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Jaiswal A.K.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Singh J.P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Patamajhi P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2017

Flubendiamide is an insecticide of new chemical class with a novel chemistry and new mode of action by targeting and disrupting the Ca2+balance. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the bio-efficacy of flubendiamide for the safety to lac insect and efficacy against associated insect-predators and parasitoids in lac culture. Spraying of eight concentrations of flubendiamide ranging from 0.0039 % (0.1 mL L−1) to 0.0315 % (0.8 mL L−1) under field condition against first and second instar larvae of Kerria lacca (Kerr) clearly revealed the safety of flubendiamide against lac insect and significant reduction in the population of both key lepidopteran predators, Eublemma amabilis (Noctuidae) and Pseudohypatopa pulverea (Blastobasidae). The reduction in population due to different treatments of flubendiamide ranged from 88 to 100 % in case of E. amabilis and 91 to 100 % in case of P. pulverea. Laboratory evaluation of flubendiamide on eggs of E. amabilis revealed 89.3–90.3 % hatching inhibition in different treatments. This compound can be effectively incorporated in IPM programme for the management of lepidopteran predators of lac insect without harmful effect on the host insect. © 2015, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Ansari M.F.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Sarkhel G.,Birla Institute of Technology
Pigment and Resin Technology | Year: 2017

Purpose-The purpose of this study is to improve the coating properties of shellac-epoxidised novolac blends by treatment with melamine formaldehyde resin (MF) at ambient temperature for its use as a coating material. Design/methodology/approach-Epoxidised-novolac resin was synthesised by epoxidation of novolac resin with epichlorohydrin. Novolac resin was synthesised by reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in acidic medium. Shellac was blended with the epoxidised-novolac resin in solution in varying ratios and treated the blends with MF resin in fixed ratio. Coating properties of the treated compositions were studied using a standard procedure. The compositions were characterised with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) spectroscopy. Findings-Treatment of shellac-epoxidised-novolac blends with MF resin improved water and alkali resistance of the blends, besides enhancing gloss. Gloss in all the blends was uniformly increased on treatment with MF resin. Water resistance of the blends tremendously improved after treatment with MF resin. Contact angle of the blends against water increased while decreased against ethylene glycol and dioxane. The compositions were more resistant to polar solvent than non-polar ones, suggesting that the compositions shifted to hydrophobic (lipophilic) nature on treatment with the MF resin. Research limitations/implications-A specified concentration of MF resin was used in the study. Different concentrations of the MF resin can also be tried for treatment of shellac-epoxidised-novolac blends to see the effect of the resin on the blends. Practical implications-Treatment of shellac-epoxidised-novolac blend with MF resin improved the coating properties of the blends. The formulation SeNB-64 is the best with high gloss, good impact, scratch hardness and water resistance, and hence can be used as coating material for metal surfaces. Originality/value-Blending of shellac with epoxidised-novolac resin and treatment of the blends with the MF resin was done for the first time. The formulation SeNB-64 can be used as coating material for metal surfaces. © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited.


Singh J.P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Jaiswal A.K.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Monobrullah Md.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

Seven newer insecticides, viz indoxacarb, spinosad, fipronil, lambdacyhalothrin, alphamethrin, bifenthrin and carbosulfan along with two recommended insecticides namely ethofenprox and endosulfan have been evaluated against first and second larval stages of lac insect for its safety, so that it can be further assessed for their bioefficacy against harmful biotic fauna associated with lac insect. Insecticides namely spinosad (0.0025, 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02%), indoxacarb (0.003, 0.005, 0.007, 0.01 and 0.02%), fipronil (0.0025, 0.005 and 0.01%) and carbosulfan (0.01 and 0.02%) have been found safe against first and second instar larvae of both kusmi and rangeeni strain of lac insect under field conditions. Lambdacyhalothrin, alphamethrin and bifenthrin were found safe to lac insect at lower concentrations, but detrimental effect on survival of lac insect was observed with increase in dosages, hence may not be suitable for application at the initial stage of crop development (first application) in lac production system. It is suggested that newer compounds like spinosad (0.005%) which is a naturalyte synthetic analogue compound produced by fermentation of a rare bacterium, Sacharopolyspora spinosa, indoxacarb (0.005%), fipronil (0.005%) and carbosulfan (0.01%), with different mode of action and whose safety against lac insect has been evaluated and established at some higher concentrations also, can be incorporated in pest management programme to achieve the desired control of lac insect predators in lac production system without harming lac culture.


Majee R.N.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society | Year: 2012

(E)-9-Hexadecen-1,16-olide (isoambrettolide) possessing musk-like odour is used as fixative in perfumery formulations. It has been synthesized from threo-aleuritic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxyhexadecanoic acid) by simple procedure. The compound showed antibacterial activity. Synthesis of dimethyl (E)-2-undecen-1,11-dioate was achieved for the first time from threo-aleuritic acid, the major component of lac resin, and its bioassay has been reported.


Majee R.N.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Insect sex pheromones are used for monitoring and management of crop pests. Four compounds (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol, (Z)-7-tetradecen-1-yl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecen-1-yl acetate reported as components of some important agricultural insect pests have been synthesized from theo-aleuritic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxyhexadecanoic acid) involving simplified Wittig reactions with improved yield.


Singh R.K.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Ghosal S.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2015

Effect of pitcher fertigation (urea only) with 4 pitchers/tree (8 l capacity/pitcher) with seepage rate of 0.04 l/h was studied on summer and winter kusmi lac crop performance and shooting response on ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) during 2009–2012. There was an increase of 2.2 and 2.6 times in shoot length and girth in winter season than the summer season under pitcher fertigation. A significant increase in number of shoots per pruned point was also noticed in winter season as compared to summer season. Lac yield was 1.75 times more in winter season, compared to summer season. Interaction effect between seasons and treatments showed maximum yield ratio in pitcher fertigation in winter season and least yield ratio in control in summer season. Interaction of pitcher fertigation brought 106.9 and 13.5 % increase in lac yield ratio in summer and winter season, respectively. Much higher increase in lac yield was obtained when pitcher fertigation was applied in summer as compared to winter. © 2015, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Singh J.P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2013

Laboratory evaluation was carried out to assess the efficacy of eight insecticides namely indoxacarb, fipronil, spinosad, ethofenprox, endosulfan, bifenthrin, lambdacyhalothrin and carbosulfan on two most prevalent lac insect parasitoids (Tachardiaephagus tachardiae and Eupelmus tachardiae) and two key predators (Eublemma amabilis and Pseudohypatopa pulverea) of lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr) by dipping of broodlac (seed material) in insecticidal solution. Broodlac dipping in insecticidal solution of indoxacarb (0.007 and 0.014 %), fipronil (0.005 %), spinosad (0.005 %), ethofenprox (0.02 %), and endosulfan (0.05 %) for 10 and 15 min caused significant reduction in the population of parasitoids and predators over control without showing any adverse effect on emergence and survival of lac insect. The reduction in emergence of E. amabilis and P. pulverea varied from 20.90 to 98.51 % and 66.67 to 93.33 %, respectively with the dipping of broodlac for 10 min and 83.58-100 % and 93-100 %, respectively with the dipping of broodlac for 15 min. Per cent reduction to the tune of 50.80-91.13 and 5.06-96.73 was recorded with respect of E. tachardiae and T. tachardiae, respectively with dipping of broodlac for 10 min and 77.60-100 and 29.95-98.62, respectively with the dipping of broodlac for 15 min in insecticidal solutions. These insecticides at the recommended concentrations can be safely and effectively used for improvement of broodlac quality in terms of reduced population of parasitoids and predators harbouring in the broodlac prior to inoculation on new trees without any harmful effect on lac insect. Bifenthrin (0.002 %), lambdacyhalothrin (0.005 %) and carbosulfan (0.01 %) though causes significant reduction in population of parasitoids and predators but survival of lac insect was also adversely affected hence cannot be recommended for treatment of broodlac. Furthermore, in view of ban imposed on the use of endosulfan it cannot be recommended. Therefore, selective insecticides namely indoxacarb, fipronil, spinosad and ethofenprox can be safely and effectively used for the treatment of broodlac. © 2013 The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Jaiswal A.K.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Singh J.P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the bio-efficacy of flubendiamide for the safety to lac insect and efficacy against associated insect-predators on lac culture. Eight concentrations of flubendiamide ranging from 0.0039 % (0.1 ml L−1) to 0.0315 % (0.8 ml L−1) were evaluated. No significant difference was observed on survival of emerging 1st instar lac insect larvae between various treatments and control as the result of dipping treatment of broodlac for 5, 10 and 15 min, indicating safety of the evaluated insecticide. Treatment of broodlac in insecticidal solutions for the same durations showed significant reduction in the population of both key lepidopteran predators, Eublemma amabilis (Noctuidae) and Pseudohypatopa pulverea (Blastobasidae) predating on lac insects. This is the first evaluation report of flubendiamide on lac insect ecosystem. © 2014, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Ghosal S.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

An experiment consisting of 96 trees was laid out in the Institute Research Farm during June 2007-February 2010 to assess the influence of factors like directional effect of lac on ber trees (northern and southern halves) and rainfall pattern on lac yield and yield ratio (output: input of broodlac). Average lac yield ratio in southern half was 26% higher than northern half in 2007-08 and the same was 21% higher in 2008-09. More sunlight might have kept the tree canopy warmer, which might have boosted up growth and development of the lac insect on the southern half in first two years. Due to meager rainfall in third year, sunlight was not a limiting factor influencing yield which resulted in a nonsignificant difference. At the same time, mean lac yield ratio was 4.9 in first year as against 7.15 in the third year; difference was significant and it could be attributed to weather differences. The typical patterns of rainfall in three different years have been described in details which revealed that lac yield decreased significantly with intensity of rainfall, number of consecutive weeks with 50 mm rain, amount of rainfall received after sexual maturity etc. As a result, 31% reduction in lac yield ratio was observed in first year compared to third year. The study also indicated that lac yield from trees of smaller canopy spread are least affected due to adverse weather condition.


Singh J.P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Jaiswal A.K.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Monobrullah M.D.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

Two lepidopteran predators, Eublemma amabilis and Pseudohypatopa pulverea and Aprostocetus purpureus an endoparasitoid have emerged as a major threat to lac cultivation. The objectives of the current study were to identify some potential insecticides and bio-pesticides against major biotic stress of lac crop. Field evaluation of spinosad 2.5SC, indoxacarb 14.5SC, fipronil 5SC, ethofenprox 10EC and three commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on rangeeni and kusmi lac culture reveal significant reduction in incidence of Eublemma amabilis and Pseudohypatopa pulverea attacking Kerria lacca. The reduction in incidence of E. amabilis ranged from 42.47 - 96.24% and 65.00 - 95.00% and P. pulverea ranged from 52.50 - 97.50% and 66.67 - 100.00% during rangeeni rainy and summer crop, respectively. The reduction in the incidence of E. amabilis and P. pulverea on kusmi winter lac crop recorded to the tune of 61.02 - 93.55% and 12.86 - 98.57%, respectively whereas, on kusmi summer crop it was 56.16 to 95.52% and 66.17 to 98.50%, respectively. Productivity of lac increased to the tune of 78.95 to 168.42% and 11.40 to 36.84% in kusmi winter and summer lac crop, respectively whereas 33.33 to 166.67% in rangeeni rainy lac crop. Higher fecundity and superior quality broodlac was obtained from treated crops. Insecticides, spinosad, indoxacarb, fipronil, ethofenprox and bio-pesticides therefore can be used for effective suppression of predators attacking lac culture.

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