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Babu G.R.,Public Health Foundation of India | Babu G.R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Lakshmi S.B.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad | Thiyagarajan J.A.,Kings College London
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women globally and represents the second leading cause of cancer death among women (after lung cancer). India is going through epidemiologic transition. It is reported that the incidence of breast cancer is rising rapidly as a result of changes in reproductive risk factors, dietary habits and increasing life expectancy, acting in concert with genetic factors. Materials and Methods: In order to understand the existing epidemiological correlates of breast cancer in South India, a systematic review of evidence available on epidemiologic correlates of breast cancer addressing incidence, prevalence, and associated factors like age, reproductive factors, cultural and religious factors was performed with specific focus on screening procedures in southern India. Results: An increase in breast cancer incidence due to various modifiable risk factors was noted, especially in women over 40 years of age, with late stage of presentation, lack of awareness about screening, costs, fear and stigma associated with the disease serving as major barriers for early presentation. Conclusions: Educational strategies should be aimed at modifying the life style, early planning of pregnancy, promoting breast feeding and physical activity. It is very important to obtain reliable data for planning policies, decision-making and setting up the priorities. Source


Rao K.D.,Public Health Foundation of India | Ryan M.,University of Aberdeen | Shroff Z.,Harvard University | Vujicic M.,American Dental Association | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The scarcity of rural doctors has undermined the ability of health systems in low and middle-income countries like India to provide quality services to rural populations. This study examines job preferences of doctors and nurses to inform what works in terms of rural recruitment strategies. Job acceptance of different strategies was compared to identify policy options for increasing the availability of clinical providers in rural areas. In 2010 a Discrete Choice Experiment was conducted in India. The study sample included final year medical and nursing students, and in-service doctors and nurses serving at Primary Health Centers. Eight job attributes were identified and a D-efficient fractional factorial design was used to construct pairs of job choices. Respondent acceptance of job choices was analyzed using multi-level logistic regression. Location mattered; jobs in areas offering urban amenities had a high likelihood of being accepted. Higher salary had small effect on doctor, but large effect on nurse, acceptance of rural jobs. At five times current salary levels, 13% (31%) of medical students (doctors) were willing to accept rural jobs. At half this level, 61% (52%) of nursing students (nurses) accepted a rural job. The strategy of reserving seats for specialist training in exchange for rural service had a large effect on job acceptance among doctors, nurses and nursing students. For doctors and nurses, properly staffed and equipped health facilities, and housing had small effects on job acceptance. Rural upbringing was not associated with rural job acceptance. Incentivizing doctors for rural service is expensive. A broader strategy of substantial salary increases with improved living, working environment, and education incentives is necessary. For both doctors and nurses, the usual strategies of moderate salary increases, good facility infrastructure, and housing will not be effective. Non-physician clinicians like nurse-practitioners offer an affordable alternative for delivering rural health care. © 2013 Rao et al. Source


Allagh K.P.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad | Shamanna B.R.,University of Hyderabad | Murthy G.V.S.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad | Ness A.R.,University of Bristol | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts. Methods: A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India). Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement. Results: The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9). The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5). Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India. © 2015 Allagh et al. Source


Kamalakannan S.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Gudlavalleti Venkata M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Prost A.,University College London | Natarajan S.,Ts Srinivasan Institute Of Neurological Science | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation | Year: 2016

Objective: To assess the rehabilitation needs of stroke survivors in Chennai, India, after discharge from the hospital. Design: Mixed-methods research design. Setting: Home-based. Participants: Stroke survivors (n=50; mean age ± SD, 58.9±10.5y) and primary caregivers of these stroke survivors (n=50; mean age ± SD, 43.1±11.8y) took part in the quantitative survey. A subsample of stroke survivors (n=12), primary caregivers (n=10), and health care professionals (n=8) took part in the qualitative in-depth interviews. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Rehabilitation needs after hospital discharge. Results: About 82% of the needs expressed by stroke survivors and 92% of the needs expressed by caregivers indicated that they had a substantial need for information. The proportion of financial needs reported by the stroke survivors and the caregivers was 70% and 75%, respectively. The qualitative data revealed major gaps in access to stroke rehabilitation services. Service providers identified availability and affordability of services as key problems. Stroke survivors and their caregivers identified lack of information about stroke as major barriers to accessibility of stroke rehabilitation services. Caregivers expressed a tremendous need for support to manage family dynamics. Conclusions: The study highlights a considerable unmet need for poststroke rehabilitation services. Given the lack of rehabilitation resources in India, developing an accessible, innovative, patient-centered, culturally sensitive rehabilitation intervention is of public health importance. It is crucial for low- and middle-income countries like India to develop technology-driven stroke rehabilitation strategies to meet the growing rehabilitation needs of stroke survivors. © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Source


Allagh K.P.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad | Shamanna B.R.,University of Hyderabad | Murthy G.V.S.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad | Ness A.R.,University of Bristol | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts. Methods A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India). Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement. Results The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9). The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5). Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn. Conclusion The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India. © 2015 Allagh et al. Source

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