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Singh J.P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Jaiswal A.K.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Monobrullah Md.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

Seven newer insecticides, viz indoxacarb, spinosad, fipronil, lambdacyhalothrin, alphamethrin, bifenthrin and carbosulfan along with two recommended insecticides namely ethofenprox and endosulfan have been evaluated against first and second larval stages of lac insect for its safety, so that it can be further assessed for their bioefficacy against harmful biotic fauna associated with lac insect. Insecticides namely spinosad (0.0025, 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02%), indoxacarb (0.003, 0.005, 0.007, 0.01 and 0.02%), fipronil (0.0025, 0.005 and 0.01%) and carbosulfan (0.01 and 0.02%) have been found safe against first and second instar larvae of both kusmi and rangeeni strain of lac insect under field conditions. Lambdacyhalothrin, alphamethrin and bifenthrin were found safe to lac insect at lower concentrations, but detrimental effect on survival of lac insect was observed with increase in dosages, hence may not be suitable for application at the initial stage of crop development (first application) in lac production system. It is suggested that newer compounds like spinosad (0.005%) which is a naturalyte synthetic analogue compound produced by fermentation of a rare bacterium, Sacharopolyspora spinosa, indoxacarb (0.005%), fipronil (0.005%) and carbosulfan (0.01%), with different mode of action and whose safety against lac insect has been evaluated and established at some higher concentrations also, can be incorporated in pest management programme to achieve the desired control of lac insect predators in lac production system without harming lac culture.


Saha D.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Saha D.,National Research Center on Finger printing
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2013

Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken is a preferred tree-host of kusmi form of lac insect, Kerria lacca, which produces superior quality lac resin of commercial interest. Very low success rate of clonal multiplication of this tree is one of the major bottlenecks for supply of quality planting material for lac cultivation. In vitro multiplication of axillary buds although promise to produce large-scale clones of high-yielding lac hosts, establishment of aseptic node culture is one of the critical steps in standardization of micropropagation from mature S. oleosa plant. The seasonal influence on bud emergence, heavy microbial contaminations and phenolic exudations are the important factors observed in the present study that limits the establishment of axillary bud cultures in S. oleosa. Predominant fungal and bacterial contaminants were identified through morpho-cytological and DNA sequence analysis. The Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium with 1.0 mg/L BAP and 1.0 mg/L silver nitrate showed best (83.33±13.61%) shoot initiation. Sub-culturing and elongation of the proliferated microshoots were possible on filter-paper-bridge soaked in liquid MS medium with 0.5-1.0 mg/L BAP, instead of agar-gelled MS media. Rooting of the axillary bud-derived shoots continued to be the major hurdle to achieve success in developing micropropagation protocol in S. oleosa.


Majee R.N.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society | Year: 2012

(E)-9-Hexadecen-1,16-olide (isoambrettolide) possessing musk-like odour is used as fixative in perfumery formulations. It has been synthesized from threo-aleuritic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxyhexadecanoic acid) by simple procedure. The compound showed antibacterial activity. Synthesis of dimethyl (E)-2-undecen-1,11-dioate was achieved for the first time from threo-aleuritic acid, the major component of lac resin, and its bioassay has been reported.


Majee R.N.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Insect sex pheromones are used for monitoring and management of crop pests. Four compounds (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol, (Z)-7-tetradecen-1-yl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecen-1-yl acetate reported as components of some important agricultural insect pests have been synthesized from theo-aleuritic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxyhexadecanoic acid) involving simplified Wittig reactions with improved yield.


Singh R.K.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Ghosal S.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2015

Effect of pitcher fertigation (urea only) with 4 pitchers/tree (8 l capacity/pitcher) with seepage rate of 0.04 l/h was studied on summer and winter kusmi lac crop performance and shooting response on ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) during 2009–2012. There was an increase of 2.2 and 2.6 times in shoot length and girth in winter season than the summer season under pitcher fertigation. A significant increase in number of shoots per pruned point was also noticed in winter season as compared to summer season. Lac yield was 1.75 times more in winter season, compared to summer season. Interaction effect between seasons and treatments showed maximum yield ratio in pitcher fertigation in winter season and least yield ratio in control in summer season. Interaction of pitcher fertigation brought 106.9 and 13.5 % increase in lac yield ratio in summer and winter season, respectively. Much higher increase in lac yield was obtained when pitcher fertigation was applied in summer as compared to winter. © 2015, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Singh J.P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2013

Laboratory evaluation was carried out to assess the efficacy of eight insecticides namely indoxacarb, fipronil, spinosad, ethofenprox, endosulfan, bifenthrin, lambdacyhalothrin and carbosulfan on two most prevalent lac insect parasitoids (Tachardiaephagus tachardiae and Eupelmus tachardiae) and two key predators (Eublemma amabilis and Pseudohypatopa pulverea) of lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr) by dipping of broodlac (seed material) in insecticidal solution. Broodlac dipping in insecticidal solution of indoxacarb (0.007 and 0.014 %), fipronil (0.005 %), spinosad (0.005 %), ethofenprox (0.02 %), and endosulfan (0.05 %) for 10 and 15 min caused significant reduction in the population of parasitoids and predators over control without showing any adverse effect on emergence and survival of lac insect. The reduction in emergence of E. amabilis and P. pulverea varied from 20.90 to 98.51 % and 66.67 to 93.33 %, respectively with the dipping of broodlac for 10 min and 83.58-100 % and 93-100 %, respectively with the dipping of broodlac for 15 min. Per cent reduction to the tune of 50.80-91.13 and 5.06-96.73 was recorded with respect of E. tachardiae and T. tachardiae, respectively with dipping of broodlac for 10 min and 77.60-100 and 29.95-98.62, respectively with the dipping of broodlac for 15 min in insecticidal solutions. These insecticides at the recommended concentrations can be safely and effectively used for improvement of broodlac quality in terms of reduced population of parasitoids and predators harbouring in the broodlac prior to inoculation on new trees without any harmful effect on lac insect. Bifenthrin (0.002 %), lambdacyhalothrin (0.005 %) and carbosulfan (0.01 %) though causes significant reduction in population of parasitoids and predators but survival of lac insect was also adversely affected hence cannot be recommended for treatment of broodlac. Furthermore, in view of ban imposed on the use of endosulfan it cannot be recommended. Therefore, selective insecticides namely indoxacarb, fipronil, spinosad and ethofenprox can be safely and effectively used for the treatment of broodlac. © 2013 The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Jaiswal A.K.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Singh J.P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the bio-efficacy of flubendiamide for the safety to lac insect and efficacy against associated insect-predators on lac culture. Eight concentrations of flubendiamide ranging from 0.0039 % (0.1 ml L−1) to 0.0315 % (0.8 ml L−1) were evaluated. No significant difference was observed on survival of emerging 1st instar lac insect larvae between various treatments and control as the result of dipping treatment of broodlac for 5, 10 and 15 min, indicating safety of the evaluated insecticide. Treatment of broodlac in insecticidal solutions for the same durations showed significant reduction in the population of both key lepidopteran predators, Eublemma amabilis (Noctuidae) and Pseudohypatopa pulverea (Blastobasidae) predating on lac insects. This is the first evaluation report of flubendiamide on lac insect ecosystem. © 2014, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Ghosal S.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

An experiment consisting of 96 trees was laid out in the Institute Research Farm during June 2007-February 2010 to assess the influence of factors like directional effect of lac on ber trees (northern and southern halves) and rainfall pattern on lac yield and yield ratio (output: input of broodlac). Average lac yield ratio in southern half was 26% higher than northern half in 2007-08 and the same was 21% higher in 2008-09. More sunlight might have kept the tree canopy warmer, which might have boosted up growth and development of the lac insect on the southern half in first two years. Due to meager rainfall in third year, sunlight was not a limiting factor influencing yield which resulted in a nonsignificant difference. At the same time, mean lac yield ratio was 4.9 in first year as against 7.15 in the third year; difference was significant and it could be attributed to weather differences. The typical patterns of rainfall in three different years have been described in details which revealed that lac yield decreased significantly with intensity of rainfall, number of consecutive weeks with 50 mm rain, amount of rainfall received after sexual maturity etc. As a result, 31% reduction in lac yield ratio was observed in first year compared to third year. The study also indicated that lac yield from trees of smaller canopy spread are least affected due to adverse weather condition.


Singh J.P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Jaiswal A.K.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Monobrullah M.D.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2014

Two lepidopteran predators, Eublemma amabilis and Pseudohypatopa pulverea and Aprostocetus purpureus an endoparasitoid have emerged as a major threat to lac cultivation. The objectives of the current study were to identify some potential insecticides and bio-pesticides against major biotic stress of lac crop. Field evaluation of spinosad 2.5SC, indoxacarb 14.5SC, fipronil 5SC, ethofenprox 10EC and three commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on rangeeni and kusmi lac culture reveal significant reduction in incidence of Eublemma amabilis and Pseudohypatopa pulverea attacking Kerria lacca. The reduction in incidence of E. amabilis ranged from 42.47 - 96.24% and 65.00 - 95.00% and P. pulverea ranged from 52.50 - 97.50% and 66.67 - 100.00% during rangeeni rainy and summer crop, respectively. The reduction in the incidence of E. amabilis and P. pulverea on kusmi winter lac crop recorded to the tune of 61.02 - 93.55% and 12.86 - 98.57%, respectively whereas, on kusmi summer crop it was 56.16 to 95.52% and 66.17 to 98.50%, respectively. Productivity of lac increased to the tune of 78.95 to 168.42% and 11.40 to 36.84% in kusmi winter and summer lac crop, respectively whereas 33.33 to 166.67% in rangeeni rainy lac crop. Higher fecundity and superior quality broodlac was obtained from treated crops. Insecticides, spinosad, indoxacarb, fipronil, ethofenprox and bio-pesticides therefore can be used for effective suppression of predators attacking lac culture.


PubMed | Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums and Birla Institute of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of cancer research and therapeutics | Year: 2016

Certain anthraquinone compounds are effectively used for treatment of cancer. The present study describes the inhibitory activity of lac dye, a mixture of polyhydroxy anthraquinone compounds (Laccaic acid A, B, C, D and E), produced by the Indian lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr).In vitro testing for anticancer activity of lac dye was done at four concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80 g/ml) on ten human malignant cell lines including six human leukemia cell lines, U973, Raji, K562, Jurkat, MOLT 4 and HL60 using SRB assay.Both crimson and yellow lac dye inhibits proliferation of Human leukemia cell lines, Raji, U937, K562, HL60 and Jurkat, therefore can be considered as a potential anticancer agent for leukemia.

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