Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad

Bhubaneshwar, India

Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad

Bhubaneshwar, India

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Babu G.R.,Public Health Foundation of India | Babu G.R.,University of California at Los Angeles | Lakshmi S.B.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad | Thiyagarajan J.A.,King's College London
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2013

Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women globally and represents the second leading cause of cancer death among women (after lung cancer). India is going through epidemiologic transition. It is reported that the incidence of breast cancer is rising rapidly as a result of changes in reproductive risk factors, dietary habits and increasing life expectancy, acting in concert with genetic factors. Materials and Methods: In order to understand the existing epidemiological correlates of breast cancer in South India, a systematic review of evidence available on epidemiologic correlates of breast cancer addressing incidence, prevalence, and associated factors like age, reproductive factors, cultural and religious factors was performed with specific focus on screening procedures in southern India. Results: An increase in breast cancer incidence due to various modifiable risk factors was noted, especially in women over 40 years of age, with late stage of presentation, lack of awareness about screening, costs, fear and stigma associated with the disease serving as major barriers for early presentation. Conclusions: Educational strategies should be aimed at modifying the life style, early planning of pregnancy, promoting breast feeding and physical activity. It is very important to obtain reliable data for planning policies, decision-making and setting up the priorities.


PubMed | University of New South Wales, University of Nottingham, University of Glasgow, Christian Medical College and 4 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of stroke : official journal of the International Stroke Society | Year: 2015

The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial in India of a family-led, trained caregiver-delivered, home-based rehabilitation intervention vs. routine care.A prospective, randomized (within seven-days of hospital admission), blinded outcome assessor, controlled trial of structured home-based rehabilitation delivered by trained and protocol-guided family caregivers (intervention) vs. routine care alone (control) was conducted in patients with residual disability. Key feasibility measures were recruitment, acceptance and adherence to assessment procedures, and follow-up of participants over six-months. CTRI/2014/10/005133.A total of 104 patients from the stroke unit at Christian Medical College, Ludhiana were recruited over nine-months. Recruitment was feasible and accepted by patients and their carers. Important observations were made regarding potential unblinding of the participants, contamination of therapy between the randomized groups, organization of home visits, and resources required for a multicenter study.The pilot study established the feasibility of conducting a large-scale study of family-led, trained caregiver-delivered, home-based stroke rehabilitation in a low resource setting. The main phase of the trial ATTEND is currently underway in over 10 centers in India.


Allagh K.P.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad | Shamanna B.R.,University of Hyderabad | Murthy G.V.S.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad | Ness A.R.,University of Bristol | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts. Methods A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India). Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement. Results The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9). The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5). Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn. Conclusion The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India. © 2015 Allagh et al.


Singh S.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad | Doyle P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Campbell O.M.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Mathew M.,Medical Independent Consultant | Murthy G.V.S.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Emergency obstetric care (EmOC) within primary health care systems requires a linked referral system to be effective in reducing maternal death. This systematic review aimed to summarize evidence on the proportion of referrals between institutions during pregnancy and delivery, and the factors affecting referrals, in India. We searched 6 electronic databases, reviewed four regional databases and repositories, and relevant program reports from India published between 1994 and 2013. All types of study or reports (except editorials, comments and letters) which reported on institution-referrals (out-referral or in-referral) for obstetric care were included. Results were synthesized on the proportion and the reasons for referral, and factors affecting referrals. Of the 11,346 articles identified by the search, we included 232 articles in the full text review and extracted data from 16 studies that met our inclusion criteria Of the 16, one was RCT, seven intervention cohort (without controls), six cross-sectional, and three qualitative studies. Bias and quality of studies were reported. Between 25% and 52% of all pregnancies were referred from Sub-centres for antenatal high-risk, 14% to 36% from nurse run delivery or basic EmOC centres for complications or emergencies, and 2 to 7% were referred from doctor run basic EmOC centres for specialist care at comprehensive EmOC centres. Problems identified with referrals from peripheral health centres included low skills and confidence of staff, reluctance to induce labour, confusion over the clinical criteria for referral, non-uniform standards of care at referral institutions, a tendency to by-pass middle level institutions, a lack of referral communication and supervision, and poor compliance. The high proportion of referrals from peripheral health centers reflects the lack of appropriate clinical guidelines, processes, and skills for obstetric care and referral in India. This, combined with inadequate referral communication and low compliance, is likely to contribute to gaps and delays in the provision of emergency obstetric care. © 2016 Singh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Singh S.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad | Doyle P.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Campbell O.M.R.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Rao G.V.R.,GVK EMRI | And 2 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2016

Background: The transport of pregnant women to an appropriate health facility plays a pivotal role in preventing maternal deaths. In India, state-run call-centre based ambulance systems ('108' and '102'), along with district-level Janani Express and local community-based innovations, provide transport services for pregnant women. We studied the role of '108' ambulance services in transporting pregnant women routinely and obstetric emergencies in India. Methods: This study was an analysis of '108' ambulance call-centre data from six states for the year 2013-14. We estimated the number of expected pregnancies and obstetric complications for each state and calculated the proportions of these transported using '108'. The characteristics of the pregnant women transported, their obstetric complications, and the distance and travel-time for journeys made, are described for each state. Results: The estimated proportion of pregnant women transported by '108' ambulance services ranged from 9.0 % in Chhattisgarh to 20.5 % in Himachal Pradesh. The '108' service transported an estimated 12.7 % of obstetric emergencies in Himachal Pradesh, 7.2 % in Gujarat and less than 3.5 % in other states. Women who used the service were more likely to be from rural backgrounds and from lower socio-economic strata of the population. Across states, the ambulance journeys traversed less than 10-11 km to reach 50 % of obstetric emergencies and less than 10-21 km to reach hospitals from the pick-up site. The overall time from the call to reaching the hospital was less than 2 h for 89 % to 98 % of obstetric emergencies in 5 states, although this percentage was 61 % in Himachal Pradesh. Inter-facility transfers ranged between 2.4 % -11.3 % of all '108' transports. Conclusion: A small proportion of pregnant women and obstetric emergencies made use of '108' services. Community-based studies are required to study knowledge and preferences, and to assess the potential for increasing or rationalising the use of '108' services. © 2016 The Author(s).


PubMed | Indian Institute of Public Health Delhi, Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad, University of Hyderabad, University of Bristol and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

In the last two decades, India has witnessed a substantial decrease in infant mortality attributed to infectious disease and malnutrition. However, the mortality attributed to birth defects remains constant. Studies on the prevalence of birth defects such as neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India have reported inconsistent results. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of observational studies to document the birth prevalence of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts.A comprehensive literature search for observational studies was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using key MeSH terms (neural tube defects OR cleft lip OR cleft palate AND Prevalence AND India). Two reviewers independently reviewed the retrieved studies, and studies satisfying the eligibility were included. The quality of included studies was assessed using selected criteria from STROBE statement.The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of neural tube defects in India is 4.5 per 1000 total births (95% CI 4.2 to 4.9). The overall pooled birth prevalence (random effect) of orofacial clefts is 1.3 per 1000 total births (95% CI 1.1 to 1.5). Subgroup analyses were performed by region, time period, consanguinity, and gender of newborn.The overall prevalence of neural tube defects from India is high compared to other regions of the world, while that of orofacial clefts is similar to other countries. The majority of studies included in the review were hospital based. The quality of these studies ranged from low to moderate. Further well-designed, high quality community-based observational studies are needed to accurately estimate the burden of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts in India.


PubMed | Indian Institute of Public Health Delhi, Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology | Year: 2015

An acquired brain injury (ABI) is an injury to the brain, which is not hereditary, congenital, degenerative, or induced by birth trauma. In India, rapid urbanization, economic growth and changes in lifestyle have led to a tremendous increase in the incidence of ABI, so much so that it is being referred to as a silent epidemic. Unlike developed countries, there is no well-established system for collecting and managing information on various diseases in India. Thus it is a daunting task to obtain reliable information about acquired brain injury. In the course of conducting a systematic review on the epidemiology of ABI in India, we recognized several challenges which hampered our effort. Inadequate case definition, lack of centralized reporting mechanisms, lack of population based studies, absence of standardized survey protocols and inadequate mortality statistics are some of the major obstacles. Following a standard case definition, linking multiple hospital-based registries, initiating a state or nationwide population-based registry, conducting population-based studies that are methodologically robust and introducing centralized, standard reporting mechanisms for ABI, are some of the strategies that could help facilitate a thorough investigation into the epidemiology and understanding of ABI. This may help improve policies on prevention and management of acquired brain injury in India.


Karthik K.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad | Munuswamy S.,Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad
Studies in Health Technology and Informatics | Year: 2016

This proposed study will be conducted in Telangana and Tamil Nadu states in India. Mapping of Health care Professionals by a web-based Delphi technique followed by Focus Group Discussion and Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude, Practise and Adoption among Health Care Professionals for informatics/computerised technology systems by using structured questionnaire for knowledge and practice and for Attitudes toward Computers in Healthcare (P.A.T.C.H.) Scale will be used to collect the data. This study results will create evidence on present and relevant informatics/computerized technology systems needs and help the research team to develop informatics competencies list and design an online or offline skill up gradation programs for health professionals in India according to their diverse roles in the health care system. The researcher team believes these results will have National relevance to the current focus areas of Government of India and to strengthen the Health Informatics Program offered in IIPH, Hyderabad. © 2016 IMIA and IOS Press.


PubMed | Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad
Type: | Journal: Studies in health technology and informatics | Year: 2016

This proposed study will be conducted in Telangana and Tamil Nadu states in India. Mapping of Health care Professionals by a web-based Delphi technique followed by Focus Group Discussion and Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude, Practise and Adoption among Health Care Professionals for informatics/computerised technology systems by using structured questionnaire for knowledge and practice and for Attitudes toward Computers in Healthcare (P.A.T.C.H.) Scale will be used to collect the data. This study results will create evidence on present and relevant informatics/computerized technology systems needs and help the research team to develop informatics competencies list and design an online or offline skill up gradation programs for health professionals in India according to their diverse roles in the health care system. The researcher team believes these results will have National relevance to the current focus areas of Government of India and to strengthen the Health Informatics Program offered in IIPH, Hyderabad.


PubMed | University Institute of Health Sciences, Indian Institute of Public Health Hyderabad, University of Illinois at Chicago, Public Health Foundation of India and Harvard University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2013

The scarcity of rural doctors has undermined the ability of health systems in low and middle-income countries like India to provide quality services to rural populations. This study examines job preferences of doctors and nurses to inform what works in terms of rural recruitment strategies. Job acceptance of different strategies was compared to identify policy options for increasing the availability of clinical providers in rural areas. In 2010 a Discrete Choice Experiment was conducted in India. The study sample included final year medical and nursing students, and in-service doctors and nurses serving at Primary Health Centers. Eight job attributes were identified and a D-efficient fractional factorial design was used to construct pairs of job choices. Respondent acceptance of job choices was analyzed using multi-level logistic regression. Location mattered; jobs in areas offering urban amenities had a high likelihood of being accepted. Higher salary had small effect on doctor, but large effect on nurse, acceptance of rural jobs. At five times current salary levels, 13% (31%) of medical students (doctors) were willing to accept rural jobs. At half this level, 61% (52%) of nursing students (nurses) accepted a rural job. The strategy of reserving seats for specialist training in exchange for rural service had a large effect on job acceptance among doctors, nurses and nursing students. For doctors and nurses, properly staffed and equipped health facilities, and housing had small effects on job acceptance. Rural upbringing was not associated with rural job acceptance. Incentivizing doctors for rural service is expensive. A broader strategy of substantial salary increases with improved living, working environment, and education incentives is necessary. For both doctors and nurses, the usual strategies of moderate salary increases, good facility infrastructure, and housing will not be effective. Non-physician clinicians like nurse-practitioners offer an affordable alternative for delivering rural health care.

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