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Kamath R.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
Development and Change | Year: 2016

The Indian microfinance institutes (MFI) crisis has spawned several debates on the MFI movement. What is sorely missing are the perspectives of the clients. Using the financial diary methodology in a study of 90 poor households in Ramanagaram town, in the district of Ramanagaram, Karnataka, India, this article analyses how household cash flows are impacted by the presence or absence of MFI loans. During the study period (September 2008-July 2009), an informal ban on MFI repayments was called which offered a rare opportunity to collect data from the same households in the presence and absence of MFI loan repayments. An analysis of their expenditures points to the genesis of the crisis, namely that MFI loan repayments led to impoverishment since these were made at the cost of basic household consumption, like food staples. The authors use the Ramanagaram financial diaries to provide a counter narrative to the dominant Yunusian Grameen narratives on microfinance and poverty alleviation by not looking at microfinance loans in isolation but by situating them in the context of the totality of consumption, cash inflows and debt that govern the lives of the poor. © 2016 International Institute of Social Studies. Source


Sapra A.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore | Truong V.-A.,Cornell University | Zhang R.Q.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Operations Research | Year: 2010

We study the inventory replenishment of a product whose demand can be manipulated by restricting the supply. This research is motivated by a novel marketing tactic employed by manufacturers of fashion and luxury items. Such a tactic combines innovative marketing with deliberate understocking in an attempt to create shortages (i.e., waitlists) that add to the allure and sense of exclusivity of a product and stimulate its demand. We model the problem as a finite-horizon, periodic-review system where demand in each period is a decreasing function of the net ending inventory in the previous period. Although the optimal structure can be complex in general, under certain conditions we are able to characterize the optimal policy as a state-dependent, monotone, base-stock policy. We compare this policy with the optimal policy for the case in which demand is independent of the net inventory. We also show that understocking is optimal in various scenarios. We then propose a novel strategy, called the inventory-withholding strategy, to further explore the wait-list effect by making customers wait even when there is inventory on hand to satisfy them. Our numerical experiments study the impact of various model parameters in combination with the wait-list effect on the optimal policy and the corresponding expected profits. © 2010 INFORMS. Source


Malghan D.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
Ecological Economics | Year: 2011

We develop a formal representation of the economy-ecosystem interaction problem by distinguishing between stock-flow, and fund-flux spaces (Georgescu-Roegen, 1971). We then define dimensionless quantities in both the cardinal stock-flow space and the ordinal fund-flux space. This leads to analytic definitions of natural capital and natural income in the fund-flux space. We show that a stock-fund representation of the economy-ecosystem interaction problem helps investigate aggregation properties of biophysical metrics. In particular, we show how a metric that is dimensionally consistent in the stock-flow space can have dimensional problems in the fund-flux space. Ecological footprint is used as an illustrative example. Finally, we argue that dimensionally consistent metrics are keys to further the development of biophysical assessments as a tool for practical environmental policy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Malghan D.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
Ecological Economics | Year: 2010

We develop a formal framework to investigate the relationship between ecological economics' concept of scale, and the more traditional concerns of allocation, and distribution. The framework presented here helps clarify differences between the normative and positive aspects of scale, allocation, and distribution. In particular, we distinguish between 'normative rules' and 'normative benchmarks'. This distinction helps untangle the web of hierarchical and evolutionary relationships that connect scale, allocation, and distribution. We also introduce concepts of scale efficiency and distribution efficiency as counterparts to the widely used allocation efficiency, and develop a simple dynamic model relating these three efficiencies. We then present stylized facts about the relationship between scale, allocation, and distribution that this model helps uncover. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Sen G.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
Global Public Health | Year: 2014

Women's health is currently shaped by the confluence of two important policy trends - the evolution of health system reform policies and from the early 1990s onwards, a strong articulation of a human rights-based approach to health that has emphasised laws and policies to advance gender equality and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). The drive for sexual and reproductive rights represents an inclusive trend towards human rights to health that goes beyond the right to health services, directing attention to girls' and women's rights to bodily autonomy, integrity and choice in relation to sexuality and reproduction. Such an expanded concept of the right to health is essential if laws, policies and programmes are to respect, protect and fulfil the health of girls and women. However, this expanded understanding has been ghettoised from the more mainstream debates on the right to health and was only partially included in the Millennium Development Goals. The paper argues in favour of a twofold approach in placing SRHR effectively in the context of the post-2015 development agenda: first, firmly ground it in an inclusive approach to the right to health; and second, drawing on two decades of national-level implementation, propose a forward-looking agenda focusing on quality, equality and accountability in policies and in programmes. This can build on good practice while addressing critical challenges central to the development framework itself. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source

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