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Yadav M.,Indian Institute of Forest Management | Misra S.,California State University, Chico
Sustainable Development | Year: 2012

The extraction and exploitation of non-timber forest products (NTFP) has been one of the major causes of the degradation of forests in developing countries like India. The highly unorganized and secretive nature of intermediary operations leads to market imperfections that are usually to the disadvantage of the collectors and cultivators. This often leads to destructive and unsustainable harvesting techniques. We provide a possible solution based on a market information system (MIS) that can help to remove market imperfections by providing information related to demand and supply to collectors and cultivators. This can be helpful in promoting sustainable harvesting and also to policy-makers and implementation agencies. A conceptual framework related to an MIS for medicinal and aromatic plants, a subset of NTFPs, is presented. The development of such MISs can not only help to reduce unsustainable harvesting techniques but also to improve the economic condition of some of the poorest people. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment.


Kala C.P.,Indian Institute of Forest Management
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction | Year: 2014

The Himalaya has been venerated by communities since antiquity and hence visited by a large number of pilgrims for paying tribute, annually. Uttarakhand state in the Indian Himalaya being the place of major Hindu shrines like Badrinath, Kedarnath, Gangotri and Yamunotri and also the place of origin of many sacred rivers including the Ganges, at present, is best known for the religious tourism. Though, the state population is about 10 million, over 25 million tourists visited here in 2011 despite the fact that the state remains under frequent natural hazards in the forms of landslides, earthquakes and flash floods mainly during monsoon. Recently, on 16 and 17 June 2013, the torrential downpour and subsequent flooding had wreaked havoc that not only swallowed vast swathes of Uttarakhand but also took life of thousands of pilgrims and tourists. The cloudburst, heavy rainfall and subsequent landslides are the natural disasters but this disaster in Uttarakhand is mainly attributed by masses as a man-made disaster due to unregulated tourism and unplanned construction. In this background, the major aim of this study is to explore and review the factors responsible for increased intensity and scale of disaster due to flash floods in the Uttarakhand state of India. The paper also reviews and discusses various options for disaster risk reductions in the sensitive ecosystem such as the Himalaya. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Kala C.P.,Indian Institute of Forest Management
Journal of Sustainable Forestry | Year: 2011

This study deals with the floral diversity and distribution patterns in plant species in relation to environmental gradients in the high altitude cold desert of Ladakh, India. An extensive literature survey and field explorations were made across the different parts of Ladakh in order to create a compilation of vascular plant species. For the quantification of vegetation, a total of eight habitat types were identified and sampled using the point intercept method. In all, 647 species of vascular plants belonging to 58 families and 243 genera were documented. Asteraceae (89 species), Poaceae (66 species), Brassicaceae (54 species), and Fabaceae (43 species) were the dominant families. Astragalus was the most dominant genus as it obtained 24 species, followed by Polygonum (18 species), Artemisia (15 species), and Potentilla (14 species). Among the habitats, riverine beds contained the highest frequency of plant species, followed by narrow gorges and tablelands. The crags and ridges had the lowest frequency of plants. Relatively high water and moisture availability may be the cause of the high frequency of plant species in riverine beds and narrow gorges. The vegetation composition was influenced by elevation; however, the intensity of change reduced at >4500-m elevation. The conservation and management of high altitude cold desert vegetation are discussed based on field observations and findings. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Jha K.K.,Indian Institute of Forest Management
Journal of Forestry Research | Year: 2014

Teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) ranks among the top five tropical hardwood species and is being promoted for use in plantations in its non-native range due to its high economic value. However, there is a general lack of data on ecosystem functioning of teak plantations. We aimed at understanding storage and flux of nutrients related to young plantations of teak. Cycling of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in a chronosequence of plantations (1, 5, 11, 18, 24 and 30 years) was studied in the Moist Deciduous Forest Region of North India with the objective of investigating the nutrient cycling pattern at younger age since the current trend of harvesting age of the species in several tropical countries is being drastically reduced for quick return from this high value crop. Standing state, nutrient uptake, nutrient return and nutrient retranslocation in these plantations were estimated by tree harvesting and chemical analysis methods. The range of total standing nutrient across all these plantations was 20.3 to 586.6 kg·ha-1 for N and 5.3 to 208.8 kg·ha-1 for P. Net uptake of N ranged from 19.4 to 88.9 kg·ha-1·a-1 and P from 3.8 to 18.1 kg·ha-1·a-1. Retranslocation of N and P among all the stands ranged from 8.7 to 48.0 kg·ha-1·a-1 and 0.01 to 3.5 kg·ha-1·a-1, respectively. Range of total nutrient return was 25.8 to 91.3 kg·ha-1·a-1 for N and 2.7 to 10.1 kg·ha-1·a-1 for P. N and P use efficiency was between 107.4 and 192.5 g dry organic matter (OM) g-1 N, and 551.9 and 841.1 g OM g-1 P, respectively. The turnover time ranged from 2.04-13.17 years for N and between 2.40-22.66 years for P. Quantity of N and P in the soil nutrient pool ranged from 2566.8 to 4426.8 kg·ha-1 and 372 to 520 kg·ha-1, respectively. Storage and flux of components in different plant parts of different aged plantations were assessed and depicted in compartment models. Percentage storage in soil, litter and vegetation ranged from 82% to 99%, 0.6% to 2.4% and 0.5% to 15% for N, respectively, and from 63% to 98%, 0.5% to 2% and 1% to 35% for P, respectively. This information could be useful in managing external nutrient manipulation to crops of different ages for optimum biomass production or carbon sequestration. © 2014 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems that provide a number of "life-supporting" services of significant value to mankind. Flood control, groundwater replenishment, sediment retention, water purification, recreation, as well as climate change mitigation and adaptation, are just a few of the many valuable ecosystem services that wetlands provide. Despite these benefits, owing to the poorly understood economic value of these services, policy decisions are taken without considering them in the planning process. As a result wetlands are not only used but overused, misused and abused. This paper demonstrates the relevance of adopting an integrated approach, comprising wetland modelling based on water-quality parameters, to understand the dynamics of the ecosystem, followed by the estimation of economic benefits among various stakeholders and the exploration of incentive-based mechanisms and their role in the alleviation of poverty. These elements of a toolkit for wetland management will help planners and policy makers to make informed decisions for the sustainable management of Bhoj Wetland. © 2011 Copyright 2011 IAHS Press.


Basannagari B.,Indian Institute of Forest Management
PloS one | Year: 2013

Apple farming is an important activity and profession of farmer communities in the Himalayan states of India. At present, the traditional apple farming is under stress due to changes in climate. The present study was undertaken in an Indian Himalayan state, Himachal Pradesh, with the major aim of studying perceptions of farmers on the effects of climate change on apple farming along the altitudinal gradient. Through questionnaire survey, the perceptions of farmers were recorded at low hills (<2500 m), mid-hills (2500-3000 m), and upper hills (>3000 m). At all elevation range the majority of farmers reported that there was increase in atmospheric temperature, and hence at low hills 72% farmers believed that this increase in temperature was responsible for decline in fruit size and so that the quality. Thirty five percent farmers at high hills and 30% at mid hills perceived frost as a major cause for damaging apple farming whereas at low hills 24% farmers perceived hailstorm as the major deterrent for apple farming. The majority of farmers, along the altitude (92% at high hills, 79% at mid hills and 83% at low hills), reported decrease in snowfall. The majority of farmers at low altitude and mid altitude reported decline in apple farming whereas 71% farmers at high hill areas refused decline in apple farming. About 73-83% farmers admitted delay in apple's harvesting period. At mid hills apple scab and at low hills pest attack on apple crops are considered as the indicators of climate change. The change in land use practices was attributed to climate change and in many areas the land under apple farming was replaced for production of coarse grains, seasonal vegetables and other horticulture species. Scientific investigation claiming changes in Indian Himalayan climate corroborates perceptions of farmers, as examined during the present study.


Bhattacharya Prodyut P.,Indian Institute of Forest Management | Pradhan L.,Indian Institute of Forest Management | Yadav G.,Indian Institute of Forest Management
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2010

Joint Forest Management (JFM), embracing the philosophy of forest conservation and livelihood improvement through cooperation between state and civil society, has emerged over the past decades both as a specific paradigm of forest governance in India and as India's largest community forestry program. The JFM program, evolved during early 1970s covering a few forest villages as a model for reversing the trend of degraded forest ecosystem through the active protection by local villagers. The JFM program is implemented currently by 106,482 Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMC) and it covers 22 million ha of forests spread across 28 constituent states of India and union territories.JFM emerged against a backdrop of two centuries of centralised bureaucratic control over forest management in India. Centralized control during the 19th and 20th centuries failed either to conserve resources or to contribute substantially to the well-being of local populations. However, inconsistent persuasions from decentralization policies in India under present forest policy (1988) have prompted people to analyse the theoretical basis for accepting that decentralization would bring improvements in forest ecosystem management. Still others have contested the de facto rationale for decentralization (i.e., improved forest management) and have suggested that decentralization may be a manipulation by elites to serve their own interests or to shift power, for example from national to international agencies that have funded decentralization. Thirty years from its inception, there are now concerns for the recent effectiveness of JFM (over the past 20 years) because it is a group action that is getting old and is perhaps losing some of its pioneering drive and innovativeness.Although JFM has been administered nationally, decisions on implementation detail have been left to the individual states, resulting in different strategies. The long history of JFM has also provided scope for experiences with it to change over time as well as between places.Given the range of experiences with and perceptions of JFM, as well as the importance of the objectives JFM ostensibly serves, the time is ripe therefore for a retrospective evaluation to take stock of its actual achievements, its status and ways forward. The current paper seeks to provide such a review and analysis.The paper highlights design and implementation issues related to government resolutions, benefits-sharing and forest offences. It also assesses the critical design factors and key drivers responsible for institutional reforms. The paper evaluates impacts of protection on forest productivity and on the livelihoods of local communities. It highlights that the JFM program, by virtue of the diversity of its implementation, provides an ideal laboratory for exploring why similar reforms can lead to different outcomes. The paper argued that though there are supporting government policy and guideline and massive fund support, why there has been a low down of enthusiasm for JFM in the last two decades. From experiences, it suggests strategies for its revival and JFM can further contribute effective toward forest conservation and enhanced livelihood opportunities in the future. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.


Bijalwan A.,Indian Institute of Forest Management
African Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2011

The paper summarizes the productivity of various agricultural crops under existing agrihortisilviculture (AHS) system in northern and southern aspects of mid hills of Central Western Garhwal Himalaya (Narendra Nagar block of district Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand), India between 1000 to 2000 m asl during Rabi (winter) and Kharif (summer) seasons. The northern aspect was more diverse and formed good vegetation composition, both in terms of forest crops and in agricultural productivity. The tree diversity and richness was recorded to be higher in northern aspect. A total of 18 tree species were reported in the northern aspect and 13 in the southern aspect of AHS systems. The Grewia optiva was observed as dominant tree species and Citrus sinensis as co-dominant species in the northern and southern aspects. The northern aspect observed with higher grain productivity under tree (1326 kg/ha/year) and sole cropping (2471 kg/ha/year) compared to southern aspect; similarly, the northern aspect proved to be higher in straw productivity under trees (3587 kg/ha/year) and treeless (4510 kg/ha/year) situation for both Rabi (winter) and Kharif (summer) crops. Overall, there is an average reduction of 45.05% in gain yield and 29.53% in biological yield compared to sole agricultural cropping in northern aspect. The average reduction in the grain yield (29.08%) and biological yield (28.77%) was lower in the southern aspect. It was summarized that the reduction in the agricultural produce under agrihortisilviculture system is supplemented by multiferous benefits of woody perennials which is life supporting to the rural community of this hilly landscape. © 2011 Academic Journals.


Kala C.P.,Indian Institute of Forest Management
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2015

Plants used in the treatment of snakebites were surveyed in the Uttarakhand state of India, using a questionnaire. Theherbal practitioners were interviewed and information on snakebite treatments, using medicinal plants were collected fromthe traditional healers, locally called as vish vaidyas. The study documents 56 medicinal plant species, of which most of thespecies (93%) are used for the treatment of snakebites and some species are used to cure dog and scorpion bite,traditionally. The use of herbs was highest, followed by trees and shrubs for this purpose. Before treatment the vish vaidyamakes sure the identity of poisonous or non-poisonous type of snakebites on the basis of claims made by the patient over thetaste of plants given. The taste of plant (mainly neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) if claimed other than its normal taste bythe patient then it is considered the bite of venomous snake. Thorough clinical testing of plants as used by vish vaidyas mayhelp to standardize the efficacy of herbal drugs in curing venomous snake bites, which result into loss of thousands ofhuman life in India. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.


Kala C.P.,Indian Institute of Forest Management
Journal of Forest Science | Year: 2010

The agro-forestry system is one of the best known indigenous practices for livelihood. In view of instant decline in the rainfed hill agro-forestry system the present study was undertaken in the hilly villages of Uttarakhand state of India with the major objective to assess the status and effects of various factors on this centuries old indigenous agro-forestry system. The survey documented a total of 26 herbaceous food crop species and 21 woody species that were raised by farmers in the selected villages of Uttarakhand. A total of 37 plant species available in the agro-forestry system and used for curing various ailments by traditional healers were also documented during the survey. The major cereals produced by farmers were Oryza sativa L., Echinochloa frumentoacea Link., Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertner and Triticum aestivum L. The indigenous system of cropping was locally called as Baranaja that revolved around the production of > 12 varieties of crops. Besides food, the species grown in the agro-forestry system were used for multiple purposes. Water scarcity, migration of youth in search of employment and changing socio-economic and climatic conditions were some of the major reasons for declining agro-forestry system and abandoning the agricultural land.

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