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Chaturvedi V.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Shukla P.R.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
Climatic Change | Year: 2014

Addressing the challenges of global warming requires interventions on both the energy supply and demand side. With the supply side responses being thoroughly discussed in the literature, our paper focuses on analyzing the role of end use efficiency improvements for Indian climate change mitigation policy and the associated co-benefits, within the integrated assessment modeling framework of Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Six scenarios are analyzed here in total- one no climate policy and two climate policy cases, and within each of these one scenario with reference end use energy technology assumptions and another with advance end use energy technology assumptions has been analyzed. The paper has some important insights. Final energy demand and emissions in India are significantly reduced with energy efficiency improvements, and the role of this policy is important especially for the building and transportation sector under both reference and climate policy scenarios. Though energy efficiency policy should be an integral part of climate policy, by itself it is not sufficient for achieving mitigation targets, and a climate policy is necessary for achieving mitigation goals. There are significant co-benefits of energy efficiency improvements. Energy security for India is improved with reduced oil, coal and gas imports. Significant reduction in local pollutant gases is found which is important for local health concerns. Capital investment requirement for Indian electricity generation is reduced, more so for the climate policy scenarios, and finally there are significant savings in terms of reduced abatement cost for meeting climate change mitigation goals. © 2013 U.S. Government.

Ghosh D.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee | Dube T.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Shivaprasad A.,Sambhram Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2010

A variety of different scripts are used in writing languages throughout the world. In a multiscript, multilingual environment, it is essential to know the script used in writing a document before an appropriate character recognition and document analysis algorithm can be chosen. In view of this, several methods for automatic script identification have been developed so far. They mainly belong to two broad categoriesstructure-based and visual-appearance-based techniques. This survey report gives an overview of the different script identification methodologies under each of these categories. Methods for script identification in online data and video-texts are also presented. It is noted that the research in this field is relatively thin and still more research is to be done, particularly in the case of handwritten documents. © 2010 IEEE.

Kainuma M.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Shukla P.R.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Jiang K.,Energy Research Institute
Energy Economics | Year: 2012

Asian Modeling Exercise (AME) studies show feasible GHG emissions pathways consistent with the 2. degrees centigrade global stabilization target. The aim of the low carbon society subgroup is to propose frameworks, modeling methodologies, and workable roadmaps that will transform in-situ socioeconomic development to a sustainable low carbon society. This paper overviews LCS modeling studies and presents the LCS modeling frameworks and approaches used by the country modeling teams from Japan, China, India, Korea, and Nepal. The LCS modeling is soft-linked to global targets through regional emission constraints derived from the global stabilization targets. The disaggregated, yet soft-linked, assessments provide opportunities to articulate scenarios that include context-specific inputs, and thereby explicitly consider benefits and deliver more realistic and implementable roadmaps. We find that LCS modeling exercises are still at a relatively early stage in terms of modeling space, and need methodological enhancements. However, this approach offers considerable promise in a world where major emerging economies are undergoing rapid transformation, national and regional interests everywhere still precede global interests, and implementation of the carbon market remains fragmentary. Significant opportunities therefore exist for co-benefits to be gained, opportunities that could be the key drivers of short-term actions vital to the realization of the low carbon transition. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Mahapatra D.,Adani Institute of Infrastructure Management On Leave | Shukla P.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Dhar S.,Technical University of Denmark
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

Electricity production causes unintended impacts. Their exclusion by the market leads to suboptimal resource allocations. Monetizing and internalizing of external costs, though challenging and debatable, leads to a better allocation of economic resources and welfare. In this paper, a life-cycle analysis (LCA) on the production of electricity from conventional coal based electricity generation system has been performed in order to examine the environmental impacts of coal based electricity generating systems in the twin-city of Ahmedabad and Gandhinagar in western India. By using dose-response functions, we make an attempt to estimate the damages to human health, crops, and building materials resulting from the operation of coal power plants and its associated mines. Further, we use geographic information system to account for spatially dependent data. Finally, monetary values have been assigned to estimate the damage to human health, crops and building materials. This study reveals that the health as well as on non-health impacts of air pollution resulting from coal based electricity generation may not be ignored both in absolute as well as economic value terms. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Garg A.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Naswa P.,Technical University of Denmark | Shukla P.R.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
Energy Policy | Year: 2015

India has committed large investments to energy infrastructure assets-power plants, refineries, energy ports, pipelines, roads, railways, etc. The coastal infrastructure being developed to meet the rising energy imports is vulnerable to climate extremes. This paper provides an overview of climate risks to energy infrastructures in India and details two case studies - a crude oil importing port and a western coast railway transporting coal. The climate vulnerability of the port has been mapped using an index while that of the railway has been done through a damage function for RCP 4.5.0 and 8.5 scenarios. Our analysis shows that risk management through adaptation is likely to be very expensive. The system risks can be even greater and might adversely affect energy security and access objectives. Aligning sustainable development and climate adaptation measures can deliver substantial co-benefits. The key policy recommendations include: i) mandatory vulnerability assessment to future climate risks for energy infrastructures; ii) project and systemic risks in the vulnerability index; iii) adaptation funds for unmitigated climate risks; iv) continuous monitoring of climatic parameters and implementation of adaptation measures, and iv) sustainability actions along energy infrastructures that enhance climate resilience and simultaneously deliver co-benefits to local agents. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Boffa F.,University of Management and Economics | Pingali V.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Sala F.,UK Competition and Markets Authority CMA
Energy Policy | Year: 2015

In this paper we look at the relative merits of two capacity utilization regimes in the merchant electricity transmission network: Must offer (Mo) where the entire capacity installed has to be made available for transmission and Non Must Offer (NMo) where some capacity could be withheld. We look at two specific cases: (i) demand for transmission varies across time, and (ii) vertical integration is allowed between investors in transmission network and electricity generators. In the case of time-varying demand under Mo, we find that a monopolist may underinvest in transmission when compared to NMo, although NMo may lead to more capacity withholding. In the case of vertical integration, we find that when the market power is with the generators of the exporting node, without vertical integration no welfare-enhancing merchant investment would occur, neither under Mo nor NMo. Further, if the generators in the importing node have market power, in case vertical integration is allowed, Mo is better than NMo. Finally, we also argue that the incentive to collude among various transmission network investors is mitigated with Mo in place. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Shukla P.R.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Chaturvedi V.,5825 University Research Court
Energy Economics | Year: 2012

Low carbon energy technologies are of increasing importance to India for reducing emissions and diversifying its energy supply mix. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model, this paper analyzes a targets approach for pushing solar, wind, and nuclear technologies in the Indian electricity generation sector from 2005 to 2095. Targets for these technologies have been constructed on the basis of Indian government documents, policy announcements, and expert opinions. Different targets have been set for the reference scenario and the carbon price scenario. In the reference scenario, wind and nuclear technologies exceed respective targets in the long run without any subsidy push, while solar energy requires subsidy push throughout the century in order to meet its high targets. In the short run, nuclear energy also requires significant subsidy, including a much higher initial subsidy relative to solar power, which is a result of its higher targets. Under a carbon price scenario, the carbon price drives the penetration of these technologies. Still, subsidy is required - especially in the short run when the carbon price is low. We also found that pushing solar, wind, and nuclear technologies leads to a decrease in share of CCS under the carbon price scenario and biomass under both the reference and carbon price scenarios. This is because low carbon technologies compete among themselves and substitute each other, thereby enhancing the need for subsidy or carbon price, highlighting that proposed targets are not set at efficient levels. In light of contemporary debate on external costs of nuclear energy, we also assess the sensitivity of the results to nuclear technology cost. We find that higher cost significantly decreases the share of nuclear power under both the reference and carbon price scenarios. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Chaturvedi V.,5825 University Research Court | Eom J.,5825 University Research Court | Clarke L.E.,5825 University Research Court | Shukla P.R.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
Energy Policy | Year: 2014

With increasing population, income, and urbanization, meeting the energy service demands for the building sector will be a huge challenge for Indian energy policy. Although there is broad consensus that the Indian building sector will grow and evolve over the coming century, there is little understanding of the potential nature of this evolution over the longer term. The present study uses a technologically detailed, service based building energy model nested in the long term, global, integrated assessment framework, GCAM, to produce scenarios of the evolution of the Indian buildings sector up through the end of the century. The results support the idea that as India evolves toward developed country per-capita income levels, its building sector will largely evolve to resemble those of the currently developed countries (heavy reliance on electricity both for increasing cooling loads and a range of emerging appliance and other plug loads), albeit with unique characteristics based on its climate conditions (cooling dominating heating and even more so with climate change), on fuel preferences that may linger from the present (for example, a preference for gas for cooking), and vestiges of its development path (including remnants of rural poor that use substantial quantities of traditional biomass). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Roy D.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
International Journal of Production Research | Year: 2015

Capturing the waiting times (at an external queue) for a customer to access a movable resource is an important step towards measuring customer service and system performance in manufacturing, logistics, communication and health care systems. Such waiting time measures are typically used for sizing resource and buffer capacities, and thereby minimising customer waiting time probabilities. In this regard, semi-open queuing networks (SOQNs), which decouple the arriving customers/transactions from the network resources using a synchronisation station (also known as a semaphore queue), can potentially capture the customer/transaction waiting times/costs more precisely and provide a rich network modelling construct. Hence, modelling manufacturing or service systems using SOQNs is an important step towards measuring customer flow times (sojourn times) wherein the customer waiting times at an external queue are a critical component. In this paper, we present several stochastic models for manufacturing and service systems using SOQNs and also discuss the potential applications of SOQNs. We then review the solution methods for SOQNs and also compare the numerical accuracies for three promising methods. Finally, we include the potential research areas in SOQNs. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

Shukla P.R.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad | Chaturvedi V.,Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad
Sustainable Development | Year: 2013

The paper uses an integrated assessment model, GCAM, to analyze two emission stabilization approaches for India - a conventional approach relying on carbon price to typically influence fuel switch and carbon capture and storage responses, and a sustainability approach that aims to conserve resources and deliver multiple dividends. An important feature of the sustainability approach is the focus on national policies to push solar and wind technologies. The paper concludes that sustainability push at a global level for renewable energy technologies is essential together with coordinated national policies and actions, if the 2°C target is to be achieved with lower global welfare losses. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

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