Das N.Ch.,Indian Energy |
Warren G.T.,Indiana University |
Kao C.C.,Indiana University Bloomington |
Dragnea B.G.,Indiana University Bloomington |
And 2 more authors.
Physics Procedia | Year: 2014
Brome mosaic virus (BMV) viron is a model system that has a small icosahedral capsid protein (CP) shell. It is well known that BMV is plant virus which is a member of the alpha virus-like superfamily group. These viruses have genetic material and nucleic acids (RNA) with a segmented positive-strand RNA that offers high levels of RNA synthesis and virus production in plants. BMV CP tightly regulates the packaging of its RNAs into the inner core of the capsid while maintaining an outer protein shell coat. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) were applied to study the size, shape and protein-RNAs organization of BMV CP. BMV capsid protein and buffer solution containing a D2O/H2O mixture was used to enhance the contrast of the material for neutron scattering measurements. The pair distance distribution P(r) of BMV CP from the indirect Fourier transform of scattering spectrum was able to illustrate the differences in the distribution of materials, signifying RNAs packing, and protein in the BMV CP. The extracted parameter from P(r) shows that the BMV CP is about 260 Å in diameter and is composed of RNA with ∼ 74 Å core radiuses and coated protein shell of thickness 56 Å. The contribution of RNAs core, protein shell was estimated by simulation. The contribution due to interference of core and shell called cross term was also extracted from simulation. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
Ravinder,Indian Central Electricity Authority |
Awasthy A.,Indian Energy
43rd International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2010, CIGRE 2010 | Year: 2010
Indian market is over weight in tightly held long term contracts but trading in electricity has picked up after Electricity Act 2003, which has liberalized generation sector, mandating unbundling and provided for non-discriminatory open access. Inter-regional links together with day ahead dispatch procedure, real time energy accounting, financial settlement of deviations from dispatch schedules (UI mechanism) and open access regulations have provided the basic framework for trading. India is a vast country and power trading opportunities arise due to unevenly distributed generation resources, regional variations in demand pattern due to geographical, seasonal and daylight time variations despite an overall deficit scenario. The IEX exchange which started operations in June, 2008 is a nationwide voluntary automated online electricity trading platform conceived to bring ease, transparency and equity in day-ahead physical trading of electricity. It is a demutualised exchange with software enabled price discovery. Participants on the IEX exchange include 46 distribution utilities, 14 Independent Power Producers, 120 captive/cogeneration plants and 19 open access industrial consumers. There is considerable divergence between peak and off peak price of the day reflecting time value of electricity. High volatility, on month on month basis, in the average monthly prices has been witnessed which could be attributed to the nature of the short term demand and low volumes. Despite price volatility on the exchange the opening up of the market has been smooth because the existing long term PPAs have not been disturbed. More than 5 billion units have been traded on the IEX exchange and the average monthly volume has crossed the level of 500 MUs. The average daily volume has been around 12 MUs, however, off late the average volume has been in the range of 20 MUs. Due to transmission congestion the market has to be often split and buyers in the congested zone have to pay higher prices. Rather than buying power on the exchange or bilaterally, some buyers prefer to over draw from the grid because penal charges for overdrawing are not at the level of deterrence. There is resistance to free trade by the State Electricity Boards and Distribution Utilities and open access is often denied or delayed at the level of State Load Dispatch Centres whereas Central Electricity Regulatory Commission and Regional Load Dispatch Centres are actively facilitating open access.
Kumar Singh B.,Indian Energy
Energy Policy | Year: 2013
South Asia has witnessed a growing imbalance between energy demand and its supply from indigenous sources resulting in increased import dependence. Energy endowments differ among the South Asian countries. However, access to the significant energy resources in the neighboring countries is denied, which increases the cost of energy supply and reduces energy security of the individual countries and of the region as a whole. The countries in the region could benefit significantly only by strengthening the mechanism of energy trade through improved connectivity. Therefore, greater cooperation within South Asia could be one of the most effective ways to deal with this Regional Energy deficit and ensure Energy Security of the Region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
News Article | August 23, 2016
India’s largest power trading platform, Indian Energy Exchang,e is planning to set up a dedicated trading platform for renewable energy. In a recent interview, officials of Indian Energy Exchange (IEX) stated that they are planning to introduce a dedicated power exchange for renewable energy projects. The officials stated that since the government plans to have 175 GW of renewable energy installed by March 2022, project developers will likely look to have multiple options to sell their electricity. The idea of a dedicated renewable energy trading platform will work only if private sector project developers look to set up projects outside the tenders floated by the state and central governments. Developers winning such tenders have to sign long-term power purchase agreements, leaving them with no alternate options to sell electricity. This sometimes becomes a financial hurdles for the developers as not all off-takers are of sound financial condition to make regular payments to the developers. The success of a renewable energy trading platform will be a challenge, as distribution companies in India are not buying renewable energy certificates which help them meet their renewable purchase obligation. Several million such certificates currently remain unsold, with distribution companies not heeding the pleas of the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy to rapidly increase the purchase of these certificates. Indian Energy Exchange is looking to promote this dedicated platform as an alternate venue for project developers to sell electricity and keep their projects financially viable in case long-term agreements do not provide the desired revenue. Drive an electric car? Complete one of our short surveys for our next electric car report. Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.
Dauer L.T.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Ainsbury E.A.,Public Health England |
Dynlacht J.,Indiana University |
Hoel D.,Medical University of South Carolina |
And 12 more authors.
Health Physics | Year: 2016
Previous National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) publications have addressed the issues of risk and dose limitation in radiation protection and included guidance on specific organs and the lens of the eye. NCRP decided to prepare an updated commentary intended to enhance the previous recommendations provided in earlier reports. The NCRP Scientific Committee 1-]23 (SC 1-]23) is charged with preparing a commentary that will evaluate recent studies on the radiation dose response for the development of cataracts and also consider the type and severity of the cataracts as well as the dose rate; provide guidance on whether existing dose limits to the lens of the eye should be changed in the United States; and suggest research needs regarding radiation effects on and dose limits to the lens of the eye. A status of the ongoing work of SC 1-]23 was presented at the NCRP 2015 Annual Meeting, -gChanging Regulations and RadiationGuidance:What Does the FutureHold?-h The following represents a synopsis of a few main points in the current draft commentary. It is likely that several changes will be forthcoming as SC 1-]23 responds to subject matter expert review and develops a final document, expected by mid 2016. © 2016 Health Physics Society.