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Ghosh D.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Dube T.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Shivaprasad A.,Sambhram Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2010

A variety of different scripts are used in writing languages throughout the world. In a multiscript, multilingual environment, it is essential to know the script used in writing a document before an appropriate character recognition and document analysis algorithm can be chosen. In view of this, several methods for automatic script identification have been developed so far. They mainly belong to two broad categoriesstructure-based and visual-appearance-based techniques. This survey report gives an overview of the different script identification methodologies under each of these categories. Methods for script identification in online data and video-texts are also presented. It is noted that the research in this field is relatively thin and still more research is to be done, particularly in the case of handwritten documents. © 2010 IEEE.

Chaturvedi V.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Shukla P.R.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
Climatic Change | Year: 2014

Addressing the challenges of global warming requires interventions on both the energy supply and demand side. With the supply side responses being thoroughly discussed in the literature, our paper focuses on analyzing the role of end use efficiency improvements for Indian climate change mitigation policy and the associated co-benefits, within the integrated assessment modeling framework of Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Six scenarios are analyzed here in total- one no climate policy and two climate policy cases, and within each of these one scenario with reference end use energy technology assumptions and another with advance end use energy technology assumptions has been analyzed. The paper has some important insights. Final energy demand and emissions in India are significantly reduced with energy efficiency improvements, and the role of this policy is important especially for the building and transportation sector under both reference and climate policy scenarios. Though energy efficiency policy should be an integral part of climate policy, by itself it is not sufficient for achieving mitigation targets, and a climate policy is necessary for achieving mitigation goals. There are significant co-benefits of energy efficiency improvements. Energy security for India is improved with reduced oil, coal and gas imports. Significant reduction in local pollutant gases is found which is important for local health concerns. Capital investment requirement for Indian electricity generation is reduced, more so for the climate policy scenarios, and finally there are significant savings in terms of reduced abatement cost for meeting climate change mitigation goals. © 2013 U.S. Government.

Mahapatra D.,Adani Institute of Infrastructure Management On Leave | Shukla P.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Dhar S.,Technical University of Denmark
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Electricity production causes unintended impacts. Their exclusion by the market leads to suboptimal resource allocations. Monetizing and internalizing of external costs, though challenging and debatable, leads to a better allocation of economic resources and welfare. In this paper, a life-cycle analysis (LCA) on the production of electricity from conventional coal based electricity generation system has been performed in order to examine the environmental impacts of coal based electricity generating systems in the twin-city of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar in western India. By using dose-response functions, we make an attempt to estimate the damages to human health, crops, and building materials resulting from the operation of coal power plants and its associated mines. Further, we use geographic information system to account for spatially dependent data. Finally, monetary values have been assigned to estimate the damage to human health, crops and building materials. This study reveals that the health as well as on non-health impacts of air pollution resulting from coal based electricity generation may not be ignored both in absolute as well as economic value terms. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kainuma M.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Shukla P.R.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Jiang K.,Energy Research Institute
Energy Economics | Year: 2012

Asian Modeling Exercise (AME) studies show feasible GHG emissions pathways consistent with the 2. degrees centigrade global stabilization target. The aim of the low carbon society subgroup is to propose frameworks, modeling methodologies, and workable roadmaps that will transform in-situ socioeconomic development to a sustainable low carbon society. This paper overviews LCS modeling studies and presents the LCS modeling frameworks and approaches used by the country modeling teams from Japan, China, India, Korea, and Nepal. The LCS modeling is soft-linked to global targets through regional emission constraints derived from the global stabilization targets. The disaggregated, yet soft-linked, assessments provide opportunities to articulate scenarios that include context-specific inputs, and thereby explicitly consider benefits and deliver more realistic and implementable roadmaps. We find that LCS modeling exercises are still at a relatively early stage in terms of modeling space, and need methodological enhancements. However, this approach offers considerable promise in a world where major emerging economies are undergoing rapid transformation, national and regional interests everywhere still precede global interests, and implementation of the carbon market remains fragmentary. Significant opportunities therefore exist for co-benefits to be gained, opportunities that could be the key drivers of short-term actions vital to the realization of the low carbon transition. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Boffa F.,University of Management and Economics | Pingali V.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Sala F.,UK Competition and Markets Authority CMA
Energy Policy | Year: 2015

In this paper we look at the relative merits of two capacity utilization regimes in the merchant electricity transmission network: Must offer (Mo) where the entire capacity installed has to be made available for transmission and Non Must Offer (NMo) where some capacity could be withheld. We look at two specific cases: (i) demand for transmission varies across time, and (ii) vertical integration is allowed between investors in transmission network and electricity generators. In the case of time-varying demand under Mo, we find that a monopolist may underinvest in transmission when compared to NMo, although NMo may lead to more capacity withholding. In the case of vertical integration, we find that when the market power is with the generators of the exporting node, without vertical integration no welfare-enhancing merchant investment would occur, neither under Mo nor NMo. Further, if the generators in the importing node have market power, in case vertical integration is allowed, Mo is better than NMo. Finally, we also argue that the incentive to collude among various transmission network investors is mitigated with Mo in place. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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