed production of both IAA and siderophore while IISRBPAct25 and IISRBPAct42 produced only siderophore. In planta experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth promotion activity as well as pathogen suppression. Out of the three potential Streptomyces spp IISRBPAct1 showed maximum growth promotion in terms of shoot biomass, shoot height and number of laterals where as maximum root biomass was observed with IISRBPAct42. Highest reduction of disease incidence was observed on treatment with IISRBPAct1 (98.10%) against Sclerotium rolfsii while IISRBPAct25 showed highest reduction of foot rot incidence (80.73%). The results of the study clearly revealed the biocontrol and PGPR properties of three Streptomyces sp. which can be developed as potential candidates for the biological control of major black pepper pathogens. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Parthsarathy U.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Nandakishore O.P.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
Current Bioactive Compounds | Year: 2014

The Genus Garcinia is one of the tropical underutilized medicinal fruit crops. It contains around 200 species, out of which 35 species are available in India. In India it is present in two different ecosystems, the Western Ghats and the Himalayan foot hills. G. indica, G. gummi-gutta, G. xanthochymus, G. subelliptica and G. mangostana are the common species of Western Ghats while G. lanceaefolia, G.pedunculata, and G. kydia are common species in North eastern Himalayan foot hills. The medicinal importance of Garcinia is due to the presence of HCA (hydroxycitric acid) an anti-obesity compound. Among the primary metabolites, carbohydrates are present in good percentage. The mineral composition showed a great variation in the percentages of potassium, calcium and magnesium (SD being 17.2, 3.5 and 12.15 respectively). The study of vitamin content, organic acids, xanthones and anti-oxidant activity reveals that Garcinia is an important medicinal crop with ample nutraceutical properties. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Sangeeth K.P.,Central University of Kerala | Suseela B.R.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
Critical Reviews in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) as a concept and farm management strategy embraces and transcends from single season crop fertilization efforts to planning and management of plant nutrients in crop rotations and farming systems on a long-term basis for enhanced productivity, profitability and sustainability. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the required increase in crop production in developing countries will have to come from yield increases from lands already under cultivation. IPNS enhances soil productivity through a balanced use of soil nutrients, chemical fertilizers, combined with organic sources of plant nutrients, including bio-inoculants and nutrient transfer through agro-forestry systems and has adaptation to farming systems in both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. Horticultural crops, mainly plantation crops, management practices include application of fertilizers and pesticides which become inevitable due to the depletion of soil organic matter and incidence of pests and diseases. The extensive use of chemical fertilizers in these crops deteriorated soil health that in turn affected the productivity. To revitalize soil health and to enhance productivity, it is inexorable to enrich the soil using microorganisms. The lacunae observed here is the lack of exploitation of indigenous microbes having the potential to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) and to solubilize Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K). The concept of biofertilizer application appears to be technically simple and financially feasible, but the task of developing biofertilizers with efficient strains in appropriate combinations in a consortia mode is not easier. More than developing consortia, a suitable delivery system to discharge the microbial inoculants warranted much effort. This review focuses on the integrated plant nutrition system incorporating biofertilizer with special emphasis on developing and formulating biofertilizer consortium. © 2015 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Sindhu S.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Chempakam B.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Leela N.K.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Suseela Bhai R.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2011

Turmeric is well known for a wide range of medicinal properties. Essential oil of turmeric leaves (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated at varying concentrations of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5% (v/v) in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) broth inoculated with spore suspension of Aspergillus flavus of 106conidia/ml. These were evaluated for their potential in the control of aflatoxigenic fungus A. flavus and aflatoxin production. Turmeric leaf oil exhibited 95.3% and 100% inhibition of toxin production respectively at 1.0% and 1.5%. The extent of inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the concentration of essential oil used. The oil exhibited significant inhibition of fungal growth as well as aflatoxins B1 and G1 production. The LD50 and LD90 were also determined. GC-MS analysis of the oil showed α-phellandrene, p-cymene and terpinolene as the major components in turmeric leaf oil. The possibility of using these phytochemical components as bio-preservatives for storage of spices is discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Siljo A.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Bhat A.I.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Cardamom being a perennial and propagated vegetatively, Banana bract mosaic virus (BBrMV) in cardamom spreads mainly through infected material. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for easy and quick detection of the virus. The following conditions proved optimal for amplification: 4 mM of magnesium sulphate, 1.2 M of betaine, 65 °C, and 1 h of reaction time. The results were assessed visually by turbidity and green fluorescence (induced by adding manganese chloride and calcein) in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected the virus in infected plants whereas no cross-reaction was recorded with healthy plants. The detection limit for RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional RT-PCR and on a par with that for real-time RT-PCR. The assay was validated by testing field samples of cardamom plants from different cardamom-growing tracts in Kerala, India. © 2014 KNPV.


Ramakrishnan Nair R.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
Caryologia | Year: 2016

Pollen fertility in 21 germplasm collections of ginger was determined by glycero-carmine staining and in vitro germination. Pollen fertility based on staining ranged from 5.59% to 67.73%, while in vitro germination ranged from 2.35% to 60.31% in different collections analyzed. High pollen stainability was not always followed by high in vitro germination in collections analyzed. However, the in vitro germination percentage was always lower than the percentage of stainability in all the collections. Highest in vitro pollen germination was recorded in acc. no. 195 (60.31%) followed by acc. no. 821 (50.67%). Somatic chromosome number analysis of the collections revealed that the two collections with high pollen fertility (acc. nos. 195 and 821) were tetraploids with 2n = 44 while most of the other collections had 2n = 22, the normal chromosome number. One collection with aneuploid chromosome number of 2n = 24 had lower pollen germination (4.82%), similar to many diploid collections. Tetraploids are identified for the first time from germplasm collections of ginger. The role of polyploidy in improving pollen fertility in ginger is discussed. © 2016 Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Università di Firenze


Balaji S.,Manipal University India | Chempakam B.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2010

Turmeric belongs to the ginger family Zingiberaceae. Currently, cheminformatics approaches are not employed in any of the spices to study the medicinal properties traditionally attributed to them. The aim of this study is to find the most efficacious molecule which does not have any toxic effects. In the present study, toxicity of 200 chemical compounds from turmeric were predicted (includes bacterial mutagenicity, rodent carcinogenicity and human hepatotoxicity). The study shows out of 200 compounds, 184 compounds were predicted as toxigenic, 136 compounds are mutagenic, 153 compounds are carcinogenic and 64 compounds are hepatotoxic. To cross validate our results, we have chosen the popular curcumin and found that curcumin and its derivatives may cause dose dependent hepatotoxicity. The results of these studies indicate that, in contrast to curcumin, few other compounds in turmeric which are non-mutagenic, non-carcinogenic, non-hepatotoxic, and do not have any side-effects. Hence, the cost-effective approach presented in this paper could be used to filter toxic compounds from the drug discovery lifecycle. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Dinesh R.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Anandaraj M.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Srinivasan V.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Hamza S.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
Geoderma | Year: 2012

Among the factors influencing soil quality, biological indicators are reported as critically important because soil organisms directly influence soil ecosystem processes, especially the decomposition of soil organic matter and the cycling of nutrients. Hence, any factor that affects soil microbial biomass, activity and populations would necessarily affect soil quality and sustainability. Presently, a staggering number of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) employed for industrial and environmental applications or formed as by-products of human activity are finding their way into soils. Common ENPs include the metal ENPs (elemental Ag, Au, Fe etc.), fullerenes (grouping Buckminster fullerenes, CNTs, nanocones etc.), metal oxides (TiO 2, CuO, FeO 2, ZnO, Al 2O 3, SiO 2 etc.), complex compounds (Co-Zn-Fe oxide), quantum dots often coated with a polymer e.g. cadmium-selenide (CdSe) and organic polymers (dendrimers, polystyrene, etc.). The antimicrobial activity of these ENPs has been extensively studied with human pathogenic bacteria. Similarly, studies also exist on the affect of ENPs on beneficial microbes in vitro under controlled conditions. But very little information is available on how these ENPs affect microbial communities in soil under field conditions. The few published literature does suggest that among the ENPs, fullerenes and their derivatives are less toxic, while small size metal and metal oxide ENPs are detrimental to soil microbial communities. However, under field conditions, soil organic matter and related components like humic and fulvic acids could possibly negate the toxic effects of these ENPs through various mechanisms. Also, the resistance and resilience of soil microbial communities to such perturbations cannot be discounted. The paper also stresses the need for more information on interaction of ENPs with soil microorganisms under field conditions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Lincy A.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Sasikumar B.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
Turkish Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

A protocol for direct plantlet regeneration from aerial stem explants of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) has been developed. Adventitious shoots and roots were regenerated from in planta aerial stem explants of 2 ginger varieties viz. var. 'Jamaica' and var. 'Varada'. Maximum shoot and root regeneration were observed in the cultures containing TDZ and IBA (1:1; 1:0.1 mg L-1) in both varieties. Cultures containing TDZ alone showed poor shoot and root formation. Histological studies revealed that the shoot initials originated from the primary thickening meristem and apical meristem, while the root primordial originated from the primary thickening meristem present in the aerial stem. The hardening of in vitro plants was performed with different hardening media and successful acclimatization was obtained. The hardening medium containing soil: sand: coir dust: cow dung + 5 g Trichoderma harzianum/ cup gave good result in all aspects like survival of hardened plants, plant height, number of leaves, and chlorophyll content. © TÜBİTAK.


Kizhakkayil J.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Sasikumar B.,Indian Institute of Spices Research
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010

A global collection of ginger germplasm consisting of 46 accessions were characterized using two types of molecular markers, RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) and ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats). UPGMA dendrograms constructed based on three similarity coefficients, i.e., Jaccard's, Sorensen-Dice and Simple Matching using the combined RAPD and ISSR markers placed the accessions in four similar clusters in all the three dendrograms revealing the congruence of clustering patterns among the similarity coefficients and a rather less genetic distance among the accessions. Improved varieties/cultivars are grouped together with primitive types. Moreover, in the clustering pattern of the accessions, a geographical bias was also evident implying that germplasm collected from nearby locations especially with vernacular identity may not be genetically distinct. The clustering of the accessions was largely independent of its agronomic features. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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