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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH-2007-1.1-03 | Award Amount: 1.45M | Year: 2008

The overall purpose of the GlobInn project is to improve our understanding of the changing nature of internationalization of Europes innovation systems by studying the international knowledge sourcing strategies of European firms and their effect on performance. The starting premise of the project is that Europes knowledge resources and its role in the global economy will be increasingly shaped by the ability of EU firms to source knowledge internationally. Firms can employ three modes in internationalizing their innovative activities: (a) the global trading of technology based services and licensing as firms seek to exploit the global markets for their technologies; (b) international collaborative agreements and strategic alliances as firms seek out international partners for their knowledge generating activities; and (c) the international dispersal of their own R&D and technology creating activities as they seek out new regions and resources in different parts of the world. The GlobInn project aims to bring together leading EU scholars involved in studying each of these modes largely in isolation to focus on an integrated analysis. In the first instance this analysis will map the trends in the growth of each of these modes with an emphasis on whether internationalization of innovation in European firms is an intra EU or extra EU phenomenon. The second focal point will be the organisational and managerial issues which influence the strategies of EU firms in seeking international sources of knowledge, and have an impact on their on innovation and economic performance. Both of these are essential for analysing the implications for national and EU-level policies. Indeed the underlying rationale for the GlobInn project is that devising appropriate policies requires a deeper understanding of each of the three modes and the firms level processes and strategies.

Srivastava S.C.,HEC Paris | Shainesh G.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2015

The digital divide is usually conceptualized through goods-dominant logic, where bridging the divide entails providing digital goods to disadvantaged segments of the population. This is expected to enhance their digital capabilities and thus to have a positive influence on the digital outcomes (or services) experienced. In contrast, this study is anchored in an alternative service-dominant logic and posits that viewing the divide from a service perspective might be better suited to the context of developing countries, where there is a huge divide across societal segments in accessing basic services such as healthcare and education. This research views the prevailing differences in the level of services consumed by different population segments (service divide) as the key issue to be addressed by innovative digital tools in developing countries. The study posits that information and communication technologies (ICTs) can be leveraged to bridge the service divide to enhance the capabilities of service-disadvantaged segments of society. But such service delivery requires an innovative assembly of ICT as well as non-ICT resources. Building on concepts from service-dominant logic and service science, this paper aims to understand how such service innovation efforts can be orchestrated. Specifically, adopting a process view, two Indian enterprises that have developed sustainable telemedicine healthcare service delivery models for the rural population in India are examined. The study traces the configurations of three interactional resources-knowledge, technology, and institutions-through which value-creating usercentric objectives of increasing geographical access and reducing cost are achieved. The theoretical contributions are largely associated with unearthing and understanding how the three interactional resources were orchestrated for service-centric value creation in different combinative patterns as resource exploitation, resource combination, and value reinforcement. The analysis also reveals the three distinct stages of service innovation evolution (idea and launch, infancy and early growth, and late growth and expansion), with a distinct shift in the dominant resource for each stage. Through an inductive process, the study also identifies four key enablers for successfully implementing these ICT-enabled service innovations: obsessive customer empathy, belief in the transformational power of ICT, continuous recursive learning, and efficient network orchestration.

George A.,Johns Hopkins University | George A.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore | Iyer A.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
Social Science and Medicine | Year: 2013

The dynamics of informal health markets in marginalised regions are relevant to policy discourse in India, but are poorly understood. We examine how informal health markets operate from the viewpoint of informal providers (those without any government-recognised medical degrees, otherwise known as RMPs) by drawing upon data from a household survey in 2002, a provider census in 2004 and ongoing field observations from a research site in Koppal district, Karnataka, India. We find that despite their illegality, RMPs depend on government and private providers for their training and referral networks. Buffeted by unregulated market pressures, RMPs are driven to provide allopathic commodities regardless of need, but can also be circumspect in their practice. Though motivated by profit, their socially embedded practice at community level at times undermines their ability to ensure payment of fees for their services. In addition, RMPs feel that communities can threaten them via violence or malicious rumours, leading them to seek political favour and social protection from village elites and elected representatives. RMPs operate within negotiated quid pro quo bargains that lead to tenuous reciprocity or fragile trust between them and the communities in which they practise. In the context of this 'unfree' market, some RMPs reported being more embedded in health systems, more responsive to communities and more vulnerable to unregulated market pressures than others. Understanding the heterogeneity, nuanced motivations and the embedded social relations that mark informal providers in the health systems, markets and communities they work in, is critical for health system reforms. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Iyer A.,Purdue University | Saranga H.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore | Seshadri S.,University of Texas at Austin
Production and Operations Management | Year: 2013

We study the linkages between firm-level quality initiatives such as quality management systems (QMS) and total quality management (TQM) and output productivity in the Indian auto component industry. We use externally validated quality certification and quality awards as proxies for QMS and TQM, respectively, as it is difficult to directly measure the QMS and TQM efforts of firms. We use an unbalanced panel of 220 firms and a balanced panel of 73 firms from the Indian auto component industry over the period 1993-2006 to study these links. Both parametric as well as non-parametric approaches are used, as appropriate, to measure the rate of change in productivity and the impact of quality initiatives on productivity change during this period. We determine the proportion of productivity resulting from technical change and relative efficiency change, thus providing insights into the structure of productivity improvements. We find that TQM efforts resulted in a high rate of productivity change (11%) in the award-winning firms after the award. On the other hand, pre-certification productivity change due to QMS was 5% and post-certification change was 3.6%. In the periods prior to certification, productivity change was driven mainly by technical change; whereas the source of productivity change after certification is mixed. However, prior to awards, productivity change was driven mainly by relative efficiency change, whereas post-award productivity change was due to technical change. The results suggest that management focus on attaining certification did generate conceptual learning (linked to technical change) during the period leading to certification, but these effects were not significant after certification. The results also suggest that the TQM programs generated significant productivity gains in the long run, although setting the associated systems in place did not result in significant productivity change prior to winning awards. Thus, the study provides direct but nuanced evidence linking quality certification as well as the adoption of TQM programs to the associated conceptual and operational learning processes and their impact on the change in productivity. © 2013 Production and Operations Management Society.

Malghan D.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
Ecological Economics | Year: 2010

We develop a formal framework to investigate the relationship between ecological economics' concept of scale, and the more traditional concerns of allocation, and distribution. The framework presented here helps clarify differences between the normative and positive aspects of scale, allocation, and distribution. In particular, we distinguish between 'normative rules' and 'normative benchmarks'. This distinction helps untangle the web of hierarchical and evolutionary relationships that connect scale, allocation, and distribution. We also introduce concepts of scale efficiency and distribution efficiency as counterparts to the widely used allocation efficiency, and develop a simple dynamic model relating these three efficiencies. We then present stylized facts about the relationship between scale, allocation, and distribution that this model helps uncover. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Malghan D.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
Ecological Economics | Year: 2011

We develop a formal representation of the economy-ecosystem interaction problem by distinguishing between stock-flow, and fund-flux spaces (Georgescu-Roegen, 1971). We then define dimensionless quantities in both the cardinal stock-flow space and the ordinal fund-flux space. This leads to analytic definitions of natural capital and natural income in the fund-flux space. We show that a stock-fund representation of the economy-ecosystem interaction problem helps investigate aggregation properties of biophysical metrics. In particular, we show how a metric that is dimensionally consistent in the stock-flow space can have dimensional problems in the fund-flux space. Ecological footprint is used as an illustrative example. Finally, we argue that dimensionally consistent metrics are keys to further the development of biophysical assessments as a tool for practical environmental policy. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Venkatagiri S.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
2011 24th IEEE-CS Conference on Software Engineering Education and Training, CSEE and T 2011 - Proceedings | Year: 2011

Agile software development methods have begun to gain wide acceptance by the global software industry. However, project managers with academic training in ASD are a rarity. This paper outlines a course in IS Project Management that is well-suited for an audience consisting of students from the information systems, business and computer science streams, who normally make up a graduate class. The course begins by adopting a process-neutral perspective towards activities such as requirements and estimation, before proceeding to discuss Agile methods. A team project allows participants to develop a hands-on feel for ASD, with the help of an Agile PM platform. The author has recently taught the course as proposed at his institution. The paper makes some observations on the effect of prior work experience on team performance. It concludes with some testimonials from professional participants, on the impact that the course has had on their practices at work. © 2011 IEEE.

Kamath R.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
Development and Change | Year: 2016

The Indian microfinance institutes (MFI) crisis has spawned several debates on the MFI movement. What is sorely missing are the perspectives of the clients. Using the financial diary methodology in a study of 90 poor households in Ramanagaram town, in the district of Ramanagaram, Karnataka, India, this article analyses how household cash flows are impacted by the presence or absence of MFI loans. During the study period (September 2008-July 2009), an informal ban on MFI repayments was called which offered a rare opportunity to collect data from the same households in the presence and absence of MFI loan repayments. An analysis of their expenditures points to the genesis of the crisis, namely that MFI loan repayments led to impoverishment since these were made at the cost of basic household consumption, like food staples. The authors use the Ramanagaram financial diaries to provide a counter narrative to the dominant Yunusian Grameen narratives on microfinance and poverty alleviation by not looking at microfinance loans in isolation but by situating them in the context of the totality of consumption, cash inflows and debt that govern the lives of the poor. © 2016 International Institute of Social Studies.

Shukla U.K.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore | Thampy A.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

The electricity reforms were initiated in India with the objective of promoting competition in the electricity market. In order to promote competition, the Electricity Act 2003 was enacted and various policy initiatives were taken by the Government of India. Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC) also facilitated competition through the regulatory framework of availability based tariff, Indian Electricity Grid Code, open access in inter-state transmission, inter-state trading and power exchanges. Despite these initiatives, electricity prices increased in the Wholesale Electricity Market in India (WEMI). This paper analyses the market structure and competitiveness in the WEMI. There are, of course, various potential reasons for the rise in the electricity price. This paper seeks to investigate, if market power was one of the reasons for increase in market prices. Concentration ratio, Herfindahl-Hirschman index, Supply Margin Assessment, and Residual Supply Index have been used to measure market power. This paper also uses the price-cost mark-up to examine, if exercise of market power led to higher margins. The analysis suggests that market power of firms may be part of the reason for the increase in electricity prices in WEMI. The study suggests various measures to increase competition in the WEMI. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Sen G.,Indian Institute of Management Bangalore
Global Public Health | Year: 2014

Women's health is currently shaped by the confluence of two important policy trends - the evolution of health system reform policies and from the early 1990s onwards, a strong articulation of a human rights-based approach to health that has emphasised laws and policies to advance gender equality and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). The drive for sexual and reproductive rights represents an inclusive trend towards human rights to health that goes beyond the right to health services, directing attention to girls' and women's rights to bodily autonomy, integrity and choice in relation to sexuality and reproduction. Such an expanded concept of the right to health is essential if laws, policies and programmes are to respect, protect and fulfil the health of girls and women. However, this expanded understanding has been ghettoised from the more mainstream debates on the right to health and was only partially included in the Millennium Development Goals. The paper argues in favour of a twofold approach in placing SRHR effectively in the context of the post-2015 development agenda: first, firmly ground it in an inclusive approach to the right to health; and second, drawing on two decades of national-level implementation, propose a forward-looking agenda focusing on quality, equality and accountability in policies and in programmes. This can build on good practice while addressing critical challenges central to the development framework itself. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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