The Indian Institute of Petroleum , established in 1960, is one of the constituent laboratories of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research , dedicated to R&D in the hydrocarbon sector.The Director General of CSIR based in Delhi, Samir K. Brahmachari, is the head of institute followed by Dr. M.O. Garg, who has been the Director of the institute since 2003.Spread over a campus of 257-acre , it is situated in Dehradun, the capital of Uttarakhand state, on National Highway 72 . Established through an act of parliament in the year 1959, it started in New Delhi in 1960 and finally in Dehradun since 1963. It sought organisational help from Institut français du pétrole , France, a petroleum research organisation, under UNESCO programme during 1960 to 1964. An ISO 9001 certified institute, IIP develops processes and products for petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, training of personnel in oil and petrochemical industries, and assisting in formulation of standards for petroleum products. The institute acquired the ISO 9001 certification in 1998.About 132 of its research staff are R&D scientists supported by 208 technical personnel. It is equipped with R&D facilities including pilot plants. The annual budget of the institute is around 25 crores. The institute is recognized by over 14 universities to conduct research leading to Doctorate degree. Wikipedia.
Singh J.,University of Southampton |
Singh J.,Indian Institute of Petroleum |
Gu S.,University of Southampton
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010
Microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in the present day energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels. The available literature on various aspects of microalgae, e.g. its cultivation, life cycle assessment, and conceptualization of an algal biorefinery, has been scanned and a critical analysis has been presented. A critical evaluation of the available information suggests that the economic viability of the process in terms of minimizing the operational and maintenance cost along with maximization of oil-rich microalgae production is the key factor, for successful commercialization of microalgae-based fuels. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anand M.,Indian Institute of Petroleum |
Sinha A.K.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012
Kinetic studies and product profiling was done to understand the anomalous cracking of jathropha oil triglycerides in the presence of sulfided Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst. At temperatures between 320 and 340 °C, only deoxygenation and oligomerization reactions took place whereas at temperatures above 340 °C, internal conversions between the products and direct conversion to lighter and middle distillates were favored High pressures (80 bar) and H2/feed ratios (>1500) were necessary to minimize oligomerization of the products and to increase the lifespan of the catalyst. Lumped kinetic models were validated with experimental results. Activation energies for the formation of lighter (83 kJ/mol) and middle fractions (126 kJ/mol) were higher than those for the heavy (47 kJ/mol) and deoxygenated (47 kJ/mol) products. Jatropha oil triglycerides hydroconversion pathways were dependent on temperature and the triglycerides could be hydrocracked to lower range hydrocarbons (C5-C14) by increasing the reaction temperatures.
Nagendramma P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Lubrication Science | Year: 2011
Attention has been paid to biodegradable lubricating oils in the field of lubricant application because of environmental pollution control measures. In Europe and in some part of Asia, the use of environmentally acceptable lubricant is supported by environmental labels. Synthetic and vegetable oil-based esters offer the best choice in formulating environment-friendly lubricants. Pentaerythritol tetraoleate ester has been synthesised using polyol such as pentaerythritol and oleic acid with indigenous ion exchange resin (Indion-130) catalyst. The product was characterised for its physicochemical properties and was evaluated for lubrication performance. This was then compared with extreme pressure type of industrial gear oil VG-68 (IS 8406:1993). The product was found to have good potential for use as a base stock for formulation as extreme pressure type of industrial gear oil VG-68 (IS 8406:1993). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Viswanadham N.,Indian Institute of Petroleum |
Saxena S.K.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Fuel | Year: 2013
Various resin and zeolite based catalysts are prepared, characterized and evaluated for their catalytic performance towards the etherification of glycerol with tertiary butyl alcohol. Resin based catalysts exhibited higher glycerol conversions and ether selectivities at relatively lower reaction temperature (75 °C) than the zeolite based catalysts (90° to 110 °C) but the zeolite based catalysts performed better in terms of stability in activity to produce high amounts of di-tertiary butyl (DTBG) and tri-tertiary butyl ether (TTBG) of glycerol (oxygenate stock). Though acidity is important for the etherification reaction, the zeolites exhibiting better porosity rather than acidity could yield higher oxygenate. The presence of inter-crystalline meso-pores in N-BEA further improved the oxygenate production and time-on-stream activity of the catalyst. At optimized catalyst parameters and reaction conditions, Nano-beta (N-BEA) zeolite catalyst exhibited above 95% conversion of glycerol with more than 45% and 54% selectivities to DTBG and TTBG, which are potential blending stocks for diesel. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nagendramma P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum |
Kaul S.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012
Synthetic and vegetable oil based esters offer the best choice in formulating environment friendly lubricants. In the present review an attempt has been made to highlight some recent developments in the area of biodegradable synthetic ester base stocks for formulation of new generation lubricants including the efforts made so far at the author's laboratory in this direction. The developed products find applications in automotive transmission fluids, metal working fluids, cold rolling oils, fire resistant hydraulic fluids, industrial gear oils, neat cutting oils and automotive gear lubricants either alone or in formulations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mungse H.P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum |
Khatri O.P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2014
Graphene, a lamellar structured material, easily shears at the contact interfaces and exhibits excellent mechanical strength and conductivity, which promises its potential for tribological applications. However, the dispersion of graphene in lube media is a big challenge. Herein, we developed a chemical approach for selective inclusion of long alkyl chains on the edges and defects sites of reduced graphene oxide sheets through the amide linkage, which facilitates their stable dispersion in the lube oil. Chemical and structural features of site-selective chemically functionalized reduced graphene oxide are monitored by FTIR, XPS, XRD, TG-DTA, FESEM, and HRTEM. Tribological test results showed that the chemically functionalized reduced graphene oxide, as an additive to 10W-40 engine oil, significantly reduced both the friction and the wear of steel balls. The stable dispersion of chemically functionalized reduced graphene oxide provides low resistance in a sheared contact owing to weak van der Waals interaction between their lamellas, thus significantly reducing both the friction and the wear. © 2014 American Chemical Society.
Gusain R.,Indian Institute of Petroleum |
Khatri O.P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013
Copper oxide nanorods (CuONR1) having a diameter of about 20-30 nm and a length of about 30-70 nm were prepared by simple chemical processing of copper salt. CuONR1 were morphologically reshaped, by sonication with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and tetrabutylammonium acetate ionic liquids, to CuONR2 and CuONR3, respectively. Both CuONR2 and CuONR3, with a diameter of about 8-18 nm and a length of about 60-200 nm, exhibit high aspect ratios (length-to-breadth) compared to CuONR1. The XRD pattern reveals the monoclinic crystalline structure of CuONR1, which remains unchanged during their ultrasound treatment with ionic liquids. Dispersion stability and aspect ratio of CuO nanorods are found to play an important role in monitoring the lubrication characteristics. The results show that CuONR2 and CuONR3, stabilized by ionic liquids, exhibit excellent friction-reduction (15-43%) and improved anti-wear properties (26-43%) compared to the PEG 200 and 10W-40 engine oil. Lubricity enhancement is attributed to the synergistic effect of uninterrupted supplies of CuO nanorods under the contact surfaces and their rolling effect mechanism, which eventually leads to energy saving and prevents material loss. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Choudhary S.,Indian Institute of Petroleum |
Mungse H.P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum |
Khatri O.P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012
We report on the preparation of alkylated graphenes on a large scale followed by their dispersion in organic solvents. The alkylated graphenes with variable alkyl chain lengths (Cn = 8, 12, 18) are prepared by coupling of alkylamine with carboxylic groups of graphene oxide (GrO). The FTIR, UV-Visible, and TGA results reveal that, during alkylation, the oxygen functionalities of GrO are reduced significantly and the average size of the sp2 carbon domain increased, which is further supported by Raman characteristics. It is observed that the dispersibility of alkylated graphene in hydrocarbon solvents increases on increasing the chain length of (a) hydrocarbon solvents used for the dispersion and (b) alkyl groups attached to the graphene. The van der Waals interaction between methylene units associated with alkylated graphenes and hydrocarbon solvents plays a crucial role in determining their dispersion characteristics, and such an interaction increases with increasing methylene units. Octadecylamine functionalized graphene (ODA-Gr) dispersion in hexadecane is found to have long-term dispersion stability due to its high degree of cohesive interaction. The lubrication characteristics of hexadecane containing ODA-Gr were probed by evaluating its friction and wear properties. The results reveal that hexadecane doped with an optimized dose of 0.06 mg mL-1 ODA-Gr reduced friction and wear by 26% and 9%, respectively, compared to hexadecane. The lubricity enhancement could be attributed to uninterrupted supplies of graphene nanosheets under the rubbing surfaces, where these nanosheets prevent direct contact between the rubbing surfaces, providing low resistance to shear. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Singh A.K.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2011
Smoky emissions from two-stroke gasoline engines (2T) are a problem for the environment. Use of vegetable oil (oxygenate) is one solution. A biodegradable 2T-oil was developed from castor oil, which consisted of tolyl monoesters and performance additives but no miscibility-solvent. Evaluation revealed that on one hand it reduced smoke by 50-70% at 1% oil fuel ratio and on the other hand it was at par with standard product specification. Starting problems, piston-seizer or any other driving problems were not observed during the test. There is excellent potential for castor oil based biodegradable 2T-lubricant as a smoke pollution reducer. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Verma S.,Indian Institute of Petroleum |
Jain S.L.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers | Year: 2014
Zinc peroxide (ZnO2) nanoparticles were readily synthesized from the oxidation of zinc acetate with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature. The synthesized material was fully characterized by FTIR, XRD, TG-DSC, FE-SEM, TEM and XPS analysis. As obtained nanosized zinc peroxide was found to be an efficient oxidant for the oxidation of aromatic alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds selectively in excellent yields using dimethyl carbonate as an environmentally benign solvent. © the Partner Organisations 2014.