Indian Institute of Millets Research

Hyderabad, India

Indian Institute of Millets Research

Hyderabad, India
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Idris A.S.O.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Idris A.S.O.,Indian National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology | Pandey A.,Center for Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing | Rao S.S.,Indian Institute of Millets Research | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2017

The production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) on wheat bran and cellulose was optimized employing a two stage statistical design of experiments. Optimization of process parameters resulted in a 3.2-fold increase in CMCase production to 959.53. IU/gDS. The process was evaluated at pilot scale in tray fermenters and yielded 457. IU/gDS using the lab conditions and indicating possibility for further improvement. The cellulase could effectively hydrolyze alkali pretreated sorghum stover and addition of Aspergillus niger β-glucosidase improved the hydrolytic efficiency 174%, indicating the potential to use this blend for effective saccharification of sorghum stover biomass. The enzymatic hydrolysate of sorghum stover was fermented to ethanol with ∼80% efficiency. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

Singh S.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute | Bhat B.V.,Indian Institute of Millets Research | Shukla G.P.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute | Gaharana D.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute | Anele U.Y.,North Dakota State University
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Nutritive value of stovers from 4 sorghum varieties (Pant Chari 5, PKV 809, CSV 17 and CSV 20) that were selected from a previous breeding program for their relative nutritive value was assessed using the in vitro and in vivo methods. Samples for in vitro and in vivo studies were harvested separately. For the in vivo studies, 16 adult Jalauni sheep (19.1 ± 0.35 kg) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 4) and offered chopped stover from CSV 20, PKV 809, Pant Chari 5 and CSV 17 varieties, respectively along with 200 g of concentrate mixture. After a 30-day feeding, 5 days of metabolism trial was conducted to determine dry matter intake (DMI), nutrients digestibility and nitrogen balance. For in vitro study, crude protein (CP) concentration of CSV 20 was lowest (P < 0.05) compared with the other varieties. The NDF and hemicellulose contents were highest (P < 0.001) in CSV 20. The CP content in chaffed stover used for the animal study increased marginally for all varieties except for Pant Chari 5 (45.3 g/kg DM) which had the lowest CP content. Buffer soluble protein (PB1), PA and PC fractions of the stovers were higher (P = 0.006) in CSV 17 compared with the other stovers. Although CSV 20 had the lowest (P < 0.001) PA and PC fractions, it had similar (P > 0.05) PB1, PB2 and PB3 fractions with one or more of the other stovers. In vitro dry matter digestibility was highest (P = 0.002) for CSV 17 and lowest for Pant Chari 5. Stover estimated DMI values varied between 0.0156 to 0.0164 of BW of the sheep with lower (P < 0.001) DMI noted for CSV 20 versus the other varieties. Greater (P < 0.05) cumulative gas production and rate of gas production (k) were noted for CSV 20 and Pant Chari 5 compared with others. Similar trend was also noted in the in vitro methane production, PF and SCFA concentration of the stovers. No difference was noted in the intake and digestibility of DM of the stover varieties. Sheep fed CSV 17 had significantly higher (P < 0.05) nitrogen intake and fecal nitrogen (11.2 and 4.18 g/d, respectively), and a tendency (P = 0.07) for higher urinary nitrogen and nitrogen balance. Overall, results showed that sheep had higher stover intake and better nutrients digestibility, more nitrogen balance and higher nutritive value (digestible CP and metabolizable energy) from CSV 17 and PKV 809 sorghum stover based diets. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Sood A.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Thakur K.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Sharma P.N.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | Gupta D.,CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Agricultural Research | Year: 2017

To enhance the nutritional value of maize (Zea mays L.), genetic characterization and conversion of common maize into crop enriched with quality protein maize may be beneficial. With the hope of producing a superior maize cultivar, the pattern of relationship among 40 maize inbred lines (QPM and non-QPM) adapted to hills was examined using molecular, biochemical and morphological characteristics. Among the non-QPM set, early maturing lines BAJIM-08-26 and KI-30 were found superior for grain yield, and among QPM set, CML189 line was found superior for high tryptophan content. Phenotypic performance-based clustering using Mahalanobis distance revealed seven clusters. Genotypes were grouped on the basis of flowering and yield traits. Two major clusters were defined, one consisting of all QPM lines and other have all non-QPM lines. This distinction is well observed in the plot generated by principal component analysis. This information may be used in selecting genetically divergent lines for ongoing breeding programs for quality enhancement. The selected QPM line(s) could be used as donor and the well-adapted agronomically superior lines as recurrent parent for conversion of non-QPM to QPM lines. © 2017, NAAS (National Academy of Agricultural Sciences).

Das I.K.,Indian Institute of Millets Research | Govardhan C.,Osmania University | Ghorade R.B.,Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth | Narayana Y.D.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad | And 4 more authors.
Indian Phytopathology | Year: 2017

Milk stage kernel infection frequency has substantial effects on mold development in mature sorghum grain. Field experiments were conducted with 16 sorghum genotypes at four grain mold prone locations (Akola, Hyderabad, Dharwad and Surat) in India during kharif 2014 and 2015. The genotypes included grain mold susceptible, resistant, improved germplasm, breeding lines and released cultivars. The objective was to quantify natural infection frequency of fungi in milk stage kernel and study the response of various sorghum genotypes against this infection. Results revealed that Fusarium (16.1%) and Curvularia spp. (7.9%) were predominant fungal genera at the milk stage kernel at all the locations under study. Few other fungi namely Alternaria, Bipolaris, Aspergillus, and Pénicillium spp. Were detected sporadically in low frequency (~0.95%). There was significant negative association between infection frequency of Fusarium and Curvularia especially when intensity of infection was moderate to high (>25%). The genotypes B58586, GmR156-1, GMR166-1, SGMRN12-3-1 and IS25070 were found promising with low intensity (average total infection<10%) of infection across environments. The information can be useful for resistant breeding program against specific fungal component of grain mold. © Indian Phytopathological Society 2017.

Phuke R.M.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Phuke R.M.,Telangana University | Anuradha K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Radhika K.,Telangana University | And 12 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2017

The low grain iron and zinc densities are well documented problems in food crops, affecting crop nutritional quality especially in cereals. Sorghumis a major source of energy and micronutrients for majority of population in Africa and central India. Understanding genetic variation, genotype × environment interaction and association between these traits is critical for development of improved cultivars with high iron and zinc. A total of 336 sorghum RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines) were evaluated for grain iron and zinc concentration along with other agronomic traits for 2 years at three locations. The results showedthat large variability exists in RIL population for both micronutrients (Iron =10.8 to 76.4mg kg−1 and Zinc = 10.2 to 58.7mg kg−1, across environments) and agronomic traits. Genotype × environment interaction for both micronutrients (iron and zinc) was highly significant. GGEbiplots comparison for grain iron andzinc showedgreater variation across environments. The results also showed that G × E was substantial for grain iron and zinc, hence wider testing needed for taking care of G × E interaction to breed micronutrient rich sorghum lines. Iron and zinc concentration showed high significant positive correlation (across environment = 0.79; p < 0.01) indicating possibility of simultaneous effective selection for both the traits. The RIL population showed good variability and high heritabilities (>0.60, in individual environments) for Fe and Zn and other traits studied indicating its suitability to map QTL for iron and zinc. © 2017 Phuke, Anuradha, Radhika, Jabeen, Anuradha, Ramesh, Hariprasanna, Mehtre, Deshpande, Anil, Das, Rathore, Hash, Reddy and Kumar.

Visarada K.B.R.S.,Indian Institute of Millets Research | Prasad G.S.,Indian Institute of Millets Research | Royer M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Plant Biotechnology Reports | Year: 2016

Sweet sorghum is a climate smart crop with multiple uses. The crop is susceptible to attack by the spotted stemborer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe). This causes deadheart formation, leading to lodging of plants and consequent high economic losses. Lack of stable sources of resistance make any genetic enhancement through breeding difficult. We report a study to build up host plant resistance using transgenic technology by introducing two different classes of Bt genes (cry1Aa and cry1B) into two elite sweet sorghum genotypes of India (SSV84 and RSSV9). We devised tissue culture methods to suit the genotypes of our interest, SSV84 and RSSV9, and employed two methods of genetic transformation: the particle bombardment and in planta method of Agrobacterium. Modification of in vitro culture methods involved subculture every 3 days in the initial stages of culture and the use of precultured embryos as target tissues. For the in planta method, a floral dip for 1 h in Agrobacterium suspension supplemented with l-cysteine and Tween-20 was used. Sixteen transgenic events were generated; inheritance, integration and stable expression of the transgenes till the T4 generation were confirmed. The amount of Bt Cry1Aa protein at 25–30 days of growth ranged from 24.8 to 72.8 ng/g of fresh leaf tissue. We recorded 78.4 % larval mortality, reduced leaf damage (3.0 out of 9.0) and reduced feeding (41.0 %) over the controls in insect feed assays. Stable inheritance and expression in the in planta-derived transgenics are presented. © 2016 Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology and Springer Japan

Rao V.T.,Regional Agricultural Research Station RARS | Reddy P.S.,Indian Institute of Millets Research | Reddy B.V.S.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics
Sabrao Journal of Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2016

In all sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) production systems, grain molds can reduce the yield and quality of short duration cultivars if they mature in wet and humid weather. This investigation was taken up to find out combining ability for grain mold resistance under 4 environmental conditions by studying 168 hybrids and their parents along with checks. The pooled analysis of variance for combining ability revealed significant differences due to environments, parents, hybrids and various interactions indicating the existence of wide variability in the material under study. The ratios of additive to dominance variances revealed that additive gene action was predominant for inheritance of grain mold resistance (Panicle Grain Mold Rating - PGMR). Among the parents, two A-lines ICSA 369 and ICSA 370 and six testers viz., IS 41675, ICSR 91011, ICSR 89058, PVK 801, GD 65028, GD 65055 in all the 4 environments were identified as a good general combiners for grain mold resistance. These parents can be utilized for the development of grain mold resistant hybrids. © Society for the Advancement of Breeding Research in Asia and Oceania (SABRAO) 2016.

Reddy P.S.,Indian Institute of Millets Research | Reddy B.V.S.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Kumar A.A.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Sharma H.C.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2015

Breeding for resistance to sorghum shoot fly in A1 CMS system has been only partially successful. To compare the alternate Cytoplasmic Male Sterility_(CMS) systems for shoot fly resistance, 72 hybrids produced by crossing 36 A-lines carrying six diverse cytoplasms namely, A1, A2, A3, A4(M), A4(G) and A4(VZM), each in six nuclear backgrounds with two common fertility restorers. The hybrids were evaluated during 2006 and 2007 rainy and post rainy seasons in shoot fly screening trials at ICRISAT. ANOVA indicated absence of overall cytoplasmic influence on dead hearts%. The general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) estimates suggested that inheritance for deadhearts was governed by additive-type of gene action. For GCA effects, the A2 and A4(M) cytoplasms and for SCA effects, the A4(G) and A4(M) cytoplasms were superior over other cytoplasms. Overall, the A4(M) cytoplasm seemed to contribute to shoot fly resistance in hybrid combinations. However, use of all the six alternate cytoplasms should not increase the risk of shoot fly in commercial grain production. © 2015, Indian Society of Genetics and Plant Breeding. All rights reserved.

Ganapathy K.N.,Indian Institute of Millets Research | Rakshit S.,Indian Institute of Millets Research | Gomashe S.S.,Indian Institute of Millets Research | Audilakshmi S.,Indian Institute of Millets Research | And 2 more authors.
Plant Genetic Resources: Characterisation and Utilisation | Year: 2016

Knowledge on genetic diversity is necessary to determine the relationships among the genotypes, which allow the selection of individual accessions for crop breeding programmes. The present study aimed at assessing the extent and pattern of genetic diversity within a set of 251 sorghum genotypes using SSR markers. A total of 393 alleles were detected from the 251 genotypes, with the number of alleles ranging from 2 (Xcup11) to 24 (Sb5-206) and an average of 10.07 alleles per primer pair. Pairwise Wright's FST statistic and Nei's genetic distance estimates revealed that the race and geographical origin were responsible for the pattern of diversity and structure in the genetic materials. In addition, the analysis also revealed high genetic differentiation between the rainy and post-rainy sorghum groups. Narrow diversity was observed among the different working groups in the rainy (restorers and varieties) and post-rainy (varieties and advanced breeding lines) sorghum groups. Neighbour-joining and STRUCTURE analysis also classified 44 elite lines broadly into two distinct groups (rainy and post-rainy). However, limited diversity within the rainy and post-rainy sorghum groups warranted an urgent need for the utilization of diverse germplasm accessions for broadening the genetic base of the Indian breeding programme. The diverse germplasm accessions identified from the mini-core accessions for utilization in breeding programmes are discussed. Copyright © NIAB 2016

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