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Sharma M.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Kiran Babu T.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Gaur P.M.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Ghosh R.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | And 9 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

Chickpea wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is one of the most important constraints to chickpea production worldwide and best managed through host plant resistance. The aim of this work was to find new sources of resistance to wilt disease and validate their stability across different environments. One-hundred and twenty three lines with wilt incidence <10% were selected from preliminary evaluation of 948 lines including germplasm and breeding lines from the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) for wilt resistance in the sick plot during 2003/2004 crop season at ICRISAT, Patancheru, India. Sixty lines were selected for second round of evaluation (2005/2006) and from those 57 lines were selected for third round of evaluation (2006/2007). In order to validate resistance stability, a Chickpea Wilt Nursery was constituted with 27 lines (7 germplasm accessions, 19 breeding lines and a highly susceptible check) and further tested in multi-location experiment for wilt resistance at 9 locations in India for three years (2007/2008-2009/2010). Variability in wilt incidence due to genetic differences among the genotypes, among the environments, and that due to genotype × environment interaction was highly significant (P<0.001). Although complete resistance across the locations was not found, the genotype and genotype × environment (GGE) biplot analyses allowed the selection of three breeding lines (ICCV 05527, ICCV 05528 and ICCV 96818) and one germplasm accession (ICC 11322) with moderate level of disease resistance and stable performance across the environments. Genotype × environment (G × E) interaction contributed 36.7% of total variation of the multi-environment evaluation, revealing instability of the phenotypic expression across environments. The identified resistant sources should be useful to chickpea disease resistance breeding programs. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Bandyopadhyay P.K.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Singh K.C.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Mondal K.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | Nath R.,Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya | And 4 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2016

Opportunity to utilize carry-over residual soil moisture to produce lentil crop in rice-fallows was one of the basic and strategic research objectives of the present experiment. Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik, variety B-77) was broadcasted upon two rice habits viz. short-duration (SD, 110 days) and long-duration (LD, 140 days) in the end of October and first fortnight of November during 2011–2012, 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 seasons, in a clay loam Inceptisol of the Gangetic alluvium of eastern India. Two stubbles heights, viz. short (10 cm) and long (20 cm) were kept as standing residues at the time of harvesting of rice. Late sown lentil with short stubble residues faced surface soil drying earlier than early sown lentil or late sown lentil with tall stubble residues. Tall stubble height contributes only 1–4% higher soil water during vegetative to flowering stages than short stubble height. Stress was experienced when soil moisture content in the root-zone reached <22% in this soil and such stress decreased the leaf relative water content (RWC). Retaining tall rice stubbles on the soil surface decreased daytime soil temperature by 9.4–14.6 °C and modified the crop coefficient (Kc) by increasing transpiration and reducing evaporation, thereby maintaining higher leaf area index (LAI). The Kc values for the initial, development, mid and late season stages of lentil under relay cropping were 0.48, 0.54, 0.82 and 0.48, respectively, with short and tall standing stubble heights. Root length density (RLD) values increased at a faster rate in 200–400 mm layer, especially in tall stubble than short. Soil moisture stress was negatively related (R2 = 0.66, P < 0.05) to RWC, however, RLD maintained an asymptotic relationship with RWC. Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of lentil amounted to 154.8 mm and the ETa in broadcasted upon SD rice was 14% higher than ETa in LD rice. Lentil in tall stubbles amounted to 150.6 mm ETa, which was 7% more than that in short stubbles. Yield of lentil broadcasted upon SD was 20% higher than 20 days delay with LD rice, and tall stubbles produced 18% more yield than short stubbles. The water productivity (WP) of lentil under SD rice was only 6% higher than lentil in LD rice; however, tall stubbles produced 11% higher WP than short standing stubbles. Keeping stubbles height of SD or LD rice may be an efficient way of using the existing land and water resources for mitigating soil moisture stress and maintaining grain yield and water productivity of lentil relayed with short- and long-duration rice habits. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Saxena J.,Bt Kumaon Institute Of Technology | Choudhary S.,Banasthali University | Pareek S.,Banasthali University | Choudhary A.K.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Iquebal M.A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Clean - Soil, Air, Water | Year: 2015

Compost is beneficial for agriculture fields in many ways such as soil conditioner, fertilizer, and natural pesticide and above all it helps to manage organic wastes and adds vital humic acids to soil. Four indigenous composts prepared from readily available organic wastes viz. vermicompost, banana, NADEP, and Calotropis were used in the present investigation for growth and disease suppression in mung beans. The composts were amended with Trichoderma viride in the concentration of 0.1 and 0.2% to determine their influence on length and weight of roots and shoots, disease incidence, soil moisture, and soil microflora in plants. The best results were observed in the treatment with T. viride (0.2%), followed by T. viride (0.1%) in vermicompost, while the treatment T. viride (0.1%) with Calotropis compost showed little growth and suppression of disease. All composts enhanced the soil moisture content and microbial populations in amended soil resulting in the reduction of disease incidence. Among T. viride enriched composts, the counts of fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes were higher in the vermicompost and banana compost-amended soils. Thus, preparing these composts from readily available organic wastes and amending soil with T. viride enriched composts hold a great promise for improving soil fertility and suppressing the soil-borne plant pathogens for sustainable agriculture. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Yadav A.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Suri V.K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Kumar A.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Choudhary A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Meena A.L.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2015

The present investigation was carried out at Palampur, India, during 2009–11 to enhance plant water relations and productivity in pea through arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in a Himalayan acidic Alfisol. The field experiment was replicated three times in a randomized block design comprising 14 treatments involving AMF, inorganic phosphorus (P), irrigation regimes, generalized recommended nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) dose and irrigations, and farmers’ practice in the region. The study revealed that treatments involving AMF inoculation along with inorganic P nutrition at varying irrigation regimes led to significantly greater relative leaf water content (2%), xylem water potential (12%), and water-use efficiency (10%), respectively, in comparison with non-AMF inoculated counterparts. Similarly, maximum increase in quality parameters such as total soluble solids (6%), ascorbic acid (6%), and crude protein content (3%) in pea was registered under AMF inoculation involving treatments. Further, AMF-inoculated treatments indicated an economy of about 25% in soil-test-based P dose without impairing crop productivity. © , Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Singh D.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Singh D.,Campus Management | Singh S.K.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Vennila S.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Vennila S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Legume Research | Year: 2015

Interrelation studies on insect-host i.e., Gram pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and its parasitoids Campoletis chlorideae (Uchida) with weather variables were carried out. Maximum parasitization (90%) of H. armigera by C. chlorideae was recorded on early instars larvae in chilly January, which diminished initial pest population build up. Maximum prevalence of H. armigera larvae was noticed at podding stage of chickpea with abrupt temperature rise by 5°C in February. Temperature (Max & Min) exhibited a significant positive role on the larval population of the pest. Explicitly, relative humidity did not play any precise function in the multiplication and parasitization of H. armigera. The sunshine (hrs.) revealed significant positive association with pest, and longer sunshine hours marred the parasitization. Rainfall (mm/week) apparently did not expose any consistence role either with pest population or parasitoids. This discovered weather parameters exceedingly associated with population build up; and early stage larval parasitization of H. armigera by C. chlorideae to eventual mortality up to 90 per cent. The findings definitely suggest regular monitoring of chickpea crop to ascertain pest regulating factors for the strategic management of H. armigera. © 2015, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All Rights Reserved.


Majumdar B.,ICAR Research Complex for North Eastern Hilly Region | Majumdar B.,Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres | Venkatesh M.S.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Saha R.,Indian Institute of Science
Agrochimica | Year: 2011

Phosphorus adsorption behaviour of five land use systems viz. Livestock based land-use (FSl), Forestry (FS2), Agriculture (FS3), Agri-horti- silvipastoral (FS4) and Natural fallow (FS5) regularly receiving/not receiving fertilizer P and manure was studied after 17 years of their establishment on an acid Alfisol on hilly slopes. The soils of various land-use systems varied widely in their P sorption behaviour with variable P built up in different systems. The P sorption was higher in the soils of natural fallow land-use system and progressively decreased with the application of manures/P + manures in livestock, agri-horti-silvipastoral and agriculture land-use. Phosphate sorption data fitted well to the classical Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation. Different land-use systems had no effect on adsorption maxima (b) while, bonding energy (k), maximum phosphate buffering capacity (MPBC) and standard P requirement (SPR) were highest for natural fallow followed by forestry land use. In contrast, livestock, agri-horti-silvipastoral and agriculture land-use recorded lower values of these P adsorption parameters indicating higher P availability in these systems. The P fractionation before and after equilibrium with added P showed a wide variation in the build up of various forms of P in different land-use systems which reflected in the variable adsorption of P in these land-use systems under study.


Praharaj C.S.,Indian Institute of Pulse Research | Lal S.S.,Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Journal | Year: 2010

Dry matter partitioning in six potato genotypes with diverse growth habit, duration and yield potential was estimated from the trials undertaken in two distinct sowing windows during three successive years at Patna. Total dry weight was recorded at 10 days intervals starting from 30 days after planting (DAP ) up to 90 DAP and empirical relations were developed between dry matter partitioning coefficient versus accumulated P-Days. The dry matter partitioning coefficient is calculated as dry weight of plant part over total dry weight. The mean relationships over the different varieties revealed good correspondence between observed and estimated values of proportion of dry matter accumulation in the different plant parts with P-Days. These were: Y (Leaf) = - 0.0869 + 114.53X, R2 = 0.87, n = 168; Y (Stem) = - 0.0142 + 57.05X, R 2 = 0.82, n = 168; Y (Tuber) = 1.1243 - 198.19X, R2 = 0.85, n = 168; where Y is dry matter partitioning coefficient and X is inverse of accumulated P-days. P-days were calculated with minimum, optimum and maximum threshold of 7°C, 21°C and 30°C, respectively. These relations between P-days and dry matter partitioning were tested against recorded data of the third year and the results showed close fit between observed and estimated values indicating robustness of the equations.

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