Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Hyderabad, India

The Indian Institute of Chemical Technology is a national-level research center located in Hyderabad, Telangana, India under the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research . IICT conducts research in basic and applied chemistry, biochemistry, bioinformatics, chemical engineering and provides science and technology inputs to the industrial and economic development of the country. IICT has filed one of the maximum CSIR patents. Wikipedia.

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Indian Institute of Chemical Technology and National Institute Of Immunology | Date: 2014-04-11

The present invention in general relates Hemoglobin receptor or its part as a novel vaccine candidate against Leishmaniasis. Specifically, the present invention envisages HbR DNA for eliciting immune response in a mammal against Leishmaniasis. Additional aspect of the present invention is related to a vaccine composition for inducing immune response against Leishmaniasis in mammals. In a preferred aspect, the present invention relates to use of HbR-polypeptide as marker for diagnosis of Leishmania in kala-azar patients.

The inability of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG)-unresponsive kala-azar patients to clear Leishmania donovani (LD) infection despite SAG therapy is partly due to an ill-defined immune-dysfunction. Since dendritic cells (DCs) typically initiate anti-leishmanial immunity, a role for DCs in aberrant LD clearance was investigated. Accordingly, regulation of SAG-induced activation of murine DCs following infection with LD isolates exhibiting two distinct phenotypes such as antimony-resistant (Sb(R)LD) and antimony-sensitive (Sb(S)LD) was compared in vitro. Unlike Sb(S)LD, infection of DCs with Sb(R)LD induced more IL-10 production and inhibited SAG-induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and leishmanicidal effects. Sb(R)LD inhibited these effects of SAG by blocking activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways. In contrast, Sb(S)LD failed to block activation of SAG (20 microg/ml)-induced PI3K/AKT pathway; which continued to stimulate NF-kappaB signaling, induce leishmanicidal effects and promote DC activation. Notably, prolonged incubation of DCs with Sb(S)LD also inhibited SAG (20 microg/ml)-induced activation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB pathways and leishmanicidal effects, which was restored by increasing the dose of SAG to 40 microg/ml. In contrast, Sb(R)LD inhibited these SAG-induced events regardless of duration of DC exposure to Sb(R)LD or dose of SAG. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of isogenic Sb(S)LD expressing ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter MRPA on SAG-induced leishmanicidal effects mimicked that of Sb(R)LD to some extent, although antimony resistance in clinical LD isolates is known to be multifactorial. Furthermore, NF-kappaB was found to transcriptionally regulate expression of murine gammaglutamylcysteine synthetase heavy-chain (mgammaGCS(hc)) gene, presumably an important regulator of antimony resistance. Importantly, Sb(R)LD but not Sb(S)LD blocked SAG-induced mgammaGCS expression in DCs by preventing NF-kappaB binding to the mgammaGCS(hc) promoter. Our findings demonstrate that Sb(R)LD but not Sb(S)LD prevents SAG-induced DC activation by suppressing a PI3K-dependent NF-kappaB pathway and provide the evidence for differential host-pathogen interaction mediated by Sb(R)LD and Sb(S)LD.

Patil N.T.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2011

A co-op: Recent examples on cooperative catalysis, involving metals (M) and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), delivered products with high enantioselectivity (see scheme). Such products are not possible to obtain by using either of the catalysts individually. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Pal C.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Bandyopadhyay U.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Antioxidants and Redox Signaling | Year: 2012

Significance: Parasitic diseases affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide and represent major health problems. Treatment is becoming extremely difficult due to the emergence of drug resistance, the absence of effective vaccines, and the spread of insecticide-resistant vectors. Thus, identification of affordable and readily available drugs against resistant parasites is of global demand. Recent Advances: Susceptibility of many parasites to oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or inhibition of endogenous antioxidant enzymes would be a novel therapeutic approach to develop antiparasitic drugs. This article highlights the unique metabolic pathways along with redox enzymes of unicellular (Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania donovani, Entamoeba histolytica, and Trichomonas vaginalis) and multicellular parasites (Schistosoma mansoni), which could be utilized to promote ROS-mediated toxicity. Critical Issues: Enzymes involved in various vital redox reactions could be potential targets for drug development. Future Directions: The identification of redox-active antiparasitic drugs along with their mode of action will help researchers around the world in designing novel drugs in the future. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Bhadra K.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Kumar G.S.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Medicinal Research Reviews | Year: 2011

Isoquinoline alkaloids represent a group of natural products with remarkable importance in the contemporary biomedical research and drug discovery programs. Several members of this group exhibit immense pharmacological and biological properties, including potential anticancer properties. Although the molecular targets of these alkaloids are not yet clearly delineated, extensive research in this area continues to build up new data that are clinically exploitable. The gross structural features of many of the members DNA interaction are more or less clear, but the mystery still remains on many aspects of their binding, including specificity and energetics. RNA-binding aspects of these alkaloids are being elucidated. More recent advancements in analytical instrumentation have enabled clearer elucidation and correlation of the structural and energetic aspects of the interaction. In this review, we report up-to-date details of the interaction of berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine of the protoberberine group, sanguinarine from the benzophananthridine group, and several of their synthetic derivatives, such as coralyne, berberrubine, palmatrubine, and jatrorubin with nucleic acids have been reviewed. These studies, taken together up to now, have led to interesting knowledge on the mode, mechanism, specificity of binding, and correlation between structural aspects and energetics enabling a complete set of guidelines for design of new drugs. In contemporary research, several derivatives of these natural alkaloids are being prepared and investigated in several laboratories for ultimate discovery of new compounds that can be used as effective therapeutic agents. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Umadevi D.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Panigrahi S.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Sastry G.N.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2014

ConspectusThe potential application of carbon nanomaterials in biology and medicine increases the necessity to understand the nature of their interactions with living organisms and the environment. The primary forces of interaction at the nano-bio interface are mostly noncovalent in nature. Quantifying such interactions and identifying various factors that influence such interactions is a question of outstanding fundamental interest in academia and industry.In this Account, we have summarized our recent studies in understanding the noncovalent interactions of carbon nanostructures (CNSs), which were obtained by employing first-principles calculations on various model systems representing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene. Bestowed with an extended sp2 carbon network, which is a common feature in all of these nanostructures, they exhibit π-π interactions with aromatic molecules (benzene, naphthalene, nucleobases, amino acids), cation-π type of interactions with metal ions, anion-π interactions with anions, and other XH⋯π type of interactions with various small molecules (H2O, NH3, CH4, H2, etc.). CNTs are wrapped-up forms of two-dimensional graphene, and hence, it is interesting to compare the binding abilities of these two allotropes that differ in their curvature. The chirality and curvature of CNSs appear to play a major role in determining the structural, energetic, and functional properties. Flat graphene shows stronger noncovalent interactions than the curved nanotubes toward various substrates.Understanding the interactions of CNSs with organic molecules and biomolecules has gained a great deal of research interest because of their potential applications in various fields. Aromatic hydrocarbons show a strong propensity to interact with CNSs via the π-π mode of interaction rather than CH⋯π interaction. As DNA sequencing appears to be one of the most important potential applications of carbon nanomaterials, the study of CNS-nucleobase interactions has become quite important. The nucleobases are physisorbed on the surface of CNSs in the order G > T ≈ A > C > U, exhibiting π-π-stacking type of interaction. These interactions become stronger as the curvature of the CNSs decreases. It is also indispensable to study the interaction of nanomaterials with proteins and especially with amino acids at a molecular level to understand the drug delivery mechanism of CNSs. We have shown that the CNSs interact with small molecules by means of physisorption and thus show potential for sensor applications. The prime requisite for the exploitation of these CNSs in nanoelectronics is the tunable energy gap. We have revealed that metal ion doping modulates the HOMO-LUMO energy gap of the nanotubes significantly and thus provides a handle to tune the electronic and conductivity properties of CNTs. Moreover, metal ions tend to selectively bind with nanotubes of different chirality such as armchair and zigzag nanotubes. The reduction of planar hydrocarbon materials by lithium atoms has also been studied very systematically. We also illustrate the way in which noncovalent interactions can be used to optimize and fine-tune the properties of CNSs. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

Rao R.N.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Expert Review of Proteomics | Year: 2014

Dried blood spots (DBS), a micro blood sampling technique, has recently gained interest in drug discovery and development due to its inherent advantages over the conventional whole blood, plasma or serum sample collection. Since the regulatory authorities have agreed to the use of blood as an acceptable biological matrix for drug exposure measurements, its applications have been extended not only to therapeutic drug monitoring but also to toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic studies. The pharmaceutical industry is keen to promote DBS as a prominent tool in bioanalytical applications due to the financial, ethical and organizational issues involved in clinical trials. This could be accomplished due to the latest advances in modern analytical technology, particularly liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present review discusses some of the emerging liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technologies in improving DBS analysis for its innovative applications in the development of new drugs. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

Suresh K.I.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering | Year: 2013

Global efforts to find renewable feedstocks for the chemical industry are aimed at replacing fossil reserves and a reduction in global warming by employing environmently friendly technologies (green chemistry approaches) for specialty chemical manufacturing. Cardanol, obtained as a byproduct of the cashew processing industry, is an important renewable resource and a unique phenolic compound carrying a 15-carbon side chain in meta position with varying degrees of unsaturation. In this work, the synthesis of new biobased polyols for rigid polyurethane (PU) foams through oxidation of side chain unsaturation is reported using the environmentally benign reagent hydrogen peroxide. Polyols with hydroxyl values in the range of 350-400 mg KOH/g were prepared through epoxidation followed by hydrolysis and characterized for structure using IR,1H-NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectroscopic techniques. The foaming characteristics were studied, and the polyols were successfully used in making rigid polyurethane foams with good physical and mechanical properties. The foams were characterized for density, compressive strength, morphology, and viscoelastic properties. The properties are compared with that of foams prepared using standard petroleum-based polyols. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Mahadevi A.S.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Sastry G.N.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2013

Noncovalent interactions are essential for the existence of solid and liquid phases. Traditionally touted as weak forces, quantification of these interactions, which govern the molecular aggregation and determine the supramolecular assembly, is of fundamental interest. Hydrogen bonding has been extremely well studied and recognized as the most important of all noncovalent interactions. Calixarenes, which are cyclic oligomers obtained from condensation of formaldehyde with para-alkylphenols under alkaline conditions, form a class of host molecules explored in a large number of studies because of their ability to form inclusion complexes governed by cation-π interactions. Chiral calixarene analogues, constructed by changing the methylene moiety to a chiral unit provide the possibility of enantiomeric selectivity toward chiral guests.

Rani K.Y.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology
Journal of Process Control | Year: 2012

A novel sensitivity compensating nonlinear control (SCNC) approach is proposed within generic model control (GMC) framework for processes exhibiting input sensitivity. The proposed approach consists of defining a new process, control law and set point such that the determined control action drives the original process to its desired set point. External reset feedback (ERF), used to compensate for input saturation, is extended to higher relative degree systems as extended ERF (EERF), and is incorporated in the context of SCNC approach. The proposed control algorithms are evaluated by application to an open-loop unstable CSTR control problem and a multi-product semi-batch polymerization reactor temperature control problem. The present study illustrates the versatility of the proposed SCGMC schemes compared to the basic GMC schemes in terms of output tracking and smoother input profiles. SCNC can be extended to other nonlinear model based controllers where the control law can be expressed analytically. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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