Indian Institute of Pulses Research
Kanpur, India

Indian Institute of Pulses Research is a government institute in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. It was established in the year 1983 by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research to carry out basic strategic and applied research on major pulse crops. It is situated on Grand Trunk Road and is about twelve kilometer from Kanpur Central Railway Station towards New Delhi. The overall climate varies from semi-arid to sub-humid and mean annual rainfall ranges from 800 to 1000mm. Wikipedia.

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Gupta O.P.,Directorate of Wheat Research | Meena N.L.,Directorate of Wheat Research | Meena N.L.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Sharma I.,Directorate of Wheat Research | Sharma P.,Directorate of Wheat Research
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2014

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are tiny non-coding regulatory molecules that modulate plant's gene expression either by cleaving or repressing their mRNA targets. To unravel the plant actions in response to various environmental factors, identification of stress related miRNAs is essential. For understanding the regulatory behaviour of various abiotic stresses and miRNAs in wheat genotype C-306, we examined expression profile of selected conserved miRNAs viz. miR159, miR164, miR168, miR172, miR393, miR397, miR529 and miR1029 tangled in adapting osmotic, salt and cold stresses. The investigation revealed that two miRNAs (miR168, miR397) were down-regulated and miR172 was up-regulated under all the stress conditions. However, miR164 and miR1029 were up-regulated under cold and osmotic stresses in contrast to salt stress. miR529 responded to cold alone and does not change under osmotic and salt stress. miR393 showed up-regulation under osmotic and salt, and down-regulation under cold stress indicating auxin based differential cold response. Variation in expression level of studied miRNAs in presence of target genes delivers a likely elucidation of miRNAs based abiotic stress regulation. In addition, we reported new stress induced miRNAs Ta-miR855 using computational approach. Results revealed first documentation that miR855 is regulated by salinity stress in wheat. These findings indicate that diverse miRNAs were responsive to osmotic, salt and cold stress and could function in wheat response to abiotic stresses. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.

Jha U.C.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Bohra A.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Singh N.P.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research
Plant Breeding | Year: 2014

Increasing severity of high temperature worldwide presents an alarming threat to the humankind. As evident by massive yield losses in various food crops, the escalating adverse impacts of heat stress (HS) are putting the global food as well as nutritional security at great risk. Intrinsically, plants respond to high temperature stress by triggering a cascade of events and adapt by switching on numerous stress-responsive genes. However, the complex and poorly understood mechanism of heat tolerance (HT), limited access to the precise phenotyping techniques, and above all, the substantial G × E effects offer major bottlenecks to the progress of breeding for improving HT. Therefore, focus should be given to assess the crop diversity, and targeting the adaptive/morpho-physiological traits while making selections. Equally important is the rapid and precise introgression of the HT-related gene(s)/QTLs to the heat-susceptible cultivars to recover the genotypes with enhanced HT. Therefore, the progressive tailoring of the heat-tolerant genotypes demands a rational integration of molecular breeding, functional genomics and transgenic technologies reinforced with the next-generation phenomics facilities. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Devraj,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Jain R.,CSJM University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

This paper presents design and development of an expert system for the diagnosis and control of diseases in pulse crops (PulsExpert). PulsExpert is an operational automatic diagnostic tool that helps farmers/extension workers to identify diseases of major pulse crops viz.; Chickpea, Pigeonpea, Mungbean and Urdbean (highly consumed pulse crops) and suggests the appropriate control measures. Automatic knowledge acquisition system of PulsExpert provides user-friendly interface to the domain experts for entering, storing and structuring the domain specific knowledge. The knowledge base has been designed after examining the type and structure of the knowledge from different sources like literatures, books, databases, farmers, extension workers, etc. For a particular crop, knowledge can be entered by more than one expert using an automatic knowledge acquisition system and system automatically integrates the knowledge to build a consistent knowledge base. The knowledge base of PulsExpert contains up-to-date knowledge about 19 major diseases of pulses appearing right from seedling to maturity. The system provides user-friendly interface to farmers and asks the textual as well as pictorial questions. The order of questions to be asked is decided dynamically depending upon the answers of the farmer. On the basis of answers, PulsExpert diagnosis the pulse crop diseases along with its confidence factor and suggests most appropriate control measures which are composed of cultural practices as well as chemical controls. PulsExpert was evaluated by a team of field farmers and State Agriculture Officers and it was considered good with an average rank of 2.745 by farmers and 2.075 by State Agriculture Officers with a statistic mode ranking 3 in both the cases. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Datta S.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Kaashyap M.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Kumar S.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research
Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

With 2 figures and 3 tablesPaucity of polymorphic molecular markers in pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., has been a major limiting factor in application of molecular tools for its genetic improvement. As the development of microsatellite markers requires considerable time, expertise and research infrastructure, transfer of markers from other related genera offers an alternative option to increase the number of available markers. Since microsatellite sequences are conserved across Fabaceae taxa, transferability of 100 chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)-specific SSR markers was studied in two genotypes each of five wild and one cultivated species of Cajanus. The results revealed a significant transferability (46%) of chickpea microsatellites to Cajanus. In cultivated pigeonpea, chickpea-specific SSRs showed 38-39% transferability, while among wild Cajanus species, it ranged from 26% in Cajanus sericeus ICP 15760 to 40% in C. sericeus ICP 15761. The transferable primers exhibited extensive polymorphism in Cajanus with an average number of 4.11 alleles per marker. High level of polymorphism exhibited by chickpea microsatellite markers in the present study indicates their usefulness in diversity analysis, mapping agronomically important traits and marker-assisted breeding in pigeonpea. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Singh D.,Central Agricultural University | Choudhary A.K.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research
Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

An understanding of the inheritance of aluminum (Al) tolerance is important to breed for Al tolerant genotypes of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Therefore, an investigation was undertaken to infer genes governing Al tolerance in pea. To study the inheritance of Al tolerance, tolerant lines 'Azad P1' and 'PC-55-11-1-2' were crossed with sensitive lines 'PC-493-5' and 'PSM-2'. Parental, F 1, F 2 and backcross generations were grown in a nutrient solution containing 30 ppm of Al for haematoxylin staining and root regrowth and classified for tolerance by staining of root tips and root regrowth. The F 1 hybrids responded similarly to the tolerant parents indicating dominance of Al tolerance over sensitivity. Segregation for tolerance vs. sensitivity in F 2 fitted well with the 3-1 ratio expected for a single gene. The backcrosses involving dominant parents showed the dominant reaction on all the plants while those involving susceptible parents segregated into one tolerant to one sensitive ratio. Experimental results showed that Al tolerance is a monogenic dominant trait that can be easily transferred to desirable lines through backcross breeding programme. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Kumar J.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Choudhary A.K.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Solanki R.K.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Pratap A.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research
Plant Breeding | Year: 2011

Pulses are important sources of proteins in vegetarian diet. However, genetic improvement in production and productivity of pulse crops has been very slow owing to several constraints. The present view of researchers is that the effectiveness and efficiency of conventional breeding can be significantly improved by using molecular markers. Nowadays, molecular markers are routinely utilized worldwide in all major crops as a component of breeding. The pace of development of molecular markers and other genomic sources has been accelerated in chickpea, pigeon pea and some other pulses, and marker-trait associations have been established for a number of important agronomic traits. The efforts are underway to use high-throughput genotyping platforms besides developing more genomic resources in other pulses. So far, progress in the use of marker-assisted selection as a part of pulse breeding programmes has been very slow and limited to few pulse crops such as chickpea and common bean. In this article, we have reviewed the progress made, limitations encountered and future possibilities for the application of marker-assisted selection in the genetic improvement of pulse crops. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Agbagwa I.O.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research
Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2012

Current DNA extraction protocols, which require liquid nitrogen, lyophilization and considerable infrastructure in terms of instrumentation, often impede the application of biotechnological tools in less researched crops in laboratories in developing countries. We modified and optimized the existing CTAB method for plant genomic DNA extraction by avoiding liquid nitrogen usage and lyophilization. DNA was extracted directly from freshly harvested leaves ground in pre-heated CTAB buffer. Chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) and RNase treatments followed by single-purification step decontaminated the samples thereby paving way for selective extraction of DNA. High molecular weight DNA yield in the range of 328 to 4776 ng/μL with an average of 1459 ng/μL was obtained from 45 samples of cultivated and wild Cajanus species. With an absorbance ratio at 260 to 280 nm, a range of 1.66 to 2.20, and a mean of 1.85, very low levels of protein and polysaccharide contamination were recorded. Forty samples can be extracted daily at a cost between 1.8 and US$2.0 per plant sample. This modified method is suitable for most plants especially members of the Leguminosae. Apart from Cajanus, it has been extensively applied in DNA extraction from Cicer and Vigna species.

Choudhary A.K.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2010

Pigeonpea is the second important grain legume of India. In north-east plains, long-duration pigeonpea is grown almost exclusiely as an intercrop with other tall cereals. Development of wilt-resistant lines is the major objective to ensure stability in pigeonpea production and productivity. One genotype 'IPA 204' of long-duration pigeonpea was developed following pedigree method. This high-yielding line showed resistant to moderately resistant wilt reaction at 24 locations spread across arious pigeonpea-growing regions of the country. Therefore. it could be considered resistant to all the reported 5 strains of F. udurn. Keeping its stability of resistance for the last 4 years, it was recommended as the potential donor for wilt resistance in the Annual Group Meet on Pigeonpea (2009).

Vasishtha H.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Srivastava R.P.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Processing is an important and essential component to enhance the digestibility of essential nutrients of grains. Dietary fibres play an important role in bringing health advantages in chickpea and help in lowering plasma cholesterol. Changes during soaking and soaking followed by cooking on cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin contents of four genotypes of desi type (KWR 108, JG 74, DCP 92-3 and BG 256), four genotypes of kabuli types (KAK 2, JKG 1, BG 1053, and L 550) and two genotypes of green seed type (BGD 112 and Sadabahar) of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum, L.) was studied. Cellulose, lignin and pectin increased during soaking and cooking, whereas hemicellulose increased during soaking but decreased drastically during cooking. Cellulose recorded an overall increase of 40% during cooking, followed by 15.7% and 15.2% increase in pectin and lignin, respectively during cooking of chickpea grain. Hemicellulose, on the contrary showed a decrease of 26.8% during cooking. © 2011 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Bohra A.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Jha U.C.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Kishor P.B.K.,Osmania University | Pandey S.,Arid forest Research Institute | Singh N.P.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2014

Pulses are multipurpose crops for providing income, employment and food security in the underprivileged regions, notably the FAO-defined low-income food-deficit countries. Owing to their intrinsic ability to endure environmental adversities and the least input/management requirements, these crops remain central to subsistence farming. Given their pivotal role in rain-fed agriculture, substantial research has been invested to boost the productivity of these pulse crops. To this end, genomic tools and technologies have appeared as the compelling supplement to the conventional breeding. However, the progress in minor pulse crops including dry beans (Vigna spp.), lupins, lablab, lathyrus and vetches has remained unsatisfactory, hence these crops are often labeled as low profile or lesser researched. Nevertheless, recent scientific and technological breakthroughs particularly the next generation sequencing (NGS) are radically transforming the scenario of genomics and molecular breeding in these minor crops. NGS techniques have allowed de novo assembly of whole genomes in these orphan crops. Moreover, the availability of a reference genome sequence would promote re-sequencing of diverse genotypes to unlock allelic diversity at a genome-wide scale. In parallel, NGS has offered high-resolution genetic maps or more precisely, a robust genetic framework to implement whole-genome strategies for crop improvement. As has already been demonstrated in lupin, sequencing-based genotyping of the representative sample provided access to a number of functionally-relevant markers that could be deployed straight away in crop breeding programs. This article attempts to outline the recent progress made in genomics of these lesser explored pulse crops, and examines the prospects of genomics assisted integrated breeding to enhance and stabilize crop yields. © 2014 Elsevier Inc..

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