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Dehradun, India

The Indian Institute of Petroleum , established in 1960, is one of the constituent laboratories of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research , dedicated to R&D in the hydrocarbon sector.The Director General of CSIR based in Delhi, Samir K. Brahmachari, is the head of institute followed by Dr. M.O. Garg, who has been the Director of the institute since 2003.Spread over a campus of 257-acre , it is situated in Dehradun, the capital of Uttarakhand state, on National Highway 72 . Established through an act of parliament in the year 1959, it started in New Delhi in 1960 and finally in Dehradun since 1963. It sought organisational help from Institut français du pétrole , France, a petroleum research organisation, under UNESCO programme during 1960 to 1964. An ISO 9001 certified institute, IIP develops processes and products for petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, training of personnel in oil and petrochemical industries, and assisting in formulation of standards for petroleum products. The institute acquired the ISO 9001 certification in 1998.About 132 of its research staff are R&D scientists supported by 208 technical personnel. It is equipped with R&D facilities including pilot plants. The annual budget of the institute is around 25 crores. The institute is recognized by over 14 universities to conduct research leading to Doctorate degree. Wikipedia.

Nagendramma P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Lubrication Science

Attention has been paid to biodegradable lubricating oils in the field of lubricant application because of environmental pollution control measures. In Europe and in some part of Asia, the use of environmentally acceptable lubricant is supported by environmental labels. Synthetic and vegetable oil-based esters offer the best choice in formulating environment-friendly lubricants. Pentaerythritol tetraoleate ester has been synthesised using polyol such as pentaerythritol and oleic acid with indigenous ion exchange resin (Indion-130) catalyst. The product was characterised for its physicochemical properties and was evaluated for lubrication performance. This was then compared with extreme pressure type of industrial gear oil VG-68 (IS 8406:1993). The product was found to have good potential for use as a base stock for formulation as extreme pressure type of industrial gear oil VG-68 (IS 8406:1993). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Singh J.,University of Southampton | Singh J.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | Gu S.,University of Southampton
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Microalgae feedstocks are gaining interest in the present day energy scenario due to their fast growth potential coupled with relatively high lipid, carbohydrate and nutrients contents. All of these properties render them an excellent source for biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane; as well as a number of other valuable pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products. The present review is a critical appraisal of the commercialization potential of microalgae biofuels. The available literature on various aspects of microalgae, e.g. its cultivation, life cycle assessment, and conceptualization of an algal biorefinery, has been scanned and a critical analysis has been presented. A critical evaluation of the available information suggests that the economic viability of the process in terms of minimizing the operational and maintenance cost along with maximization of oil-rich microalgae production is the key factor, for successful commercialization of microalgae-based fuels. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Singh A.K.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Industrial Crops and Products

Smoky emissions from two-stroke gasoline engines (2T) are a problem for the environment. Use of vegetable oil (oxygenate) is one solution. A biodegradable 2T-oil was developed from castor oil, which consisted of tolyl monoesters and performance additives but no miscibility-solvent. Evaluation revealed that on one hand it reduced smoke by 50-70% at 1% oil fuel ratio and on the other hand it was at par with standard product specification. Starting problems, piston-seizer or any other driving problems were not observed during the test. There is excellent potential for castor oil based biodegradable 2T-lubricant as a smoke pollution reducer. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Anand M.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | Sinha A.K.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Bioresource Technology

Kinetic studies and product profiling was done to understand the anomalous cracking of jathropha oil triglycerides in the presence of sulfided Co-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst. At temperatures between 320 and 340 °C, only deoxygenation and oligomerization reactions took place whereas at temperatures above 340 °C, internal conversions between the products and direct conversion to lighter and middle distillates were favored High pressures (80 bar) and H2/feed ratios (>1500) were necessary to minimize oligomerization of the products and to increase the lifespan of the catalyst. Lumped kinetic models were validated with experimental results. Activation energies for the formation of lighter (83 kJ/mol) and middle fractions (126 kJ/mol) were higher than those for the heavy (47 kJ/mol) and deoxygenated (47 kJ/mol) products. Jatropha oil triglycerides hydroconversion pathways were dependent on temperature and the triglycerides could be hydrocracked to lower range hydrocarbons (C5-C14) by increasing the reaction temperatures. Source

Nagendramma P.,Indian Institute of Petroleum | Kaul S.,Indian Institute of Petroleum
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

Synthetic and vegetable oil based esters offer the best choice in formulating environment friendly lubricants. In the present review an attempt has been made to highlight some recent developments in the area of biodegradable synthetic ester base stocks for formulation of new generation lubricants including the efforts made so far at the author's laboratory in this direction. The developed products find applications in automotive transmission fluids, metal working fluids, cold rolling oils, fire resistant hydraulic fluids, industrial gear oils, neat cutting oils and automotive gear lubricants either alone or in formulations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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