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Gnaana Saraswathi S.,Holy Cross College | Paliwal K.,Indian Institute of Advanced Research
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2011

Diurnal trends in net photosynthesis rate (P N), stomatal conductance (g s), water use efficiency (WUE) and biomass were compared in six-month-old seedlings of Albizla lebbeckand Cassia siamea, under different levels of drought stress. The potted plants were subjected to four varying drought treatment by withholding watering for 7 (D1 ), 14 (D2) and 25 (D3) days. The fourth group (C) was watered daily and treated as unstressed (control). Species differed significantly (p<0.001) in their physiological performance under varying stress conditions. Higher P N of 11.6 ± 0.05 in control followed by 4.35 ± 0.4 in D1 and 2.83 ± 0.18 μmol m 2 s -1 in D2 was observed in A. Iebbeck. A significant (p<0.001 ) reduction in P N was observed in C. siamea ( C 7.65 ± 0.5 μmol m2s -1, D1,2.56 ±0.33 μmolm 2s -1 and D2,1.4±0.01 μmolm 2s -1) at 9 hr. A positive correlation was seen between P N and g s (A. Iebbeck, r 2= 0.84; C. siamea, r 2= 0.82). Higher WUE was observed in C. siamea (D2,7.1 ± 0.18 μmol m 2 s -1; D3,8.39 ± 0.11 μmol m 2s -1) than A. Iebbeck, (control, 7.58 ± 0.3 μmol m 2s -1and D3,8.12 ± 0.15 μmol m 2 s -1). The chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC) was more in A. Iebbeck than C. siamea. Maximum biomass was produced by A. lebbeck than C. siamea. From the study, one could conclude that A lebbeck'is betterthan C. siameah adopting suitable resource management strategy and be best suited for the plantation programs in the semi-arid dry lands. © 2011 Triveni Enterprises vikas Nagar, Lucknow, INDIA.

Pandya C.,M. S. University of Baroda | Pandya C.,Indian Institute of Advanced Research | Pillai P.,M. S. University of Baroda | Nampoothiri L.P.,M. S. University of Baroda | And 3 more authors.
Andrologia | Year: 2012

The mechanism of testicular toxicity of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) is poorly understood. Previous studies focused on single metal-related changes in testicular toxicity. This study points towards the possible involvement of Pb- and Cd-induced oxidative stress in the suppression of steroidogenesis. The oxidative status of testis of adult male rats exposed to Pb acetate and cadmium acetate either alone or in combination at a dose of 0.025mgkg -1 body weight of metal intraperitoneally for 15days was studied. Pb and Cd caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) by elevating testicular malondialdehydes (MDA) and decrease in activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in mitochondrial and/or post-mitochondrial fraction. Activities of steroidogenic enzymes 3β and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase also decreased significantly leading to altered testosterone production. Metal-exposed groups showed significantly decreased testicular and epididymal sperm count. Epididymal sperm motility and viability was also decreased on Pb and Cd exposure. Cd exposure showed more toxic effect than lead exposure, while combined exposure demonstrated least toxicity. In vitro experiments showed that vitamin C restores steroidogenic enzyme activities, suggesting that Pb- and Cd-induced ROS inhibits the testicular steroidogenesis. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Patel D.K.,Indian Institute of Advanced Research | Shah K.R.,Indian Institute of Advanced Research | Pappachan A.,Indian Institute of Advanced Research | Gupta S.,M. S. University of Baroda | Singh D.D.,Indian Institute of Advanced Research
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2016

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis. It is also referred to as a moonlighting protein as it has many diverse functions like regulation of apoptosis, iron homeostasis, cell-matrix interactions, adherence to human colon etc. apart from its principal role in glycolysis. Lactobacilli are lactic acid bacteria which colonize the human gut and confer various health benefits to humans. In the present study, we have cloned, expressed and purified the GAPDH from Lactobacillus acidophilus to get a recombinant product (r-LaGAPDH) and characterized it. Size exclusion chromatography shows that r-LaGAPDH exists as a tetramer in solution and have a mucin binding and hemagglutination activity indicating carbohydrate like binding adhesion mechanism. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies showed an interaction of r-LaGAPDH with mannose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine with a Kd of 3.6 ± 0.7 × 10-3 M, 4.34 ± 0.09 × 10-3 M, 4 ± 0.87 × 10-3M and 3.7 ± 0.28 × 10-3 M respectively. We hope that this preliminary data will generate more interest in further elucidation of the roles of GAPDH in the adhesion processes of the bacteria. © 2016 Elsevier B.V..

Nair D.N.,Indian Institute of Advanced Research | Singh V.,Indian Institute of Advanced Research | Yamaguchi Y.,RIKEN | Singh D.D.,Indian Institute of Advanced Research
Planta | Year: 2012

We have previously reported the purification and preliminary X-ray characterization of a hemagglutinin from the seeds of Jatropha curcas and, with the detailed sequencing information available now, we find that it is similar to a 2S albumin allergen isolated from the same source. Through a search of Jatropha genome database (http://www. kazusa. or. jp/jatropha/), we map it to the sequence id JcCA0234191 (now referred to as Jcr4S00619. 70 in the new version, release 4. 5) which has a conserved alpha amylase inhibitor/seed storage protein domain found in the 2S albumin allergens. The putative sequence of the small and large chains of the protein is assigned and the total mass of the two subunits matches with the intact mass 10 kDa determined through MALDI. The protein retains hemagglutination activity between pH 6-9 and up to 60 °C on heat treatment and its hemagglutination activity is inhibited by sialic acid and fetuin. Bioinformatics studies show that the isolated protein sequence clusters in close association with a 2S albumin from Ricinus communis in phylogeny analysis and has a conservation of the characteristic four disulfide linkage pattern. Hemagglutinins and lectins are known to have allergenic effects through their interaction with immunoglobulin E and histamine release and earlier studies have shown that this interaction can be inhibited by lectin-specific sugars. We hope this report bridges the plant allergens and hemagglutinins further for exploring possible mediation of allergenic activity through sialic acid and complex sugar interactions and generates further interest in the area. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Nair D.N.,Indian Institute of Advanced Research | Suresh C.G.,CSIR - National Chemical Laboratory | Singh D.D.,Indian Institute of Advanced Research
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications | Year: 2011

The plant Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) is an important source of biofuel from the inedible oil present in its toxic seeds. The toxicity arises from the presence of curcin, a ribosome-inactivating protein showing haemagglutination activity. In this communication, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization are reported of a small protein isolated from J. curcas seeds with a molecular mass of 10 kDa that agglutinates rabbit erythrocytes. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and also by the microbatch method in 72-well HLA plates, using PEG 8000 as the precipitant in both conditions. X-ray diffraction data collected from the rod-shaped crystals were processed in the orthorhombic space group P2 12 12 1. The crystals diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution at 103 K. © 2011 International Union of Crystallography. All rights reserved.

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