Indian Institute of Horticulture Research

Bangalore, India

Indian Institute of Horticulture Research

Bangalore, India
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Radha T.K.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Radha T.K.,Indian Institute of Science | Rao D.L.N.,University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore | Sreeramulu K.R.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology | Year: 2017

Biological control of plant pathogens is assuming increasing importance in organic and low input sustainable agriculture. Forty one Actinobacterial strains isolated from the arid, semi arid and humid regions of Rajasthan, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh in India were tested for their antagonism to four plant pathogenic fungi viz., Macrophomina phaseolina, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. The Streptomyces strains from humid regions were more effective in inhibiting mycelial growth of Macrophomina phaseolina (62.8%). Arid and semi arid region strains (40.8 and 40.6%) were almost similar in inhibiting mycelial growth of Sclerotium rolfsii compared to humid region strains. Semi arid region strains (24.2%) were more effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani followed by arid and humid region strains. However only the arid region strains (44.5%) showed inhibition towards Fusarium oxysporum. The strains with best antogonistic ability (10 no.s) also exhibited other plant growth promoting traits like production of Indole acetic acid (1.9 -5.7 mg ml-1) and Gibberellic acid (24.1-41.4 mg ml-1). All the strains except Streptomyces A30 could solubilize P from inorganic tri-calcium phosphate. The amount of P solubilization ranged from 3.2 -6.8%. All the strains except Streptomyces A40 produced alkaline phosphatase which ranged from 60.0-160.9 μg p-nitrophenol/ml/h. Some strains produced ammonia whereas none of the strains produced HCN, siderophore or exhibited chitinase activity. In a glass house evaluation in soil microcosms, among the ten strains Streptomyces A6 was found best for promoting maize and Streptomyces A17 for chickpea growth.

Rajasekharan P.E.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research
International Journal of Drug Development and Research | Year: 2010

Vasicine is one of the important alkaloid obtained from the plant Adhatoda vasica. In the present study, the drug was collected from five accessions namely Bangalore, Shimoga, Trichy, Kolhapur and Palakkad (Kerala) between August and November. The Methanolic extracts were used for HPLC analysis. The results of the HPLC analysis showed variations in all the accessions. The extract from Bangalore accession showed significantly higher amount of Vasicine (0.93%) and that of Palakkad (Kerala) showed least amount (0.59%) of Vasicine. © 2010 IJDDR.

Joshi S.,National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects | Kalyanasundaram M.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Asokan R.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Rebijith K.B.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2013

Mealybugs are major factors limiting the productivity of papaya in India. In June 2012 during a survey for the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus, and its parasitoid Acerophagus papayae, in Satyamangalam, Tamilnadu, India, a short tailed mealybug was found together with P. marginatus colonizing papaya in 2 plantations. This mealybug was identified as the Jack Beardsley mealybug, P. jackbeardsleyi Gimpel and Miller (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), by an integrated taxonomic approach. This work appears to be the first report of P. jackbeardsleyi in India and of papaya as a host of this pest.

Naresh P.,Bangalore University | Reddy M.K.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Ravishankar K.V.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research
Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2012

Twenty six accessions of Capsicum annum with varied ripening color were screened for total carotenoids (0.004-0.47%), red carotenoids (0-0.27%) and yellow carotenoids (0.004-0.2%) and also to obtain some new or useful alleles associated with ripening color in chilli, using gene-specific marker. Considerable genetic variability for carotenoids was observed along with the allelic variations of candidate gene Capsanthin capsorubin synthase (Ccs). The results revealed that Ccs gene coding region was present in yellow pepper line LCA 1068 (Aparna) suggesting Ccs gene deletion is not a prerequisite for change in color from red to yellow. Ccs coding region contained no introns but did exhibit polymorphism among chilli lines studied resulting in amino acid changes. Novel allelic variants were found in Byadagi Dabbi (dark red) and LCA1068 (yellow) in the study, which could provide candidate/allele specific molecular markers for selection of lines that may be used in chilli quality breeding for varied colors.

Patil M.S.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2011

Xanthomonas axonopodis -pv.dieffenbachiae (XAD) is the most important anthurium pathogen. One of the most environment friendly methods to control its spread is to use cultivars that are minimally sensitive to the pathogen. RAPD analysis of genomes from bulk segregant analysis of anthurium hybrids chosen to be the most tolerant and sensitive to XAD were performed to verify DNA polymorphism levels. RAPD analysis was performed using 110 primers with varying template DNA and primer concentrations. Six decamer primers produced 104 polymorphic bands, allowing RAPD profiles typical for one or more of the tolerant hybrids. The extent of polymorphism per primer varied from 61.90 to 88.23 per cent with a mean of 74.80 per cent. A dendrogram based on Squared Euclidian Distance grouped the anthurium in 3 major subgroups. Cloning the more interesting polymorphic DNA fragments in the future will verify the presence of specific genes related to XAD resistance mechanisms in anthurium. © EM international.

Thriveni S.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Shashidhara S.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Rajashekharan P.E.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Deepak N.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | And 3 more authors.
Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Alpinia galanga comonly known as greater galangal is a tall, perennial, rhizomatous herb belongs to Zingiberaceae family. It is widely used in traditional system of medicine and it is facing threat of extinction owing to indiscriminate and unsustainable harvesting in the wild, Hence an in vitro regeneration method was developed for initiation and multiplication using rhizome explant. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/1 NAA and 1.0 mg/1 BAP induced maximum number of shoots and roots simultaneously. Regenerated plantlets were established initially in glass house and then transferred to garden soil, significant leaf expansion and leaf proliferation with root proliferation was observed which were uniform and identical to parent plant. © 2011 Society for Biology and Biotechnology.

Sane A.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Dinesh M.R.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Ravishankar K.V.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Ravishankar H.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Vasugi C.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

In mango, unlike monoembryonic types, variability in the polyembryonic cultivars is much less. There is a need to create variability by producing new recombinants, which while retaining the polyembryonic nature should have other desirable characters, either for use as rootstocks or as commercial types. Studies on polyembryony and its implication on germination, survival and growth performance of seedlings were studied in 7 open pollinated cultivars of mango. Germination percentage was highest in 'Bappakai' (75.85%) closely followed by 'Vellaikulumban' (73.8%) and 'Kurukkan' (73.7%). Germination was lowest in 'Peach' (35%). Percent polyembryony was highest in 'Olour' (84.38%) followed by 'Moreh' (75.53%). Maximum number of seedling/stone was recorded in 'Moreh' and 'Nekkare'. Days taken for completion of germination was early in 'Peach' and 'Nekkare', while 'Bappakkai' and 'Vellaikulumban' took more days to complete germination (136 days). Percentage of single seedlings produced was highest in 'Peach' (85.52%) followed by 'Nekkare' (73.28%). The occurrence of double seedlings was highest in 'Olour' (43.75%) and 'Bappakai' (40.76%). The single and double seedlings performed better with respect to growth parameters and vigor than those producing more than two seedlings/stone. The origin of these seedlings either zygotic or nucellar is being addressed using microsatellite markers, which can be useful for breeding and clonal propagation for rootstock purpose. © 2015, International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.

Vandana V.V.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Suseela Bhai R.,Indian Institute of Spices Research | Azeez S.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

A study on biochemical factors involved in black pepper defense response against Phytophthora capsici, was carried out in P.capsici susceptible (Sreekara) and resistant (04-P24, shows root resistance to the pathogen) black pepper lines. Seven important factors - change in membrane conductance, total phenols, orthodihydroxy (OD) phenols, lignin and defense related enzymes (peroxidase, β-1,3 glucanase and β-1,4 glucanase) - were studied under uninoculated and pathogen (P.capsici, isolate 06-04) inoculated condition to know the preformed and induced responses. The pathogen was inoculated (soil inoculation) and plants were observed for changes, at 24h intervals for 10 days. On 8th day after inoculation symptoms started appearing on Sreekara and increased the severity till 10th day. Both root and stem samples were subjected for biochemical analysis. Of the factors analyzed, it was found that membrane conductance, OD phenol, lignin and peroxidase activity play significant role in root resistance to P.capsici in 04-P24. Light microscopy of the portion of root - where pathogen found attached - was also done. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Usharani T.R.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Laxmi V.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Jalali S.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research | Krishnareddy M.,Indian Institute of Horticulture Research
Indian Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Papaya, a major fruit crop in India and worldwide, is affected by many fungal and viral diseases. A mixed infection of Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV), a linear single-stranded (+) RNA genome of approx 10 kb size, and Papaya leaf curl virus (PaLCV), a bipartite Gemini virus (component A & B) having circular singlestranded DNA (+) genome of about 5.2 kb, has hampered the production and productivity of papaya in many parts of world. Rapid detection techniques are important in prevention of spread of the disease in field conditions. In the present study, a rapid and reliable PCR based detection protocol has been standardized. Sets of primers were designed, based on the respective virus isolate sequence data available in GenBank, to obtain anticipated products of calculated size.

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