Indian Institute of Petroleum

www.iip.res.in
Dehradun, India

The Indian Institute of Petroleum , established in 1960, is one of the constituent laboratories of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research , dedicated to R&D in the hydrocarbon sector.The Director General of CSIR based in Delhi, Samir K. Brahmachari, is the head of institute followed by Dr. M.O. Garg, who has been the Director of the institute since 2003.Spread over a campus of 257-acre , it is situated in Dehradun, the capital of Uttarakhand state, on National Highway 72 . Established through an act of parliament in the year 1959, it started in New Delhi in 1960 and finally in Dehradun since 1963. It sought organisational help from Institut français du pétrole , France, a petroleum research organisation, under UNESCO programme during 1960 to 1964. An ISO 9001 certified institute, IIP develops processes and products for petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, training of personnel in oil and petrochemical industries, and assisting in formulation of standards for petroleum products. The institute acquired the ISO 9001 certification in 1998.About 132 of its research staff are R&D scientists supported by 208 technical personnel. It is equipped with R&D facilities including pilot plants. The annual budget of the institute is around 25 crores. The institute is recognized by over 14 universities to conduct research leading to Doctorate degree. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 29, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

NEW YORK, May 29, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04910440/Global-Petroleum-Natural-and-Synthetic-Waxes-Chemicals-Minerals.html The report provides separate comprehensive analytics for the US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East & Africa, and Latin America. Annual estimates and forecasts are provided for the period 2015 through 2022. Also, a six-year historic analysis is provided for these markets. Market data and analytics are derived from primary and secondary research. Company profiles are primarily based on public domain information including company URLs. The report profiles 93 companies including many key and niche players such as - BASF SE - Blended Waxes, Inc. - Clariant International Ltd. - Dow Corning Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04910440/Global-Petroleum-Natural-and-Synthetic-Waxes-Chemicals-Minerals.html I. INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY & PRODUCT DEFINITIONS Study Reliability and Reporting Limitations Disclaimers Data Interpretation & Reporting Level Quantitative Techniques & Analytics Product Definitions and Scope of Study Petroleum and Mineral Waxes Natural Waxes Synthetic Waxes II. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. MARKET OVERVIEW Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes: Expanding Applications to Drive Growth Major Applications of Waxes List of Wax Sources and their Applications Petroleum & Mineral Waxes Segment Leads, Synthetic Waxes Demand to Post Strong Growth Asia-Pacific to Spearhead Future Demand for Wax Wax Supply Constraints Change Equations in Wax Market Table 1: Global Consumption of Wax (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Consumption by Region/ Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Competitive Landscape Trade Statistics Table 2: Global Exports of Artificial and Prepared Waxes (2014 & 2015): Percentage Breakdown of Export Value by Country of Destination (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 3: Global Imports of Artificial and Prepared Waxes (2014 & 2015): Percentage Breakdown of Import Value by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 4: Global Exports of Paraffin Wax containing < 0.75% by Weight of Oil (2014 & 2015): Percentage Breakdown of Export Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 5: Global Imports of Paraffin Wax containing < 0.75% by Weight of Oil (2014 & 2015): Percentage Breakdown of Import Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 6: Global Exports of Paraffin Wax, Microcrystalline Petroleum Wax, Slack Wax, Ozokerite, Lignite Wax, Peat Wax & Others (2014 & 2015): Percentage Breakdown of Export Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 7: Global Imports of Paraffin Wax, Microcrystalline Petroleum Wax, Slack Wax, Ozokerite, Lignite Wax, Peat Wax & Others (2014 & 2015): Percentage Breakdown of Import Value by Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Pricing Scenario Table 8: Selling Price of Wax in US$ per Ton for the Years 2010, 2012, 2014 & 2016 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 2. GROWTH DRIVERS, TRENDS & ISSUES Petroleum Wax Market: The Dominant Segment despite Supply Constraints Table 9: Global Wax Market (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Consumption for Natural Wax, Petroleum Wax and Synthetic Wax (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Base oil Refinery Attrition - A Concern for Petroleum Wax Supply Heavy Grade Crude oil Production Facing Challenges from Wax Paraffin Wax - Sustained Demand for Major End-Use Applications Markets Table 10: Global Paraffin Wax Market by Application (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Board Sizing, Candles, Cosmetics, Hotmelts, Packaging, Rubber and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Paraffin Wax Prices Remain Stable despite Short Supply Concerns Microcrystalline Wax Market: Supply Constraints Affect Growth Petrolatum Market Affected by Concerns over Health Risks Synthetic Waxes to Drive Growth Mineral Waxes Market: Positive Outlook Ahead Industrial Wax Market: Anticipated Stabilization of Crude Oil Prices to Sustain Healthy Growth Natural Waxes Market Benefits from Eco-Friendly Trend Table 11: Melting Points of Select Waxes (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Beeswax Gains Attention Table 12: Global Beeswax Production in '000 Tonnes for the Years 2012, 2014 & 2016 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 13: Global Beeswax Market (2016E): Percentage Breakdown of Production Volume by Leading Countries (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Supply Constraints Affects Candelilla Wax Market Bio-Waxes Market: Strict Regulations and Eco-Friendly Shift Drives Demand Carnauba Wax Market: Food & Automotive Sectors Fuel Growth Skin Care Products - High Opportunities for Wax Market A Glance at Select Waxes Used in Cosmetic Products Application of Waxes in Major Cosmetic Segments Regulations for Selling Beeswax Cosmetic Products Candles: The Predominant Application Market for Waxes Table 14: Global Wax Market by Application (2016): Percentage Share Breakdown of Volume Demand for Board Sizing, Candles, Packaging, Surface Applications, and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Transforming Candles Market Natural Waxes - Increasing Footprint in the Candle Industry Growing Focus on Aromatherapy Enhances Demand for Wax Melts Car Wax: Rising Auto Sales to Stir Demand for Car Wax Table 15: Rising Auto Sales Propel Demand for Wax - Car Sales Worldwide in Millions for the Years 2010, 2012, 2014 & 2016 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Introduction of Silicone Waxes in Automotive Polishes Gains Prominence Polyethylene Wax Market: An Overview Wax Emulsions Market: Increasing Use in Varied End-Use Sectors Wax Demand in Packaging Inks Market Remains Stable Crop Protection - A Promising End-Use Area for Waxes Renaissance Wax in Jewelry Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) Technology to Reshape Wax Market Table 16: Leading GTL Projects Worldwide (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 17: List of Proposed GTL Projects in Louisiana (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) GTL - An Era of Heightened Efficiency Table 18: List of Top 10 Countries with Natural Gas Proven Reserves (in Trillion m3) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Wax Deoiling Technology - Technology for High Purity Paraffin Wax Recycling of Plastic Wastes to Industrial Waxes 3. PRODUCT OVERVIEW Introduction Characteristics and Properties Important Physico-Chemical Properties of Wax List of Wax Types Petroleum Waxes Uses Paraffin Wax Slack Wax Microcrystalline Wax Microcrystalline and Paraffin Waxes - Comparative Analysis Petrolatum Other Mineral Waxes Ozokerite Ozokerite - Product Highlights Montan Wax Clariant Process to Produce Montan Wax Peat Wax Synthetic Waxes Polymer Waxes a. Polyethylene Waxes b. Copolymer Waxes Fischer-Tropsch Waxes Others Hydrocarbon Waxes Substituted Amide Waxes Polymerized a-Olefins Chemically Modified Waxes Natural Waxes Animal and Insect Waxes Beeswax Beeswax - Product Highlights Application Areas Cosmetics Medicine Candles Metal Castings and Modeling Food Processing Textiles Printing Others Spermaceti Lanolin Others Shellac Chinese Insect Wax Vegetable Waxes Carnauba Carnauba Wax - Product Highlights Major Application Areas Merits Demerits Ouricouri Wax Bayberry Rice-Bran Wax Jasmine Wax Jasmine Wax - Product Highlights Candelilla Wax Candelilla Wax - Product Highlights Jojoba Wax Uses Japan Wax Soybean Wax Others Orange Wax Esparto Sugarcane Wax Castor Wax New Waxes 4. END-USE ANALYSIS Candles Electrical Food Matches and Pyrotechnics Rubber Adhesives Paper Coatings and Inks Cosmetics & Toiletries Lipsticks Cold Creams Cosmetic Cream Bases Pharmaceutical and Dental Preparations Household and Automotive Polishes Shoe Polishes Furniture Polishes Automobile Polishes Floor Polishes Investment Casting Others Construction Textiles Surface Protection Mold Release Agents/Corrosion Inhibitors Powder Coating Crayon Cardboard Foundry Agriculture Cable Compounding Petroleum Jelly Polymer Additives Sealing Technology Rope Dressings 5. RECENT INDUSTRY ACTIVITY Clariant Introduces Ceridust® Micronized Waxes Brenntag Takes Over EPChem's Wax Distribution Business Brenntag Distributes Koster Keunen's Cosmetic Waxes Trecora Commences Production of High Purity Specialty Wax in Texas Cargill Acquires NatureWax BASF to Expand Capacity of Emollients and Waxes Production in China Sasol Commissions Phase I of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Expansion Project in South Africa Völpker Takes Over BASF's Montan Wax Business Höganäs Takes Over Abril Industrial Waxes Evonik to Distribute GTL Hardwaxes of Shell MDS in South America Evonik to Distribute GTL Hardwaxes in Asia, Middle East & North Africa Clariant Expands Production Capacity of High-Performance Montan Waxes Calumet Invests in GTL Joint Venture ITOCHU Corporation and Nippon Seiro Enter into Capital and Business Partnership PMC Biogenix Introduces Kemamide® W-40 Veg Numaligarh Refinery Limited Partners with Engineers India Limited and Indian Institute of Petroleum Kemira Oyj and Wilmar International Limited Entered into a JV Agreement M.Cassab Group Enters into Agreement with Kahl GmbH Clariant AG Introduces Ceridust® Waxes Clariant Enters into Distribution Agreement with Cornell Brothers Horn Enters Partnership with Multiceras KahlWax to Introduce Three New Organic Waxes for Personal Care Wison Engineering Delivers Six Projects for PetroChina Multiceras Develops Alternative Technique for Extraction of Candelilla Wax 6. FOCUS ON SELECT PLAYERS BASF SE (Germany) Blended Waxes, Inc. (USA) Clariant International Ltd. (Switzerland) Dow Corning (USA) Evonik Industries AG (Germany) ExxonMobil Fuels & Lubricants (USA) Honeywell International (USA) Koster Keunen (Holland) B.V (Netherlands) Lubrizol Corp. (USA) Micro Powders, Inc. (USA) Paramelt BV (Netherlands) Romonta GmbH (Germany) Sasol Limited (South Africa) Strahl & Pitsch, Inc. (USA) The International Group, Inc. (Canada) Vantage Performance Materials (USA) Wachs-u. Ceresin-Fabriken TH. C. TROMM GmbH (Germany) 7. GLOBAL MARKET PERSPECTIVE Table 19: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa, and Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 20: World Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa, and Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 21: World 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa, and Latin America Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 22: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Natural Waxes by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa, and Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 23: World Historic Review for Natural Waxes by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa, and Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 24: World 14-Year Perspective for Natural Waxes by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa, and Latin America Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 25: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum and Mineral Waxes by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa, and Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 26: World Historic Review for Petroleum and Mineral Waxes by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa, and Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 27: World 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum and Mineral Waxes by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa, and Latin America Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 28: World Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa, and Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 29: World Historic Review for Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa, and Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 30: World 14-Year Perspective for Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for US, Canada, Japan, Europe, Asia-Pacific (excluding Japan), Middle East & Africa, and Latin America Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) III. MARKET 1. THE UNITED STATES A.Market Analysis Market Overview Table 31: Wax Production in Thousand Tons in the US for the Years 2012, 2014 & 2020 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Packaging Applications Lead Wax Consumption Table 32: US Wax Market (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Consumption Volume by End-Use Sector - Building Materials, Candles, Cosmetics, Fire Logs, Packaging and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Synthetic Waxes to Fuel Growth Petroleum & Mineral Waxes Market Tight Supply Conditions Characterize Petroleum Waxes Market Chinese Imports Ensure Stable Supply-Demand Scenario in Paraffin Wax Market Table 33: Paraffin Wax Market in the US (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Revenues by Application for Board Sizing, Candles, Packaging and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Positive Growth Opportunities in Cosmetics Increasing Use of Petroleum Wax Blends for Value-Added Applications Petrolatum Demand on the Rise Candles Market: Escalating Oil Prices Affect Demand Montan Wax: Increasing Use in Specialized Applications Natural Waxes Market Consumer Preference for Eco-Friendly Products Drives Growth Beeswax Market Trails on Positive Note Soy Candles Demand Gains Momentum Lanolin Regulations - A Potential Selling Point Industrial Markets - The Largest End-Use Sector Table 34: US Market for Waxes by Industrial Applications (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Value Sales by End-Use Segment (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Consumer Markets to Expand Candle Making Sector to Stimulate Growth Competition Table 35: Leading Players in the US Wax Market (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Revenues for Calumet, ExxonMobil, Honeywell, IGI and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Wax Supply Scenario Table 36: US Supply of Wax Products (In Thousand Barrels per day) for the Years 2010 through 2016 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 37: US Refinery and Blender Net Production of Waxes (2005-2016) (in Thousands Barrels per day) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Trade Statistics Table 38: US Exports of Artificial and Prepared Waxes (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Export Value by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 39: US Imports of Artificial and Prepared Waxes (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Import Value by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 40: US Exports of Paraffin (including Candle) Wax (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Export Value by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 41: US Imports of Paraffin (including Candle) Wax (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Import Value by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 42: US Exports of Mineral Waxes Nes (Including Crude Paraffin Wax and Lignite) (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Export Value by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 43: US Imports of Mineral Waxes Nes (Including Crude Paraffin Wax and Lignite) (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Import Value by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Strategic Corporate Developments Select Players B.Market Analytics Table 44: US Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 45: US Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 46: US 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 2. CANADA A.Market Analysis Current and Future Analysis Trade Statistics Table 47: Canadian Exports of Artificial and Prepared Waxes (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Export Value by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 48: Canadian Imports of Artificial and Prepared Waxes (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Import Value by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 49: Canadian Exports of Paraffin (including Candle) Wax (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Export Value by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 50: Canadian Imports of Paraffin (including Candle) Wax (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Import Value by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 51: Canadian Exports of Mineral Waxes Nes (Including Crude Paraffin Wax and Lignite) (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Export Value by Destination Country (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 52: Canadian Imports of Mineral Waxes Nes (Including Crude Paraffin Wax and Lignite) (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Import Value by Country of Origin (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) The International Group, Inc. - A Key Player B.Market Analytics Table 53: Canadian Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 54: Canadian Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 55: Canadian 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 3. JAPAN A.Market Analysis Market Overview Strategic Corporate Development B.Market Analytics Table 56: Japanese Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 57: Japanese Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 58: Japanese 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 4. EUROPE A.Market Analysis Current and Future Analysis Growing Demand for Natural Cosmetics Fuelling Market for Natural Waxes Sluggish Growth in European Paraffin Wax Market Table 59: Consumption of Wax in Western Europe (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Consumption by End-Use Application (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Natural Waxes Find Favor for Cosmetic Applications Beeswax Market: An Overview Table 60: Leading Suppliers of Beeswax to the EU (2014) - Breakdown of Beeswax Supplied in Tonnes for China, France, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 61: European Beeswax Production by Country (2013) (In Tonnes) (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) B.Market Analytics Table 62: European Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia, and Rest of Europe Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 63: European Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia, and Rest of Europe Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 64: European 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia, and Rest of Europe Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 65: European Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 66: European Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 67: European 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 4a. FRANCE Market Analysis Table 68: French Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 69: French Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 70: French 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 4b. GERMANY A.Market Analysis Market Overview Table 71: Paraffin Wax Market in Germany (2016): Percentage Breakdown of Consumption Volume by Application - Board Sizing, Candles, Cosmetics, Hotmelts, Packaging, Rubber and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Strategic Corporate Developments Select Players B.Market Analytics Table 72: German Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 73: German Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 74: German 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 4c. ITALY Market Analysis Table 75: Italian Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 76: Italian Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 77: Italian 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 4d. THE UNITED KINGDOM A.Market Analysis Current and Future Analysis Strategic Corporate Development B.Market Analytics Table 78: UK Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 79: UK Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 80: UK 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 4e. SPAIN Market Analysis Table 81: Spanish Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 82: Spanish Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 83: Spanish 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 4f. RUSSIA Market Analysis Table 84: Russian Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 85: Russian Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 86: Russian 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 4g. REST OF EUROPE A.Market Analysis Current and Future Analysis Strategic Corporate Development Select Players B.Market Analytics Table 87: Rest of Europe Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 88: Rest of Europe Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 89: Rest of Europe 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 5. ASIA-PACIFIC A.Market Analysis Market Overview Petroleum Wax Market - An Overview Paraffin Wax Faces Competition from Alternative Materials Paraffin Wax Trade Remains Sluggish B.Market Analytics Table 90: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - China, India, and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 91: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - China, India, and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 92: Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for China, India, and Rest of Asia-Pacific Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 93: Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 94: Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 95: Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 5a. CHINA A.Market Analysis Market Overview Table 96: Chinese Wax Market by End-Use Application (2016E): Percentage Share Breakdown of Consumption for Candle, Cosmetic, Hot-melt Adhesive, Packaging, Rubber, Synthetic Wood and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Paraffin Wax Market - An Overview Supply Shortage Leads to a Spike in Paraffin Wax Prices Table 97: Solid Paraffin Wax (Fully Refined) Spot Prices FOB China in US$ Per Tonne Specialty Waxes Market in China Microcrystalline Wax Market in China Strategic Corporate Developments B.Market Analytics Table 98: Chinese Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 99: Chinese Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 100: Chinese 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 5b. INDIA A.Market Analysis Current and Future Analysis Paraffin Wax Market - An Overview Strategic Corporate Development B.Market Analytics Table 101: Indian Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 102: Indian Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 103: Indian 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 5c. REST OF ASIA-PACIFIC A.Market Analysis Current and Future Analysis Focus on Select Regions South Korea Table 104: Leading Players in the Korean Wax Market (2016): Percentage Share of Sales for Coschem, Honeywell, Lion Chemtech, SFC and Others (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Strategic Corporate Developments B.Market Analytics Table 105: Rest of Asia-Pacific Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 106: Rest of Asia-Pacific Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 107: Rest of Asia-Pacific 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 6. MIDDLE EAST & AFRICA A.Market Analysis Current and Future Analysis Strategic Corporate Developments Sasol Limited (South Africa) - A Key Player B.Market Analytics Table 108: Middle East & Africa Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 109: Middle East & Africa Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 110: Middle East & Africa 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 7. LATIN AMERICA A.Market Analysis Market Overview Strategic Corporate Development B.Market Analytics Table 111: Latin American Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - Brazil and Rest of Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 112: Latin American Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - Brazil and Rest of Latin America Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 113: Latin American 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Geographic Region - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Brazil and Rest of Latin America Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 114: Latin American Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 115: Latin American Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 116: Latin American 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 7a. BRAZIL A.Market Analysis Current and Future Analysis Brazil: World's Leading Producer & Exporter of Carnauba Wax Strategic Corporate Development B.Market Analytics Table 117: Brazilian Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 118: Brazilian Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 119: Brazilian 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) 7b. REST OF LATIN AMERICA A.Market Analysis Current and Future Analysis Strategic Corporate Development B.Market Analytics Table 120: Rest of Latin America Recent Past, Current & Future Analysis for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2015 through 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 121: Rest of Latin America Historic Review for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets Independently Analyzed with Annual Sales Figures in US$ Thousand for Years 2009 through 2014 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) Table 122: Rest of Latin America 14-Year Perspective for Petroleum, Natural & Synthetic Waxes by Product Segment - Percentage Breakdown of Dollar Sales for Natural Waxes, Petroleum and Mineral Waxes, and Synthetic Waxes Markets for Years 2009, 2017 & 2022 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) IV. COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE Total Companies Profiled: 93 (including Divisions/Subsidiaries - 99) The United States (43) Canada (3) Japan (1) Europe (37) - Germany (10) - The United Kingdom (8) - Italy (2) - Spain (2) - Rest of Europe (14) Asia-Pacific (Excluding Japan) (11) Middle East (1) Latin America (3) Africa (1) Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04910440/Global-Petroleum-Natural-and-Synthetic-Waxes-Chemicals-Minerals.html About Reportlinker ReportLinker is an award-winning market research solution. Reportlinker finds and organizes the latest industry data so you get all the market research you need - instantly, in one place. http://www.reportlinker.com __________________________ Contact Clare: clare@reportlinker.com US: (339)-368-6001 Intl: +1 339-368-6001 To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-petroleum-natural-and-synthetic-waxes---chemicals--minerals-300465101.html


Singh J.,University of Southampton | Singh J.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | Gu S.,University of Southampton
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

Microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in the present day energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels. The available literature on various aspects of microalgae, e.g. its cultivation, life cycle assessment, and conceptualization of an algal biorefinery, has been scanned and a critical analysis has been presented. A critical evaluation of the available information suggests that the economic viability of the process in terms of minimizing the operational and maintenance cost along with maximization of oil-rich microalgae production is the key factor, for successful commercialization of microalgae-based fuels. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Anand M.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | Sinha A.K.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

Kinetic studies and product profiling was done to understand the anomalous cracking of jathropha oil triglycerides in the presence of sulfided Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst. At temperatures between 320 and 340 °C, only deoxygenation and oligomerization reactions took place whereas at temperatures above 340 °C, internal conversions between the products and direct conversion to lighter and middle distillates were favored High pressures (80 bar) and H2/feed ratios (>1500) were necessary to minimize oligomerization of the products and to increase the lifespan of the catalyst. Lumped kinetic models were validated with experimental results. Activation energies for the formation of lighter (83 kJ/mol) and middle fractions (126 kJ/mol) were higher than those for the heavy (47 kJ/mol) and deoxygenated (47 kJ/mol) products. Jatropha oil triglycerides hydroconversion pathways were dependent on temperature and the triglycerides could be hydrocracked to lower range hydrocarbons (C5-C14) by increasing the reaction temperatures.


Nagendramma P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Lubrication Science | Year: 2011

Attention has been paid to biodegradable lubricating oils in the field of lubricant application because of environmental pollution control measures. In Europe and in some part of Asia, the use of environmentally acceptable lubricant is supported by environmental labels. Synthetic and vegetable oil-based esters offer the best choice in formulating environment-friendly lubricants. Pentaerythritol tetraoleate ester has been synthesised using polyol such as pentaerythritol and oleic acid with indigenous ion exchange resin (Indion-130) catalyst. The product was characterised for its physicochemical properties and was evaluated for lubrication performance. This was then compared with extreme pressure type of industrial gear oil VG-68 (IS 8406:1993). The product was found to have good potential for use as a base stock for formulation as extreme pressure type of industrial gear oil VG-68 (IS 8406:1993). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Nagendramma P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | Kaul S.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

Synthetic and vegetable oil based esters offer the best choice in formulating environment friendly lubricants. In the present review an attempt has been made to highlight some recent developments in the area of biodegradable synthetic ester base stocks for formulation of new generation lubricants including the efforts made so far at the author's laboratory in this direction. The developed products find applications in automotive transmission fluids, metal working fluids, cold rolling oils, fire resistant hydraulic fluids, industrial gear oils, neat cutting oils and automotive gear lubricants either alone or in formulations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Mungse H.P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | Khatri O.P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Journal of Physical Chemistry C | Year: 2014

Graphene, a lamellar structured material, easily shears at the contact interfaces and exhibits excellent mechanical strength and conductivity, which promises its potential for tribological applications. However, the dispersion of graphene in lube media is a big challenge. Herein, we developed a chemical approach for selective inclusion of long alkyl chains on the edges and defects sites of reduced graphene oxide sheets through the amide linkage, which facilitates their stable dispersion in the lube oil. Chemical and structural features of site-selective chemically functionalized reduced graphene oxide are monitored by FTIR, XPS, XRD, TG-DTA, FESEM, and HRTEM. Tribological test results showed that the chemically functionalized reduced graphene oxide, as an additive to 10W-40 engine oil, significantly reduced both the friction and the wear of steel balls. The stable dispersion of chemically functionalized reduced graphene oxide provides low resistance in a sheared contact owing to weak van der Waals interaction between their lamellas, thus significantly reducing both the friction and the wear. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Gusain R.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | Khatri O.P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2013

Copper oxide nanorods (CuONR1) having a diameter of about 20-30 nm and a length of about 30-70 nm were prepared by simple chemical processing of copper salt. CuONR1 were morphologically reshaped, by sonication with 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and tetrabutylammonium acetate ionic liquids, to CuONR2 and CuONR3, respectively. Both CuONR2 and CuONR3, with a diameter of about 8-18 nm and a length of about 60-200 nm, exhibit high aspect ratios (length-to-breadth) compared to CuONR1. The XRD pattern reveals the monoclinic crystalline structure of CuONR1, which remains unchanged during their ultrasound treatment with ionic liquids. Dispersion stability and aspect ratio of CuO nanorods are found to play an important role in monitoring the lubrication characteristics. The results show that CuONR2 and CuONR3, stabilized by ionic liquids, exhibit excellent friction-reduction (15-43%) and improved anti-wear properties (26-43%) compared to the PEG 200 and 10W-40 engine oil. Lubricity enhancement is attributed to the synergistic effect of uninterrupted supplies of CuO nanorods under the contact surfaces and their rolling effect mechanism, which eventually leads to energy saving and prevents material loss. This journal is © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Choudhary S.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | Mungse H.P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | Khatri O.P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

We report on the preparation of alkylated graphenes on a large scale followed by their dispersion in organic solvents. The alkylated graphenes with variable alkyl chain lengths (Cn = 8, 12, 18) are prepared by coupling of alkylamine with carboxylic groups of graphene oxide (GrO). The FTIR, UV-Visible, and TGA results reveal that, during alkylation, the oxygen functionalities of GrO are reduced significantly and the average size of the sp2 carbon domain increased, which is further supported by Raman characteristics. It is observed that the dispersibility of alkylated graphene in hydrocarbon solvents increases on increasing the chain length of (a) hydrocarbon solvents used for the dispersion and (b) alkyl groups attached to the graphene. The van der Waals interaction between methylene units associated with alkylated graphenes and hydrocarbon solvents plays a crucial role in determining their dispersion characteristics, and such an interaction increases with increasing methylene units. Octadecylamine functionalized graphene (ODA-Gr) dispersion in hexadecane is found to have long-term dispersion stability due to its high degree of cohesive interaction. The lubrication characteristics of hexadecane containing ODA-Gr were probed by evaluating its friction and wear properties. The results reveal that hexadecane doped with an optimized dose of 0.06 mg mL-1 ODA-Gr reduced friction and wear by 26% and 9%, respectively, compared to hexadecane. The lubricity enhancement could be attributed to uninterrupted supplies of graphene nanosheets under the rubbing surfaces, where these nanosheets prevent direct contact between the rubbing surfaces, providing low resistance to shear. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Singh A.K.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2011

Smoky emissions from two-stroke gasoline engines (2T) are a problem for the environment. Use of vegetable oil (oxygenate) is one solution. A biodegradable 2T-oil was developed from castor oil, which consisted of tolyl monoesters and performance additives but no miscibility-solvent. Evaluation revealed that on one hand it reduced smoke by 50-70% at 1% oil fuel ratio and on the other hand it was at par with standard product specification. Starting problems, piston-seizer or any other driving problems were not observed during the test. There is excellent potential for castor oil based biodegradable 2T-lubricant as a smoke pollution reducer. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Verma S.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | Jain S.L.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers | Year: 2014

Zinc peroxide (ZnO2) nanoparticles were readily synthesized from the oxidation of zinc acetate with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature. The synthesized material was fully characterized by FTIR, XRD, TG-DSC, FE-SEM, TEM and XPS analysis. As obtained nanosized zinc peroxide was found to be an efficient oxidant for the oxidation of aromatic alcohols to the corresponding carbonyl compounds selectively in excellent yields using dimethyl carbonate as an environmentally benign solvent. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

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