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Sharma M.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Kiran Babu T.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Gaur P.M.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Ghosh R.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | And 9 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

Chickpea wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is one of the most important constraints to chickpea production worldwide and best managed through host plant resistance. The aim of this work was to find new sources of resistance to wilt disease and validate their stability across different environments. One-hundred and twenty three lines with wilt incidence <10% were selected from preliminary evaluation of 948 lines including germplasm and breeding lines from the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) for wilt resistance in the sick plot during 2003/2004 crop season at ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. Sixty lines were selected for second round of evaluation (2005/2006) and from those 57 lines were selected for third round of evaluation (2006/2007). In order to validate resistance stability, a Chickpea Wilt Nursery was constituted with 27 lines (7 germplasm accessions, 19 breeding lines and a highly susceptible check) and further tested in multi-location experiment for wilt resistance at 9 locations in India for three years (2007/2008-2009/2010). Variability in wilt incidence due to genetic differences among the genotypes, among the environments, and that due to genotype × environment interaction was highly significant (P<0.001). Although complete resistance across the locations was not found, the genotype and genotype × environment (GGE) biplot analyses allowed the selection of three breeding lines (ICCV 05527, ICCV 05528 and ICCV 96818) and one germplasm accession (ICC 11322) with moderate level of disease resistance and stable performance across the environments. Genotype × environment (G × E) interaction contributed 36.7% of total variation of the multi-environment evaluation, revealing instability of the phenotypic expression across environments. The identified resistant sources should be useful to chickpea disease resistance breeding programs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Saxena J.,BT Kumaon Institute of Technology | Choudhary S.,Banasthali University | Pareek S.,Banasthali University | Choudhary A.K.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Iquebal M.A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2015

Compost is beneficial for agriculture fields in many ways such as soil conditioner, fertilizer, and natural pesticide and above all it helps to manage organic wastes and adds vital humic acids to soil. Four indigenous composts prepared from readily available organic wastes viz. vermicompost, banana, NADEP, and Calotropis were used in the present investigation for growth and disease suppression in mung beans. The composts were amended with Trichoderma viride in the concentration of 0.1 and 0.2% to determine their influence on length and weight of roots and shoots, disease incidence, soil moisture, and soil microflora in plants. The best results were observed in the treatment with T. viride (0.2%), followed by T. viride (0.1%) in vermicompost, while the treatment T. viride (0.1%) with Calotropis compost showed little growth and suppression of disease. All composts enhanced the soil moisture content and microbial populations in amended soil resulting in the reduction of disease incidence. Among T. viride enriched composts, the counts of fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes were higher in the vermicompost and banana compost-amended soils. Thus, preparing these composts from readily available organic wastes and amending soil with T. viride enriched composts hold a great promise for improving soil fertility and suppressing the soil-borne plant pathogens for sustainable agriculture. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Majumdar B.,ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hilly Region | Majumdar B.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres | Venkatesh M.S.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Saha R.,Indian Institute of Science
Agrochimica | Year: 2011

Phosphorus adsorption behaviour of five land use systems viz. Livestock based land-use (FSl), Forestry (FS2), Agriculture (FS3), Agri-horti- silvipastoral (FS4) and Natural fallow (FS5) regularly receiving/not receiving fertilizer P and manure was studied after 17 years of their establishment on an acid Alfisol on hilly slopes. The soils of various land-use systems varied widely in their P sorption behaviour with variable P built up in different systems. The P sorption was higher in the soils of natural fallow land-use system and progressively decreased with the application of manures/P + manures in livestock, agri-horti-silvipastoral and agriculture land-use. Phosphate sorption data fitted well to the classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. Different land-use systems had no effect on adsorption maxima (b) while, bonding energy (k), maximum phosphate buffering capacity (MPBC) and standard P requirement (SPR) were highest for natural fallow followed by forestry land use. In contrast, livestock, agri-horti-silvipastoral and agriculture land-use recorded lower values of these P adsorption parameters indicating higher P availability in these systems. The P fractionation before and after equilibrium with added P showed a wide variation in the build up of various forms of P in different land-use systems which reflected in the variable adsorption of P in these land-use systems under study. Source

Praharaj C.S.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Lal S.S.,Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Journal | Year: 2010

Dry matter partitioning in six potato genotypes with diverse growth habit, duration and yield potential was estimated from the trials undertaken in two distinct sowing windows during three successive years at Patna. Total dry weight was recorded at 10 days intervals starting from 30 days after planting (DAP ) up to 90 DAP and empirical relations were developed between dry matter partitioning coefficient versus accumulated P-Days. The dry matter partitioning coefficient is calculated as dry weight of plant part over total dry weight. The mean relationships over the different varieties revealed good correspondence between observed and estimated values of proportion of dry matter accumulation in the different plant parts with P-Days. These were: Y (Leaf) = - 0.0869 + 114.53X, R2 = 0.87, n = 168; Y (Stem) = - 0.0142 + 57.05X, R 2 = 0.82, n = 168; Y (Tuber) = 1.1243 - 198.19X, R2 = 0.85, n = 168; where Y is dry matter partitioning coefficient and X is inverse of accumulated P-days. P-days were calculated with minimum, optimum and maximum threshold of 7°C, 21°C and 30°C, respectively. These relations between P-days and dry matter partitioning were tested against recorded data of the third year and the results showed close fit between observed and estimated values indicating robustness of the equations. Source

Singh D.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Singh D.,Campus Management | Singh S.K.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Vennila S.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Vennila S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Legume Research | Year: 2015

Interrelation studies on insect-host i.e., Gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and its parasitoids Campoletis chlorideae (Uchida) with weather variables were carried out. Maximum parasitization (90%) of H. armigera by C. chlorideae was recorded on early instars larvae in chilly January, which diminished initial pest population build up. Maximum prevalence of H. armigera larvae was noticed at podding stage of chickpea with abrupt temperature rise by 5°C in February. Temperature (Max & Min) exhibited a significant positive role on the larval population of the pest. Explicitly, relative humidity did not play any precise function in the multiplication and parasitization of H. armigera. The sunshine (hrs.) revealed significant positive association with pest, and longer sunshine hours marred the parasitization. Rainfall (mm/week) apparently did not expose any consistence role either with pest population or parasitoids. This discovered weather parameters exceedingly associated with population build up; and early stage larval parasitization of H. armigera by C. chlorideae to eventual mortality up to 90 per cent. The findings definitely suggest regular monitoring of chickpea crop to ascertain pest regulating factors for the strategic management of H. armigera. © 2015, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All Rights Reserved. Source

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