Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums

Namkum, India

Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums

Namkum, India
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Ansari M.F.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Sarkhel G.,Birla Institute of Technology
Pigment and Resin Technology | Year: 2017

Purpose-The purpose of this study is to improve the coating properties of shellac-epoxidised novolac blends by treatment with melamine formaldehyde resin (MF) at ambient temperature for its use as a coating material. Design/methodology/approach-Epoxidised-novolac resin was synthesised by epoxidation of novolac resin with epichlorohydrin. Novolac resin was synthesised by reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in acidic medium. Shellac was blended with the epoxidised-novolac resin in solution in varying ratios and treated the blends with MF resin in fixed ratio. Coating properties of the treated compositions were studied using a standard procedure. The compositions were characterised with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) spectroscopy. Findings-Treatment of shellac-epoxidised-novolac blends with MF resin improved water and alkali resistance of the blends, besides enhancing gloss. Gloss in all the blends was uniformly increased on treatment with MF resin. Water resistance of the blends tremendously improved after treatment with MF resin. Contact angle of the blends against water increased while decreased against ethylene glycol and dioxane. The compositions were more resistant to polar solvent than non-polar ones, suggesting that the compositions shifted to hydrophobic (lipophilic) nature on treatment with the MF resin. Research limitations/implications-A specified concentration of MF resin was used in the study. Different concentrations of the MF resin can also be tried for treatment of shellac-epoxidised-novolac blends to see the effect of the resin on the blends. Practical implications-Treatment of shellac-epoxidised-novolac blend with MF resin improved the coating properties of the blends. The formulation SeNB-64 is the best with high gloss, good impact, scratch hardness and water resistance, and hence can be used as coating material for metal surfaces. Originality/value-Blending of shellac with epoxidised-novolac resin and treatment of the blends with the MF resin was done for the first time. The formulation SeNB-64 can be used as coating material for metal surfaces. © 2017 Emerald Publishing Limited.


Siddiqui M.Z.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Thomas M.,Directorate of Research Services | Prasad N.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2013

The present study reports physicochemical characterization and antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from guggul (Commiphora wightii) exudates collected from different places in Madhya Pradesh, India. The guggul exudates were hydrodistilled for 3-4 h in Clevenger apparatus. The oil obtained was dried over anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 and stored at 4° until testing. Before extraction of oils from the exudates, their % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors namely L (white-black), a (green-red) and b (blue-yellow) were determined. Physicochemical characterization of the extracted oils was carried out to determine their solubility, yield%, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value, iodine value (g/g), peroxide value (mEq/kg) and Fourier transformed infrared analyses. The storage-effect on the % moisture and tristimulus values of the colors of guggul exudates as also the % oil yield and physicochemical parameters of the essential oils extracted from them, were studied using three different packaging materials viz., local plastic, low density polyethylene (200 G) and high density polyethylene (200 G). The antioxidant potential of extracted oils was evaluated by free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl assay.


Siddiqui M.Z.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Mazumder P.M.,Birla Institute of Technology
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2012

The antihyperlipidemic activity of resinoids of guggul (Commiphora mukul/Commiphora wightii), belonging to family Burseraceae (Genus: Commiphora), collected from different parts of India (Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan), was studied on cholesterol-rich high fat diet-induced model of hyperlipidemia in rats. The resinoids of these exudates were prepared in ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol. The physicochemical characterization of these resinoids was carried out to determine their appearance, %yield, %moisture, %ash, acid value (mg/KOH/g), saponification value (mg/KOH/g), ester value and iodine value (g/g). Antihyperlipidemic study was carried out on all resinoids in high fat diet induced model of hyperlipidemia in Wistar albino rats. The result demonstrated that the resinoids of exudates of Commiphora wightii and Commiphora mukul, collected from Gujarat and extracted in ethyl acetate, and the resinoids of exudates of Commiphora mukul, collected from Madhya Pradesh and extracted in ethyl acetate, possessed significantly higher antihyperlipidemic activity compared with other resinoids, which may be due to regional/geographical variations.


Siddiqui M.Z.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2011

The resin of Boswellia species has been used as incense in religious and cultural ceremonies and in medicines since time immemorial. Boswellia serrata (Salai/Salai guggul), is a moderate to large sized branching tree of family Burseraceae (Genus Boswellia), grows in dry mountainous regions of India, Northern Africa and Middle East. Oleo gum-resin is tapped from the incision made on the trunk of the tree and is then stored in specially made bamboo basket for removal of oil content and getting the resin solidified. After processing, the gum-resin is then graded according to its flavour, colour, shape and size. In India, the States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh are the main source of Boswellia serrata. Regionally, it is also known by different names. The oleo gum-resins contain 30-60% resin, 5-10% essential oils, which are soluble in the organic solvents, and the rest is made up of polysaccharides. Gum-resin extracts of Boswellia serrata have been traditionally used in folk medicine for centuries to treat various chronic inflammatory diseases. The resinous part of Boswellia serrata possesses monoterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, tetracyclic triterpenic acids and four major pentacyclic triterpenic acids i.e. β-boswellic acid, acetyl-β-boswellic acid, 11-keto-β-boswellic acid and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid, responsible for inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes. Out of these four boswellic acids, acetyl-11-keto β-boswellic acid is the most potent inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, an enzyme responsible for inflammation.


Siddiqui M.Z.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2010

Ever since the development of Hybridoma Technology in 1975 by Kohler and Milstein, our vision for antibodies as tools for research for prevention, detection and treatment of diseases, vaccine production, antigenic characterization of pathogens and in the study of genetic regulation of immune responses and disease susceptibility has been revolutionized. The monoclonal antibodies being directed against single epitopes are homogeneous, highly specific and can be produced in unlimited quantities. In animal disease diagnosis, they are very useful for identification and antigenic characterization of pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies have tremendous applications in the field of diagnostics, therapeutics and targeted drug delivery systems, not only for infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and protozoa but also for cancer, metabolic and hormonal disorders. They are also used in the diagnosis of lymphoid and myeloid malignancies, tissue typing, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, radio immunoassay, serotyping of microorganisms, immunological intervention with passive antibody, antiidiotype inhibition, or magic bullet therapy with cytotoxic agents coupled with anti mouse specific antibody. Recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology through genetic engineering has successfully led to the possibility of reconstruction of monoclonal antibodies viz. chimeric antibodies, humanized antibodies and complementarily determining region grafted antibodies and their enormous therapeutic use.


Majee R.N.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society | Year: 2012

(E)-9-Hexadecen-1,16-olide (isoambrettolide) possessing musk-like odour is used as fixative in perfumery formulations. It has been synthesized from threo-aleuritic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxyhexadecanoic acid) by simple procedure. The compound showed antibacterial activity. Synthesis of dimethyl (E)-2-undecen-1,11-dioate was achieved for the first time from threo-aleuritic acid, the major component of lac resin, and its bioassay has been reported.


Majee R.N.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society | Year: 2012

Insect sex pheromones are used for monitoring and management of crop pests. Four compounds (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol, (Z)-7-tetradecen-1-yl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecen-1-yl acetate reported as components of some important agricultural insect pests have been synthesized from theo-aleuritic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxyhexadecanoic acid) involving simplified Wittig reactions with improved yield.


Singh J.P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
National Academy Science Letters | Year: 2013

Laboratory evaluation was carried out to assess the efficacy of eight insecticides namely indoxacarb, fipronil, spinosad, ethofenprox, endosulfan, bifenthrin, lambdacyhalothrin and carbosulfan on two most prevalent lac insect parasitoids (Tachardiaephagus tachardiae and Eupelmus tachardiae) and two key predators (Eublemma amabilis and Pseudohypatopa pulverea) of lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr) by dipping of broodlac (seed material) in insecticidal solution. Broodlac dipping in insecticidal solution of indoxacarb (0.007 and 0.014 %), fipronil (0.005 %), spinosad (0.005 %), ethofenprox (0.02 %), and endosulfan (0.05 %) for 10 and 15 min caused significant reduction in the population of parasitoids and predators over control without showing any adverse effect on emergence and survival of lac insect. The reduction in emergence of E. amabilis and P. pulverea varied from 20.90 to 98.51 % and 66.67 to 93.33 %, respectively with the dipping of broodlac for 10 min and 83.58-100 % and 93-100 %, respectively with the dipping of broodlac for 15 min. Per cent reduction to the tune of 50.80-91.13 and 5.06-96.73 was recorded with respect of E. tachardiae and T. tachardiae, respectively with dipping of broodlac for 10 min and 77.60-100 and 29.95-98.62, respectively with the dipping of broodlac for 15 min in insecticidal solutions. These insecticides at the recommended concentrations can be safely and effectively used for improvement of broodlac quality in terms of reduced population of parasitoids and predators harbouring in the broodlac prior to inoculation on new trees without any harmful effect on lac insect. Bifenthrin (0.002 %), lambdacyhalothrin (0.005 %) and carbosulfan (0.01 %) though causes significant reduction in population of parasitoids and predators but survival of lac insect was also adversely affected hence cannot be recommended for treatment of broodlac. Furthermore, in view of ban imposed on the use of endosulfan it cannot be recommended. Therefore, selective insecticides namely indoxacarb, fipronil, spinosad and ethofenprox can be safely and effectively used for the treatment of broodlac. © 2013 The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Jaiswal A.K.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Singh J.P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the bio-efficacy of flubendiamide for the safety to lac insect and efficacy against associated insect-predators on lac culture. Eight concentrations of flubendiamide ranging from 0.0039 % (0.1 ml L−1) to 0.0315 % (0.8 ml L−1) were evaluated. No significant difference was observed on survival of emerging 1st instar lac insect larvae between various treatments and control as the result of dipping treatment of broodlac for 5, 10 and 15 min, indicating safety of the evaluated insecticide. Treatment of broodlac in insecticidal solutions for the same durations showed significant reduction in the population of both key lepidopteran predators, Eublemma amabilis (Noctuidae) and Pseudohypatopa pulverea (Blastobasidae) predating on lac insects. This is the first evaluation report of flubendiamide on lac insect ecosystem. © 2014, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Ghosal S.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2012

An experiment consisting of 96 trees was laid out in the Institute Research Farm during June 2007-February 2010 to assess the influence of factors like directional effect of lac on ber trees (northern and southern halves) and rainfall pattern on lac yield and yield ratio (output: input of broodlac). Average lac yield ratio in southern half was 26% higher than northern half in 2007-08 and the same was 21% higher in 2008-09. More sunlight might have kept the tree canopy warmer, which might have boosted up growth and development of the lac insect on the southern half in first two years. Due to meager rainfall in third year, sunlight was not a limiting factor influencing yield which resulted in a nonsignificant difference. At the same time, mean lac yield ratio was 4.9 in first year as against 7.15 in the third year; difference was significant and it could be attributed to weather differences. The typical patterns of rainfall in three different years have been described in details which revealed that lac yield decreased significantly with intensity of rainfall, number of consecutive weeks with 50 mm rain, amount of rainfall received after sexual maturity etc. As a result, 31% reduction in lac yield ratio was observed in first year compared to third year. The study also indicated that lac yield from trees of smaller canopy spread are least affected due to adverse weather condition.

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