Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation

Koraput, India

Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation

Koraput, India
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News Article | November 8, 2016

Examining how land-use changes may affect water quality and fisheries resources in lakes and rivers will help natural resource agencies manage wildlife populations, according to Steven Chipps, leader of the U.S. Geological Survey, South Dakota Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit at South Dakota State University. The fisheries biologist and Muthiah Muruganandam, a Fulbright scholar from the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, will use existing data to track changes in the characteristics and water quality of surface waters in northeastern South Dakota. As a senior scientist at the Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Muruganandam has been doing research on natural resource management and fisheries and aquatic system management, in particular, for more than 20 years. The 18-month research project is supported by the Fulbright Scholar program. Recent changes in land use have been well documented in South Dakota, according to Chipps, an adjunct faculty member in South Dakota State University's Department of Natural Resource Management. Between 2006 and 2012, more than 1.4 million acres of grasslands were converted to cropland, with the largest change occurring in east central and northeastern South Dakota. Nested within this landscape are surface waters that include lakes and rivers, Chipps pointed out. "We don't know how changes in land use may affect surface water quality or to what extent lakes and streams in eastern South Dakota have been impacted." The researchers will access more than 20 years of data from federal and state agencies including the Department of Natural Resources, the East Dakota Water Management District, U.S. Geological Survey and the South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks Department. "We're doing a lot of data mining," Muruganandam said. They hope to use long-term data from water quality assessments to evaluate relationships between beneficial water uses and land use patterns. Those beneficial water uses include fish and wildlife propagation, recreation and stock watering sources, in addition to more specific uses such as domestic water supply. Accumulation of sediment and nutrients, such as nitrates and phosphates, adversely impacts water quality, according to Muruganandam. Increased vegetation, lower oxygen levels and decreased water clarity can adversely impact recreational fish, such as yellow perch, bass and crappies. However, Chipps explained, "A lot of things come into play, not just land use." Northeastern South Dakota typically goes through cycles of drought and flooding that affect water availability and aquatic production. "That dynamic has gone on for eons," he said. In terms of fish populations, Chipps noted, "A newly flooded lake is very productive. When the water level decreases or stays static, fish production declines over time. We end up with a stagnant system." The researchers hypothesize that current approaches for dealing with excess water, such as wetland draining and tiling, could stabilize water levels in small lakes and impoundments. This then interrupts the normal ebb and flow that is advantageous to fish populations. "If the data show that lake water levels are becoming more stable, this will change how we look at managing fish," Chipps noted. Environmental impacts on water resources can put pressure on aquatic ecosystems that, in the short term, can have a more dramatic effect than climate change.

Dash C.J.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Sarangi A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Adhikary P.P.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Singh D.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering | Year: 2016

The cost and time involved in frequent field observations pertaining to quantification of nitrate leaching below the crop root zone leads to the use of simulation models, which is a more plausible approach. Nitrate leaching below the root zone of a maize-wheat cropping system under surface irrigation was assessed. The model's predicted results pertaining to water percolation and nitrate leaching were in line with the observed data, with root mean square error (RMSE) values close to zero, and index of agreement values close to 1. The seasonal percolation of water below 120 cm soil depth in maize and wheat were 36.5 and 27.5% of applied water, respectively. Similarly, nitrate leaching below 120 cm soil depth was 18.1 and 14.3% of the applied nitrogenous fertilizer in maize and wheat, respectively. Under similar conditions, the nitrate leaching under a maize-wheat cropping system was 6.8 kgNO3 ha-1 less than in a rice-wheat cropping system. Furthermore, nitrate leaching below the crop root zone under different fertilizer application rates was estimated and best-fit second-order polynomial equations were developed. The equations can be used for estimation of nitrate leaching under different fertilizer input scenarios of maize-grown and wheat-grown areas under similar hydro-agro-climatic regions. © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Sharma B.,North Bengal Agricultural University | Chakravarty S.,North Bengal Agricultural University | Panwar P.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Pal S.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation
Agrochimica | Year: 2015

Jatropha curcas is a promising alternative to meet the requirement of fossil fuels and utilize the degraded lands. To harness the maximum production of Jatropha, nutrient application, pruning and plant geometry optimization is essential. Six nutrient doses, four pruning levels and five spacing treatments were imposed in a factorial randomised block design. Pruning plant at one meter from ground level (P2) produced wider canopy Nitrogen uptake was higher in N, (50 - 50 - 50 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O) and N4(60-60-60 kg ha-1 of N, P2O5 and K2O), ranging from 666 to 808 mg plant-1. Chlorophyll content was maximum (39.52 SPAD value) in N4. Collar diameter was significantly higher (66.36 mm) at 0.5 m pruning in 4 × 4 m spacing. Biomass was higher at wider spacing and lowest in closer spacing. Increased spacing resulted in higher canopy diameter, leading to higher PAR interception.

Patil S.L.,Indian Institute of Soil and water Conservation | Mishra P.K.,Indian Institute of Soil and water Conservation | Mishra P.K.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | Loganandhan N.,Indian Institute of Soil and water Conservation | And 3 more authors.
Legume Research | Year: 2015

A field study was conducted during winter seasons of 2007–08 and 2008–09 in a randomized block design with three replications to evaluate the performance of chickpea cultivars under rainfed conditions in the Vertisols of Bellary, India. Among the eight varieties evaluated, JG11 and BGD103 outperformed others. During normal to below normal rainfall year of 2007, JG 11 produced 16% higher grain yield over local variety, i.e., A1. During above normal rainfall year of 2008, BGD103 produced 8% higher yield over A1 and 33% higher yield over KAK2. The mean of two years indicates that JG11 and BGD103 produced 9% and 7% higher yields over A1. Among the varieties evaluated JG11 produced higher straw yields of 14.01 and 14.48 q ha-1 during 2007–08 and 2008–09, respectively. Correlation studies indicated that the pod weight, grain weight and total dry matter production per plant determine the chickpea grain yield. © 2015, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.

Yadav R.P.,Regional Center | Panwar P.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Arya S.L.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Mishra P.K.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation
Journal of the Geological Society of India | Year: 2015

Shivalik region is sandwiched between Himalayan ecosystem and Indo-Gangetic plains in northwestern India. However, its area is reported to range from 2.14 to 8.00 m ha in northwestern India by different workers. Based on geology and physiography, we demarcated the Shivalik region (3.33 mha), covering hills (1.79 mha) and its piedmont plains or foot hills (1.54 m ha) in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh at an elevation ranging from 217 to 2332 m above MSL. The delineated map showing Shivalik region will be useful in conserving the natural resources of the region without any dispute over its location and area. © 2015, Geological Society of India.

Biswas H.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Raizada A.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Mandal D.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Kumar S.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | And 2 more authors.
Solid Earth | Year: 2015

This paper attempts to provide information for policymakers and soil conservation planners in the form of district-wise soil erosion risk (SER) maps prepared for the state of Telangana, India. The SER values for each district were computed by extracting the information on grid-wise soil erosion and soil loss tolerance limit values existing on the country-scale in a GIS environment. The objectives of the study were to (i) identify the areas of the state with a high erosion risk, and (ii) identify areas with an urgent need of conservation measures. The results reveal that around 69 % of the state has a negligible risk of soil erosion above the tolerance limits, and does not call for immediate soil conservation measures. The remaining area (2.17 M ha) requires conservation planning. Four districts, viz. Adilabad, Warangal, Khammam, and Karimnagar are the most risk-prone with more than one-quarter of their total geographical areas showing net positive SER values. In order to obtain a clearer picture and categorize the districts based on their extent of vulnerability, weighted erosion risk values were computed. Adilabad, Warangal, and Khammam were identified as the worst-affected districts in terms of soil erosion, and therefore are in need of immediate attention of natural resource conservation. © 2015 Author(s).

Sharda V.N.,Agricultural Scientists Recruitment Board | Dogra P.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Sena D.R.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2015

Economic performance of two land configuration systems, namely conservation bench terrace (CBT) and conventional (sloping borders), were evaluated through an experimental study conducted during 1997-2005 in a sub-humid climate of India. Energy use efficiencies of the two systems were also evaluated. The two systems were cultivated with maize + cowpea in rainy season followed by wheat + mustard in dry winter season. For CBT, an additional intervention of rice cultivation was done during rainy season in its recipient area. Mathematical relationships were established between seasonal and effective rainfalls as well as between effective rainfall and crop equivalent yields. These relationships were then utilized for evaluating economic efficiency of various combinations of the two inter-crop based land configuration systems. Excess runoff from the combinations was considered as rainwater harvested into a common tank for recycling as supplemental irrigation during intervening dry spells in the rainy season and the remaining during dry winter season. In this way, the best combination for inter-crop based systems adoptable to a region experiencing rainfall uncertainty i.e. regular intervening dry spells was identified. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to analyze response of the combinations to changes in economic parameters. Based on the analysis of experimental data, net present value of CBT system was observed to be 56% higher than the conventional system due to higher average crop equivalent yields. Net energy return, energy ratio and energy profitability of CBT system were higher by more than 100% as compared to conventional system, thus indicating better energy use efficiency. Benefit-cost analysis of the system combinations under different rainfall probabilities suggested that a combination with higher proportion of CBT will be more remunerative. However, the 75:25 (CBT:conventional) combination was observed to be the best for minimizing risks associated with erratic rainfall at all probability levels. Sensitivity analysis of various combinations indicated that CBT predominant combinations will be least affected by changes in considered economic parameters. From the study, it was concluded that adoption of 75:25 (CBT:conventional) combination can be recommended for sustaining crop productivity by generating sufficient runoff for harvesting and its subsequent recycling as supplemental irrigation during both seasons on mildly sloping lands in sub-humid climates. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Sharma G.C.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Mishra P.K.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation
International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences | Year: 2016

The level of development of various districts of Uttarakhand was estimated by forming a composite index on the basis of optimum combination of socio-economic indicators. All the thirteen districts have been included in the study. The data for the year available (2008 to 2013) have been taken from the site of Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Uttarakhand. The disparities were observed in the overall socio-economic development of the districts of the State and the better developed districts covered about 31 per cent area and 24 per cent population whereas poorly developed districts covered about 39 per cent area and 37 per cent population. The infrastructural facilities also influenced the socio-economic development in the positive direction in almost all the districts of the State. In agricultural development, 3 districts with 22 per cent area and 16 per cent population are better developed, whereas 3 districts with 39 per cent area and 37 per cent population are low developed. The remaining 6 districts with 39 per cent area and 67 per cent population are middle level developed, but having tendency to make improvement in the level of development. The State requires a unified and balanced integration of agricultural and infrastructural development for eliminating disparities.

Meena D.C.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Singh O.P.,Banaras Hindu University | Singh R.,Banaras Hindu University | Kumari M.,Banaras Hindu University
International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences | Year: 2015

Among different edible oilseeds grown in India, mustard occupy prominent place due to larger portion of Indian population are consuming, it as vegetable oil. Besides other factors, price of oilseed is play an important and highly influencing factors to the farmer's decision regarding the acreage allocation under oilseed crops. Present study attempts to assess the future and spot price linkages for mustard seed and mustard oil in various selected markets. Present study was based on secondary data and it was analysed using co-integration technique. The significant coefficient of at least one error correction term confirmed the results of co-integration between spot and future prices of mustard seed and mustard oil. The results of Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) revealed that the coefficient of the error correction term was negative and significant in the case of spot market for mustard seed and mustard oil in the selected markets. This implies that spot prices are stable in the long-run and any deviation in their prices due to external shocks that occurred in the short-run was well adjusted by the market forces over time. The model also revealed the existence of unidirectional short run causality in the selected market of mustard seed except Sriganganagar market. This phenomenon of price convergence for the crop clearly depicts that farmers would be able to effectively mitigate the price risk.

Kumar R.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Shamet G.S.,Himachal Pradesh University | Alam N.M.,ICAR Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Jana C.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation
Compost Science and Utilization | Year: 2016

Pinus gerardiana Wall. is an important nut-producing pine having restricted distribution in the world. It has been observed that natural regeneration in the species is extremely poor or entirely lacking. The species has erratic and infrequent seed years, dormancy-related problems, and slow growth of seedling, which reduces its regeneration process in natural habitats. Therefore, we investigated the effect of growing medium and seed size on germination and seedling growth of the Pinus gerardiana. The seeds were categorized into two sizes, viz, small (<2.35 cm) and large (>2.35 cm) and five growing medium treatments were used, viz, Soil:Sand:FYM; Soil:Sand:Moss:FYM; Soil:Moss:Vermicompost; Soil:Sand:Vermicompost; and Soil:Sand:Moss:Vermicompost, for assessing their impact on germination and seedling growth. It was observed that, among different growing medium treatments, higher germination and seedling growth parameters were recorded, when Soil:Sand:Moss:Vermicompost was used for the study. Between different seed sizes, higher germination and seedling growth were recorded when seed size was large. © 2016 Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation.

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