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Cai S.,Xiamen University | Chen X.,Zhejiang University | Bose I.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2013

Recently, the role of information technology (IT) for energy and environmental sustainability has received wide attention from both academics and practitioners because IT plays a crucial role in the energy consumption and environmental related issues. This study explores the role of IT for energy and environmental sustainability in China by proposing a research model based on the political-economic framework. Drawing upon the stakeholder theory, we identify public concerns and regulatory forces as key political factors, and cost reduction and differentiation as key economic factors that affect the adoption of green IT and IT for green. The survey method is employed to test our model and hypotheses and PLS is chosen for data analysis. Our results reveal that economic factors, including cost reduction and differentiation are critical in influencing Chinese companies to adopt IT for environmental sustainability strategy. Our research suggests that the role of IT for environmental sustainability may go beyond cost reduction and contribute to competitive advantage for the firms. With the proper use of IT and IT related systems and equipments, a firm can improve its competitiveness while continuing to be environmentally friendly. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Jayaram J.,University of South Carolina | Avittathur B.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
International Journal of Production Economics | Year: 2015

We use grounded theory arguments and field data to support a model that links environmental government policies to customer actions and firm sustainability strategies. A firms sustainability strategy in turn influences the design and deployment of green supply chain management strategies. Specifically, green design, product recovery and reverse logistics were found to be key facets of green supply chain management strategies. Our focus on the emerging economy of India and the unique insights of this qualitative Delphi study that relies on grounded theory makes key contributions to theory building and managerial practice in the area of sustainable supply chain management. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

Farquad M.A.H.,University of Hong Kong | Bose I.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2012

This paper deals with the application of support vector machine (SVM) to deal with the class imbalance problem. The objective of this paper is to examine the feasibility and efficiency of SVM as a preprocessor. Our study analyzes different classification algorithms that are employed to predict the customers with caravan car policy based on his/her sociodemographic data and history of product ownership. A series of experiments was conducted to test various computational intelligence techniques viz., Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Logistic Regression (LR), and Random Forest (RF). Various standard balancing techniques such as under-sampling, over-sampling and Synthetic Minority Over-sampling TEchnique (SMOTE) are also employed. Subsequently, a strategy of data balancing for handling imbalanced distribution in data is proposed. The proposed approach first employs SVM as a preprocessor and the actual target values of training data are then replaced by the predictions of trained SVM. Later, this modified training data is used to train techniques such as MLP, LR, and RF. Based on the measure of sensitivity, it is observed that the proposed approach not only balances the data effectively but also provides more number of instances for minority class, which in turn enhances the performance of the intelligence techniques. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mukerjee R.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta | Tang B.,Simon Fraser University
Biometrika | Year: 2012

Two-level fractional factorial designs are considered under a baseline parameterization. The criterion of minimum aberration is formulated in this context and optimal designs under this criterion are investigated. The underlying theory and the concept of isomorphism turn out to be significantly different from their counterparts under orthogonal parameterization, and this is reflected in the optimal designs obtained. © 2011 Biometrika Trust.

Kumar S.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta | Chatterjee A.K.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2013

Variety among products is manifested in terms of different attributes or features present in a product. Each attribute in its turn, may be built-in in the product at different levels, giving rise to an increased choice for the customer. However, higher level of an attribute, yielding higher utility for the customers, typically requires higher costs and commands higher price. Increasing price results in higher profit margin but lowers the attractiveness of the product to the customers. In this regard, product line optimization is concerned with the offering of a set of product variants to a large customer base, such that, certain objectives like maximization of buyers' utility, seller's return can be met. In this paper, a mathematical programming model has been developed, to determine the optimal product combination that fetches the maximum profit from a potential targeted market segment. Contrary to the existing formulations on product line optimization, where the pricing decision is determined exogenously, we consider simultaneous decision on pricing and product line optimization. Price is considered as a decision variable along with other attributes. Another major departure from the past models is the incorporation of costs associated with each level of attributes. These costs, used as input data, are justified, as the manufacturers typically use combinations of different modules to create different levels of the attributes. The resulting model became computationally complex and hence a greedy heuristic is developed for the purpose. An example is provided to illustrate the working of the heuristic. The same example has been solved for optimality, yielding identical solution to the heuristic results. Finally, a proposition has been presented to show the condition under which the heuristic will give the optimal solution. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chaudhuri S.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
International Journal of Technology and Globalisation | Year: 2010

The world pharmaceutical industry dominated by multinational corporations has neglected research for drugs for diseases of poor countries. Introduction of stronger patent protection in India after World Trade Organization's TRIPS agreement has failed to rectify this deficiency despite the substantial increase in R&D activity. In the light of the experience of the Indian private sector and the public-private partnerships initiated in India for the development of new drugs, the paper explores some policy options and suggests the expansion of public-private partnerships to include organisations from other innovative developing countries such as Brazil and China. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Kodaganallur V.,Seton Hall University | Sen A.K.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta | Mitra S.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2014

In this paper, we consider the single machine scheduling problem with quadratic penalties and sequence-dependent (QPSD) setup times. QPSD is known to be NP-Hard. Only a few exact approaches, and to the best of our knowledge, no approximate approaches, have been reported in the literature so far. This paper discusses exact and approximate approaches for solving the problem, and presents empirical findings. We make use of a graph search algorithm, Memory-Based Depth-First Branch-and-Bound (MDFBB), and present an algorithm, QPSD-MDFBB that can optimally solve QPSD, and advances the state of the art for finding exact solutions. For finding approximate solutions to large problem instances, we make use of the idea of greedy stochastic search, and present a greedy stochastic algorithm, QPSD-GSA that provides moderately good solutions very rapidly even for large problems. The major contribution of the current paper is to apply QPSD-GSA to generate a subset of the starting solutions for a new genetic algorithm, QPSD-GEN, which is shown to provide near-optimal solutions very quickly. Owing to its polynomial running time, QPSD-GEN can be used for much larger instances than QPSD-MDFBB can handle. Experimental results have been provided to demonstrate the performances of these algorithms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Singla M.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
British Food Journal | Year: 2010

Purpose: Nutritional labeling of food products is not mandatory in India at present and the Indian Government is on the verge of introducing a code of conduct for it. The aim of this paper is to provide some initial guidelines for the above-said purpose so as to have consumer friendly labeling policies. Design/methodology/approach: A structured questionnaire-based survey was used for the purpose of the study. A total of 100 respondents were considered for the study. Data were collected from two superstores located in New Delhi. Findings: Food labels are read by the consumers for brand comparisons and not for consulting nutritional information. Difficult terminology, small font size and inability to understand nutritional labels are the major problems encountered by the consumers. Television, friends, magazines are commonly used for assessing nutritional information. Labels are considered more consumer friendly when benchmarks regarding serving size are provided. Income level, size of household, number of children and age did not play a role in the usage of nutritional labels by the consumers. Consumers with special dietary needs used nutritional labels regularly. Research limitations/implications: A small sample size is the limitation of the study. Originality/value: This is the first study of its kind in India. It is valuable for the Indian Government in framing policies regarding nutritional labeling and for imparting nutritional education. It will also help it to draft consumer friendly labels for effective usage. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Mitra S.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta | Datta P.P.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2014

Research on green supply chain management (GSCM) or sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) has attracted increased attention in recent years. Although GSCM/SSCM has been studied for developed and developing countries, there has been little information about the adoption of GSCM/SSCM practices in India. This article presents one of the earliest surveys on GSCM practices in Indian manufacturing firms. The items for the survey were developed based on the extant literature and feedback from corporates. Some of the major findings of the survey are as follows. We found that the state of adoption of GSCM practices by Indian firms was still in its infancy, the awareness of environmental sustainability was quite low among consumers, and the regulatory framework was also lacking in terms of promoting environmental sustainability. Results of data analysis showed that supplier collaboration for environmental sustainability had a positive impact on environmentally sustainable product design and logistics, which in turn was positively related to competitiveness and economic performance of the firm. We compared the results with the observations made by other researchers for developed and developing countries and provided managerial implications for the government and manufacturers as to what steps need to be taken to generate awareness towards environmental sustainability and facilitate the adoption of GSCM practices among Indian firms to a greater extent. We conclude the paper by indicating directions for future research on GSCM/SSCM. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Mitra S.,Indian Institute of Management Calcutta
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2012

Reverse logistics or closed-loop supply chains where product returns are integrated with traditional forward supply chains have been one of the major topics of research since about the last one and a half decades. In this paper, we address the inventory management issue in closed-loop supply chains, and develop deterministic and stochastic models for a two-echelon system with correlated demands and returns under generalized cost structures. In particular, we address the following questions - Do closed-loop supply chains cost more than traditional forward supply chains? Does a higher rate of return always translate into lower demand variability and hence lower expected costs? What is the relationship between expected costs and correlations between demands and returns? Models developed and numerical examples shown in the paper reveal that although a higher rate of return and a higher correlation between demand and return reduce the variability of net demand, it may not necessarily lead to cost savings; rather the movement of costs will depend on the values of system parameters. We also quantify the cost savings in case the actual demand and return information is available at the time of decision-making. We conclude the paper by providing managerial implications and directions for future research. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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