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Kumar S.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Journal of Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Review of biotechnology research in alfalfa shows that molecular techniques are extensively being used for basic and applied research toward alfalfa improvement. Biotechnological approaches have been used in two major areas, genomics and transgenics. In genomics, molecular markers, structural and functional genomics allowed identification of genes of interest and their regulatory components. Alfalfa being obstinate to genetic and genomic analysis, comparative genomics is used for molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes in alfalfa. Alternatively, transgenic approach involves incorporation of specific and useful genes into alfalfa to improve the traits of interest. Input traits to improve agronomic performance and output traits to improve forage quality, or to produce novel industrial/pharmaceutical proteins, are the focus of current transgenic research in alfalfa. However, transgenic approach is controversial requiring cautious experimental design to combat bioisafety concerns. Ideally, forage alfalfa needs to possess more fermentable carbohydrates, proteins with balanced amino acid profile that degrade slower in rumen, improved winter hardiness, better water use efficiency, pest resistance and no anti-quality factors. Concerted efforts are required to bring together maximum of these characteristic features into the alfalfa plant. © 2011 Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan.


Chandra A.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute | Tiwari K.K.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Plant Breeding | Year: 2010

Guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) is one of the major forage grasses in tropical and semitropical regions, largely apomictic and predominantly exist as tetraploid. Non-availability of polymorphic molecular markers has been a major limitation in its characterization and improvement. We report isolation and characterization of microsatellites in P. maximum and cross-species results with other five Panicum species. Based on microsatellite-motifs, 15 functional and polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer-pairs were designed, validated and employed in estimating genetic relationship among 34 guineagrass accessions. Thirteen primer-pairs amplified single locus and remaining two generated more than two loci with an average of 3.57 bands per locus amounts to 63 bands with 34 guineagrass accessions. Average expected heterozygosity (H E) of 0.35 (maximum 0.97) and observed heterozygosity (H O) of 0.37 (maximum 0.91) established the efficiency of developed markers for discriminating guineagrass accessions. Dice's similarity coefficients-based unweighted pair group with arithmetic average method-clustering supported with high bootstrap values (≥40) indicated its significance and distinguished all accessions except IG97-93 and IG97-6. Utility of these new SSR loci in genetic diversity study of P. maximum and other cross-amplified species is discussed. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Chandra A.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2011

In general tropical forage legumes lack microsatellites or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Development of genie SSR markers from expressed sequence tagged (EST) database is an alternate and efficient approach to generate the standard DNA markers for genome analysis of such crop species. In the present paper a total of 816 EST-SSRs containing perfect repeats of mono (33.5%), di (14.7%), tri (39.3%), tetra (2.7%), penta (0.7%) and hexa (0.4%) nucleotides were identified from 1,87,763 ESTs of Medicago truncatula. Along with, 70 (8.5%) SSRs of a compound type were also observed. Seven primer pairs of tri repeats were tested for cross transferability in 19 accessions of forage legumes comprising 11 genera. At two different annealing temperatures (55 and 60 °C) all primer pairs except AJ410087 reacted with many accessions of forage legumes. Atotal of 51 alleles were detected with six M. truncatula EST-SSRs primer-pairs against DNA from 19 accessions representing 11 genera where number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13. The cross-transferability of these EST-SSRs was 40.6% at 55 °C and 32.3% at 60 °C annealing temperature. 24 alleles of the total 50 (48%) at 55 °C and 27 of 51 (53%) at 60 °C were polymorphic among the accessions. These 27 polymorphic amplicons identified could be used as DNA markers. This study demonstrates the developed SSR markers from M. truncatula ESTs as a valuable genetic markers and also proposes the possibility of transferring these markers between species of different genera of the legumes of forage importance. It was evident from the results obtained with a set of Desmanthus virgatus accessions where Sequential Agglomerative Hierarchical and Nested (SAHN) cluster analysis based on Dice similarity and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean Algorithm (UPGMA) revealed significant variability (24 to 74%) among the accessions. High bootstrap values (>30) supported the nodes generated by dendrogram analysis of accessions. © 2011 Triveni Enterprises Vikas nagar Lucknow INDIA.


Narsimlu B.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Narsimlu B.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute | Gosain A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Chahar B.R.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Water Resources Management | Year: 2013

A study has been conducted to assess future climate change impacts on water resources of the Upper Sind River Basin using Soil Water Assessment Tool. Sequential uncertainty fitting (SUFI-2) algorithm has been applied for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. Monthly observed stream flows matched well with simulated flows with respect to p-factor, d-factor, Correlation coefficient and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients with values of 0.73, 0.42, 0.82, 0.80 during calibration (1992-2000) and 0.42, 0.36, 0.96, 0.93 during validation (2001-2005) respectively. PRECIS generated outputs under IPCC A1B Scenarios for Indian conditions corresponding to the baseline (1961-1990), midcentury (2021-2050) and endcentury (2071-2098); extracted by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India) have been used for the study. It has been found from the model results that the average annual streamflow could increase by 16.4 % for the midcentury and a significant increase of 93.5 % by the endcentury. The results also indicate that streamflow may rise drastically in monsoon season, but will decrease in non-monsoon season due to the projected future climate change. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Nag S.K.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute | Raikwar M.K.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

Animal products like milk and meat are often found to be contaminated with residues of persistent pesticides and other toxic substances. The major source of entry of these compounds to animal body is the contaminated feed and fodder. So, unless the residues are managed at this stage, it is very difficult to prevent contamination in milk and meat. Therefore, the status of residue level of most persistent organochlorinated pesticides (OCP) in feed and fodder should be monitored regularly. The frequency of occurrence and contamination levels of OCP residues in different kinds of animal concentrate feed and straw samples collected from Bundelkhand region of India were determined. Out of 533 total samples, 301 i.e. 56.47% samples were positive containing residues of different OCPs like hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) complex, endosulfan and dicofol. Among different HCH isomers, the mean concentration of β-HCH was highest, and total HCH varied from 0.01 to 0.306 mg kg-1. In case of DDT complex, i.e. DDD, DDE and DDT, the concentration ranged between 0.016 and 0.118 mg kg-1 and the pp | isomers were more frequently encountered than their op| counterparts. Endosulfan was also found in some samples in concentration ranging from 0.009 to 0.237 mg/kg, but dicofol could be recorded in very few samples. Although feed samples were found to contain OC residues, after comparing their levels in positive samples with the limiting values of respective pesticides, only very few were found to exceed the threshold level. Otherwise, they were mostly within safe limits. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Chandra A.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2010

Lucerne (M. sativa L.,2n=4x=32) is susceptible to weevil (Hypera postica Gyll) insect, hence incorporation of desirable gene (s) from M. scutellata (2n=30) is an important researchable issue. Incompatibility due to incongruous chromosomal arrangements in these two species necessitated the identification of closer species to M. scutellata (possibly progenitors). After screening 197 accessions comprising 50 Medicago species, M. murex(2n = 2x- 14)andM. doliata(2n = 2x= 16) have been identified as morphologically similar having compatible ploidy and genetically closerto M. scutellata as observed with 17 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and 8 enzymes based isozyme markers. The identified accessions namely IL-04-223 and IL-04-151 of M. doliata and M. murex respectively showing low levels (< 5%) of weevil infestation can be contemplated with diploid M. sativa (2n=2x=16) to generate weevil resistant lines. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).


Chandra A.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute | Dubey A.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

The effects of ploidy levels on the activities of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS; EC not assigned), superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) and guaiacol peroxidase (POX; EC 1.11.1.7), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline contents were studied in two months old plants of Cenchrus species. The Cenchrus species represent three ploidy levels: diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid and two life spans: annual and perennial. Plants were subjected to water stress for 2, 4, 6 and 8 d by withholding water under glasshouse conditions. Although the levels of proline increased with the magnitude of water stress, the P5CS activity did not show a corresponding increase in all species. Peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities showed an increase or steady state in the early phase of drought and then declined with the further increase in the magnitude of water stress, indicating differing behaviors of species towards drought tolerance. Under drought, diploid Cenchrus species had a higher POX activity, MDA accumulation and lower proline content than tetraploid species. Lower POX and higher P5CS activities and proline contents, however, were observed in hexaploid and tetraploid species. Taken together, our findings suggest that diploid species have a less efficient antioxidant system to scavenge reactive oxygen species than tetra and hexaploid Cenchrus. This may result in a corresponding variability in growth and persistence under natural grasslands. The study also paves the way for investigations on the molecular events associated with drought in Cenchrus species differing in ploidy and life span. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Roy A.K.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

The genus Trifolium Leguminosae (Fabaceae), commonly called clovers, includes 237-290 annual and perennial species, of which about 20 are important as cultivated and pasture crops. Taxonomic distribution supported by molecular analysis indicates that Mediterranean region is one of the main centers of distribution of the genus and also a center of domestication and breeding. Self-incompatibility is prevalent in the genus, controlled by a single, multiallelic gene expressed gametophytically in the pollen. It was suggested that hybridity did not play a major role in the evolution of the genus due to the poor crossability of the species under natural conditions. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Trifolium by conventional crossing techniques has been largely unsuccessful. Post-zygotic barriers appear to be a primary cause of the reproductive isolation, associated with endosperm disintegration and consequent abnormal differentiation and starvation of the hybrid embryo. As hybridization using conventional techniques has almost failed in Trifolium, embryo culture technique was used by breeders to obtain new combinations of interspecific hybrids. Embryo culture has been effectively used in developing interspecific hybrids in Trifolium ambiguum, T. pratense, T. montanum, T. occidentale, T. isthomocarpum, T. repens, T. nigrescens, T. uniflorum, T. sarosiense, T. alexandrinum, T. apertum, T. resupinatum, T. constantinopolitanum, T. rubens, and T. alpestre in various combinations. The successful embryo -rescue and development of hybrid plantlets requires skilled techniques of tissue culture and field practices. It includes hybridization in field; excision of hybrid embryos at appropriate stage; disinfection and culture in suitable culture media to allow maturation of embryo, multiplication of shoots, and rooting; hardening of the plantlets; inoculation with suitable Rhizobium culture; and transfer to field.


Kumar S.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute | Kumar S.,Purdue University | Bhat V.,University of Delhi
In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant | Year: 2012

Genetic improvement of the apomictic forage grass species Cenchrus ciliaris L. based on conventional breeding methods is difficult and time-consuming. However, in vitro genetic manipulation of such species would provide a promising approach. A rapid and high-frequency in vitro plant regeneration protocol is essential for successful application of transgenic technology. This study reports on such a rapid, high-frequency and genotype-independent plant regeneration protocol for C. ciliaris L. Using the multiple shoot induction approach, up to 20 shoots per explant could be induced from shoot tips cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium when supplemented with 3.0 mg L -1 TDZ. Two cultivars (IGFRI-3108 and IGFRI-727) and three exotic germplasm accessions (EC-397670, EC397496, and EC397336) showed equivalent responses to the protocol. Shoot tips from 4-d-old in vitro grown seedlings were used as explants for multiple shoot induction. Regenerated shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with gibberellic acid (2.0 mg L -1) for shoot elongation. The regenerated shoots were rooted on MS medium supplemented with indole-3-acetic acid (3.0 mg L -1). When transferred to soil in pots, hardened plants displayed up to 85% survival under field conditions. © 2012 The Society for In Vitro Biology.


A field experiment was conducted during 2006–2011 on sandy loam soil at Central Research Farm of Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi to find out the effect of weed control measures on forage productivity, quality, soil fertility status and economics of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.)-based pasture intercropped with legumes. Intercropping of Stylosanthes seabrana B.L. Maass &’t Mannetje with Guinea grass produced significantly higher total green and dry forage yields (25.10 and 6.68 t/ha) than Clitoria ternatea vine (19.10 and 5.41 t/ha), Macroptillium atropurpureum (DC.) Urb. (20.17 and 5.60 t/ha) and Stylosanthes hamata (L.) Taub., (23.36 and 6.29 t/ha). Intercropping of Stylosanthes seabrana with Guinea grass also resulted in significantly higher total crude protein yield (582.0 kg/ha) as compared to Clitoria ternatea (457.7 kg/ha) and Macroptillium atropurpureum (474.9 kg/ha). In weed management practices, hand-weeding 35 days after sowing in first year and 25 days after onset of monsoon rain from second year onwards recorded significantly higher green forage, dry forage and crude protein yields of both Guinea grass (16.48 and 5.02 t/ha and 344.0 kg/ha) and legumes (9.05 and 2.0 t/ha and 271.8 kg/ha) than weedy check, pre-emergence application of pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg a.i./ha and weeding with weeder cum mulcher. The highest net returns (₹ 13,733/ha) and net returns/rupee invested (₹ 1.48) were obtained by intercropping of Guinea grass with Stylosanthes seabrana. Hand-weeding 35 days after sowing in first year and 25 days after onset of monsoon rain from second year onwards also recorded maximum net returns (₹ 12,746/ha). Intercropping of Stylosanthes seabrana with Guinea grass resulted in significant improvement in organic carbon (0.48%) and available nitrogen (228 kg/ha) than Clitoria ternatea and Macroptillium atropurpureum. Available nitrogen (226.2 kg/ha), phosphorus (9.91 kg/ha) and potassium (195.8 kg/ha) were also significantly higher in hand weeded plots than weedy check (211.3, 9.05 and 179.1 kg/ha). © 2015, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.

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