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Bhattacharyya T.,National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning | Bhattacharyya T.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Chandran P.,National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning | Ray S.K.,National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning | And 9 more authors.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis

Maintenance of soil organic carbon (SOC) stock is important for monitoring soil health, which appears to be fragile in view of the reported climatic changes due to global warming in tropical countries such as India. This requires accurate and reproducible measurement of SOC. The wet-digestion technique following the Walkley-Black (WB) method to determine SOC has been used throughout the world in soil science, agronomy, and environmental science laboratories. WB suggested a universal correction factor to convert organic carbon to calculate exact quantity of organic carbon present in soil assuming 77% recovery of SOC. We understand that such a blanket recommendation may not hold well in different bioclimatic systems and for soils representing various depths. We present corrected Walkley-Black recovery factors (WBRFc) for different bioclimates and soil depths in two food-growing zones in India. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Patil S.L.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Mishra P.K.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Mishra P.K.,Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute | Loganandhan N.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | And 3 more authors.
Legume Research

A field study was conducted during winter seasons of 2007–08 and 2008–09 in a randomized block design with three replications to evaluate the performance of chickpea cultivars under rainfed conditions in the Vertisols of Bellary, India. Among the eight varieties evaluated, JG11 and BGD103 outperformed others. During normal to below normal rainfall year of 2007, JG 11 produced 16% higher grain yield over local variety, i.e., A1. During above normal rainfall year of 2008, BGD103 produced 8% higher yield over A1 and 33% higher yield over KAK2. The mean of two years indicates that JG11 and BGD103 produced 9% and 7% higher yields over A1. Among the varieties evaluated JG11 produced higher straw yields of 14.01 and 14.48 q ha-1 during 2007–08 and 2008–09, respectively. Correlation studies indicated that the pod weight, grain weight and total dry matter production per plant determine the chickpea grain yield. © 2015, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved. Source

Biswas H.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Raizada A.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Mandal D.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Kumar S.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | And 2 more authors.
Solid Earth

This paper attempts to provide information for policymakers and soil conservation planners in the form of district-wise soil erosion risk (SER) maps prepared for the state of Telangana, India. The SER values for each district were computed by extracting the information on grid-wise soil erosion and soil loss tolerance limit values existing on the country-scale in a GIS environment. The objectives of the study were to (i) identify the areas of the state with a high erosion risk, and (ii) identify areas with an urgent need of conservation measures. The results reveal that around 69 % of the state has a negligible risk of soil erosion above the tolerance limits, and does not call for immediate soil conservation measures. The remaining area (2.17 M ha) requires conservation planning. Four districts, viz. Adilabad, Warangal, Khammam, and Karimnagar are the most risk-prone with more than one-quarter of their total geographical areas showing net positive SER values. In order to obtain a clearer picture and categorize the districts based on their extent of vulnerability, weighted erosion risk values were computed. Adilabad, Warangal, and Khammam were identified as the worst-affected districts in terms of soil erosion, and therefore are in need of immediate attention of natural resource conservation. © 2015 Author(s). Source

Yadav R.P.,Regional Center | Panwar P.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Arya S.L.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Mishra P.K.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation
Journal of the Geological Society of India

Shivalik region is sandwiched between Himalayan ecosystem and Indo-Gangetic plains in northwestern India. However, its area is reported to range from 2.14 to 8.00 m ha in northwestern India by different workers. Based on geology and physiography, we demarcated the Shivalik region (3.33 mha), covering hills (1.79 mha) and its piedmont plains or foot hills (1.54 m ha) in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and union territory of Chandigarh at an elevation ranging from 217 to 2332 m above MSL. The delineated map showing Shivalik region will be useful in conserving the natural resources of the region without any dispute over its location and area. © 2015, Geological Society of India. Source

Dash C.J.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Sarangi A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Adhikary P.P.,Indian Institute of Soil and Water Conservation | Singh D.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering

The cost and time involved in frequent field observations pertaining to quantification of nitrate leaching below the crop root zone leads to the use of simulation models, which is a more plausible approach. Nitrate leaching below the root zone of a maize-wheat cropping system under surface irrigation was assessed. The model's predicted results pertaining to water percolation and nitrate leaching were in line with the observed data, with root mean square error (RMSE) values close to zero, and index of agreement values close to 1. The seasonal percolation of water below 120 cm soil depth in maize and wheat were 36.5 and 27.5% of applied water, respectively. Similarly, nitrate leaching below 120 cm soil depth was 18.1 and 14.3% of the applied nitrogenous fertilizer in maize and wheat, respectively. Under similar conditions, the nitrate leaching under a maize-wheat cropping system was 6.8 kgNO3 ha-1 less than in a rice-wheat cropping system. Furthermore, nitrate leaching below the crop root zone under different fertilizer application rates was estimated and best-fit second-order polynomial equations were developed. The equations can be used for estimation of nitrate leaching under different fertilizer input scenarios of maize-grown and wheat-grown areas under similar hydro-agro-climatic regions. © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source

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