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Narsimlu B.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Narsimlu B.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute | Gosain A.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Chahar B.R.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Water Resources Management | Year: 2013

A study has been conducted to assess future climate change impacts on water resources of the Upper Sind River Basin using Soil Water Assessment Tool. Sequential uncertainty fitting (SUFI-2) algorithm has been applied for model calibration and uncertainty analysis. Monthly observed stream flows matched well with simulated flows with respect to p-factor, d-factor, Correlation coefficient and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients with values of 0.73, 0.42, 0.82, 0.80 during calibration (1992-2000) and 0.42, 0.36, 0.96, 0.93 during validation (2001-2005) respectively. PRECIS generated outputs under IPCC A1B Scenarios for Indian conditions corresponding to the baseline (1961-1990), midcentury (2021-2050) and endcentury (2071-2098); extracted by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune (India) have been used for the study. It has been found from the model results that the average annual streamflow could increase by 16.4 % for the midcentury and a significant increase of 93.5 % by the endcentury. The results also indicate that streamflow may rise drastically in monsoon season, but will decrease in non-monsoon season due to the projected future climate change. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Chandra A.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2011

In general tropical forage legumes lack microsatellites or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Development of genie SSR markers from expressed sequence tagged (EST) database is an alternate and efficient approach to generate the standard DNA markers for genome analysis of such crop species. In the present paper a total of 816 EST-SSRs containing perfect repeats of mono (33.5%), di (14.7%), tri (39.3%), tetra (2.7%), penta (0.7%) and hexa (0.4%) nucleotides were identified from 1,87,763 ESTs of Medicago truncatula. Along with, 70 (8.5%) SSRs of a compound type were also observed. Seven primer pairs of tri repeats were tested for cross transferability in 19 accessions of forage legumes comprising 11 genera. At two different annealing temperatures (55 and 60 °C) all primer pairs except AJ410087 reacted with many accessions of forage legumes. Atotal of 51 alleles were detected with six M. truncatula EST-SSRs primer-pairs against DNA from 19 accessions representing 11 genera where number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13. The cross-transferability of these EST-SSRs was 40.6% at 55 °C and 32.3% at 60 °C annealing temperature. 24 alleles of the total 50 (48%) at 55 °C and 27 of 51 (53%) at 60 °C were polymorphic among the accessions. These 27 polymorphic amplicons identified could be used as DNA markers. This study demonstrates the developed SSR markers from M. truncatula ESTs as a valuable genetic markers and also proposes the possibility of transferring these markers between species of different genera of the legumes of forage importance. It was evident from the results obtained with a set of Desmanthus virgatus accessions where Sequential Agglomerative Hierarchical and Nested (SAHN) cluster analysis based on Dice similarity and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean Algorithm (UPGMA) revealed significant variability (24 to 74%) among the accessions. High bootstrap values (>30) supported the nodes generated by dendrogram analysis of accessions. © 2011 Triveni Enterprises Vikas nagar Lucknow INDIA. Source

Kumar S.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Journal of Applied Genetics | Year: 2011

Review of biotechnology research in alfalfa shows that molecular techniques are extensively being used for basic and applied research toward alfalfa improvement. Biotechnological approaches have been used in two major areas, genomics and transgenics. In genomics, molecular markers, structural and functional genomics allowed identification of genes of interest and their regulatory components. Alfalfa being obstinate to genetic and genomic analysis, comparative genomics is used for molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes in alfalfa. Alternatively, transgenic approach involves incorporation of specific and useful genes into alfalfa to improve the traits of interest. Input traits to improve agronomic performance and output traits to improve forage quality, or to produce novel industrial/pharmaceutical proteins, are the focus of current transgenic research in alfalfa. However, transgenic approach is controversial requiring cautious experimental design to combat bioisafety concerns. Ideally, forage alfalfa needs to possess more fermentable carbohydrates, proteins with balanced amino acid profile that degrade slower in rumen, improved winter hardiness, better water use efficiency, pest resistance and no anti-quality factors. Concerted efforts are required to bring together maximum of these characteristic features into the alfalfa plant. © 2011 Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan. Source

Chandra A.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2010

Lucerne (M. sativa L.,2n=4x=32) is susceptible to weevil (Hypera postica Gyll) insect, hence incorporation of desirable gene (s) from M. scutellata (2n=30) is an important researchable issue. Incompatibility due to incongruous chromosomal arrangements in these two species necessitated the identification of closer species to M. scutellata (possibly progenitors). After screening 197 accessions comprising 50 Medicago species, M. murex(2n = 2x- 14)andM. doliata(2n = 2x= 16) have been identified as morphologically similar having compatible ploidy and genetically closerto M. scutellata as observed with 17 simple sequence repeats (SSR) and 8 enzymes based isozyme markers. The identified accessions namely IL-04-223 and IL-04-151 of M. doliata and M. murex respectively showing low levels (< 5%) of weevil infestation can be contemplated with diploid M. sativa (2n=2x=16) to generate weevil resistant lines. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India). Source

Roy A.K.,Indian Grassland And Fodder Research Institute
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

The genus Trifolium Leguminosae (Fabaceae), commonly called clovers, includes 237-290 annual and perennial species, of which about 20 are important as cultivated and pasture crops. Taxonomic distribution supported by molecular analysis indicates that Mediterranean region is one of the main centers of distribution of the genus and also a center of domestication and breeding. Self-incompatibility is prevalent in the genus, controlled by a single, multiallelic gene expressed gametophytically in the pollen. It was suggested that hybridity did not play a major role in the evolution of the genus due to the poor crossability of the species under natural conditions. Interspecific hybridization in the genus Trifolium by conventional crossing techniques has been largely unsuccessful. Post-zygotic barriers appear to be a primary cause of the reproductive isolation, associated with endosperm disintegration and consequent abnormal differentiation and starvation of the hybrid embryo. As hybridization using conventional techniques has almost failed in Trifolium, embryo culture technique was used by breeders to obtain new combinations of interspecific hybrids. Embryo culture has been effectively used in developing interspecific hybrids in Trifolium ambiguum, T. pratense, T. montanum, T. occidentale, T. isthomocarpum, T. repens, T. nigrescens, T. uniflorum, T. sarosiense, T. alexandrinum, T. apertum, T. resupinatum, T. constantinopolitanum, T. rubens, and T. alpestre in various combinations. The successful embryo -rescue and development of hybrid plantlets requires skilled techniques of tissue culture and field practices. It includes hybridization in field; excision of hybrid embryos at appropriate stage; disinfection and culture in suitable culture media to allow maturation of embryo, multiplication of shoots, and rooting; hardening of the plantlets; inoculation with suitable Rhizobium culture; and transfer to field. Source

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