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Majee R.N.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society

Insect sex pheromones are used for monitoring and management of crop pests. Four compounds (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol, (Z)-7-tetradecen-1-yl acetate, (Z)-9-tetradecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecen-1-yl acetate reported as components of some important agricultural insect pests have been synthesized from theo-aleuritic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxyhexadecanoic acid) involving simplified Wittig reactions with improved yield. Source

Majee R.N.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society

(E)-9-Hexadecen-1,16-olide (isoambrettolide) possessing musk-like odour is used as fixative in perfumery formulations. It has been synthesized from threo-aleuritic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxyhexadecanoic acid) by simple procedure. The compound showed antibacterial activity. Synthesis of dimethyl (E)-2-undecen-1,11-dioate was achieved for the first time from threo-aleuritic acid, the major component of lac resin, and its bioassay has been reported. Source

Ghosal S.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences

An experiment consisting of 96 trees was laid out in the Institute Research Farm during June 2007-February 2010 to assess the influence of factors like directional effect of lac on ber trees (northern and southern halves) and rainfall pattern on lac yield and yield ratio (output: input of broodlac). Average lac yield ratio in southern half was 26% higher than northern half in 2007-08 and the same was 21% higher in 2008-09. More sunlight might have kept the tree canopy warmer, which might have boosted up growth and development of the lac insect on the southern half in first two years. Due to meager rainfall in third year, sunlight was not a limiting factor influencing yield which resulted in a nonsignificant difference. At the same time, mean lac yield ratio was 4.9 in first year as against 7.15 in the third year; difference was significant and it could be attributed to weather differences. The typical patterns of rainfall in three different years have been described in details which revealed that lac yield decreased significantly with intensity of rainfall, number of consecutive weeks with 50 mm rain, amount of rainfall received after sexual maturity etc. As a result, 31% reduction in lac yield ratio was observed in first year compared to third year. The study also indicated that lac yield from trees of smaller canopy spread are least affected due to adverse weather condition. Source

Singh J.P.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums
National Academy Science Letters

Laboratory evaluation was carried out to assess the efficacy of eight insecticides namely indoxacarb, fipronil, spinosad, ethofenprox, endosulfan, bifenthrin, lambdacyhalothrin and carbosulfan on two most prevalent lac insect parasitoids (Tachardiaephagus tachardiae and Eupelmus tachardiae) and two key predators (Eublemma amabilis and Pseudohypatopa pulverea) of lac insect, Kerria lacca (Kerr) by dipping of broodlac (seed material) in insecticidal solution. Broodlac dipping in insecticidal solution of indoxacarb (0.007 and 0.014 %), fipronil (0.005 %), spinosad (0.005 %), ethofenprox (0.02 %), and endosulfan (0.05 %) for 10 and 15 min caused significant reduction in the population of parasitoids and predators over control without showing any adverse effect on emergence and survival of lac insect. The reduction in emergence of E. amabilis and P. pulverea varied from 20.90 to 98.51 % and 66.67 to 93.33 %, respectively with the dipping of broodlac for 10 min and 83.58-100 % and 93-100 %, respectively with the dipping of broodlac for 15 min. Per cent reduction to the tune of 50.80-91.13 and 5.06-96.73 was recorded with respect of E. tachardiae and T. tachardiae, respectively with dipping of broodlac for 10 min and 77.60-100 and 29.95-98.62, respectively with the dipping of broodlac for 15 min in insecticidal solutions. These insecticides at the recommended concentrations can be safely and effectively used for improvement of broodlac quality in terms of reduced population of parasitoids and predators harbouring in the broodlac prior to inoculation on new trees without any harmful effect on lac insect. Bifenthrin (0.002 %), lambdacyhalothrin (0.005 %) and carbosulfan (0.01 %) though causes significant reduction in population of parasitoids and predators but survival of lac insect was also adversely affected hence cannot be recommended for treatment of broodlac. Furthermore, in view of ban imposed on the use of endosulfan it cannot be recommended. Therefore, selective insecticides namely indoxacarb, fipronil, spinosad and ethofenprox can be safely and effectively used for the treatment of broodlac. © 2013 The National Academy of Sciences, India. Source

Saha D.,Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums | Saha D.,National Research Center on Finger printing
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources

Schleichera oleosa (Lour.) Oken is a preferred tree-host of kusmi form of lac insect, Kerria lacca, which produces superior quality lac resin of commercial interest. Very low success rate of clonal multiplication of this tree is one of the major bottlenecks for supply of quality planting material for lac cultivation. In vitro multiplication of axillary buds although promise to produce large-scale clones of high-yielding lac hosts, establishment of aseptic node culture is one of the critical steps in standardization of micropropagation from mature S. oleosa plant. The seasonal influence on bud emergence, heavy microbial contaminations and phenolic exudations are the important factors observed in the present study that limits the establishment of axillary bud cultures in S. oleosa. Predominant fungal and bacterial contaminants were identified through morpho-cytological and DNA sequence analysis. The Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium with 1.0 mg/L BAP and 1.0 mg/L silver nitrate showed best (83.33±13.61%) shoot initiation. Sub-culturing and elongation of the proliferated microshoots were possible on filter-paper-bridge soaked in liquid MS medium with 0.5-1.0 mg/L BAP, instead of agar-gelled MS media. Rooting of the axillary bud-derived shoots continued to be the major hurdle to achieve success in developing micropropagation protocol in S. oleosa. Source

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