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Sharma P.,NRHM | Rahi M.,Maulana Azad Medical College | Lal P.,Indian Council of Medical Research ICMR
Indian Journal of Community Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: Cervical cancer is the commonest malignancy among women in developing countries. Cytological screening (Pap smear) have been claimed to reduce incidence and mortality of carcinoma cervix significantly for which sensitization of women is required through community-based approach. Objectives: To find out number of cervical cancer cases among patients reporting to a general health care camp through screening program and study the prevalence of perceived morbidity and its confirmation. Settings: Cross-sectional study among women attending cancer awareness camps. Materials and Methods: A total of 435 women attending cancer awareness camps were screened for carcinoma cervix. The findings of history and clinical examination were recorded. Pap smears of all the symptomatic patients were collected and cytological diagnosis was confirmed by a pathologist. Results and Conclusions: The perceived gynecological morbidity was observed to be 59.8%. The smear of the women who were suspected of carcinoma on clinical examination was confirmed to be the cases of carcinoma-in-situ (7.8%) and high-grade neoplasia (2.9%) on laboratory investigations. The findings of the study highlight the utility and need of cancer cervix screening among the women at regular intervals through camp approach in the community.

Priyanka J.,Maharashtra University of Health Sciences | Hingorani L.,Pharmanza Herbals Pvt. Ltd. | Nilima K.,Indian Council of Medical Research ICMR
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: To investigate in-vivo anti-plasmodial activity of aqueous extracts of plants selected based on the symptomology mentioned in Ayurveda. Methods: The aqueous extracts of Holarrhena antidysentrica (H. antidysentrica) (Kutaja) and Azadirachta indica (A. indica) (Neemb) for their antiplasmodial potential in Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei) infected mice was assessed using Peters four day suppressive test. Both the extracts were administered at 2 dose levels, full dose (1000 mg/d) and minimized dose (200 mg/d). 106 P. berghei infected RBCs were injected on day '0' and treated from day '0' till day '3' post-infection. Tail blood smears were collected, giemsa stained and analyzed. The mice were observed for survival and parasitemia was assessed till 50% of mice in control survived. Results: It was observed that the percentage of parasitemia increased gradually in all the groups, with maximum in control group (Day 3-35, Day 9-46.98) and minimum in Chloroquine arm (Day 3-14.06, Day 9-19.92). The percentage of parasitemia was compared using Mann-Whitney U test depicting that all test groups exhibited reduction in parasitemia as compared to control (P-value<0.002 for all groups). These groups showed similar percentage of survival as Chloroquine. Conclusions: The present investigation demonstrated the anti-plasmodial effects of H. antidysentrica and A. indica, which are two most commonly used medicinal plants in Ayurved for treatment of fever. © 2013 Hainan Medical College.

Patel D.K.,Veer Surendra Sai Medical College | Mashon R.S.,Indian Council of Medical Research ICMR | Patel S.,Sickle Cell Research Project | Das B.S.,Institute of Life science | And 2 more authors.
Hemoglobin | Year: 2012

There are several questions pertaining to dosage, duration and potential long-term toxicity of hydroxyurea (HU) therapy. Use of HU is extremely limited in eastern India because of its high cost and apprehension of its toxicities. We undertook this study to assess the clinical, biochemical and hematological efficacy of minimal dose HU (10 mg/kg/day) in 118 sickle cell anemia patients (27 pediatric and 91 adults). The frequency of painful crises reduced significantly in 71.5 and 92.2 in pediatric and adult cases, respectively. Ninety-five percent of the patients became transfusion independent. The baseline Hb F, total hemoglobin (Hb), MCV, MCH and MCHC levels increased significantly, whereas the WBC, platelet count and total serum bilirubin values decreased significantly. This is the first study of minimal dose HU therapy in eastern India that showed impressive improvement in clinical and hematological parameters with minimal toxicity. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Garg P.,MM Institute of Medical science and Research | Thakur J.D.,Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center | Garg M.,MM Institute of Medical science and Research | Menon G.R.,Indian Council of Medical Research ICMR
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery | Year: 2012

Introduction: We analyzed different morbidity parameters between single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) and conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC). Methods: Pubmed, Ovid, Embase, SCI database, Cochrane, and Google Scholar were searched. The primary endpoints analyzed were cosmetic result and the postoperative pain (at 6 and 24 h) and the secondary endpoints were operating time, hospital stay, incidence of overall postoperative complications, wound-related complications, and port-site hernia. Results: Six hundred fifty-nine patients (SILC-349, CLC-310) were analyzed from nine randomized controlled trials. The objective postoperative pain scores at 6 and 24 h and the hospital stay were similar in both groups. The total postoperative complications, wound-related problems, and port-site hernia formation, though higher in SILC, were also comparable in both groups. SILC had significantly favorable cosmetic scoring compared to CLC [weighted mean difference = 1.0, p = 0.0001]. The operating time was significantly longer in SILC [weighted mean difference = 15.63, p = 0.0001]. Conclusions: Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not confer any benefit in postoperative pain (6 and 24 h) and hospital stay as compared to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy while having significantly better cosmetic results at the same time. Postoperative complications, though higher in SILC, were statistically similar in both the groups. © 2012 The Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract.

Omanwar S.,Indian Council of Medical Research ICMR | Ravi K.,University of Delhi | Fahim M.,University of Delhi
Human and Experimental Toxicology | Year: 2011

Chronic mercury exposure impairs vascular function, leading to the depression of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Loss of the nitric oxide (NO) pathway has been implicated, but little is known about effects on other endothelial mediators. This study investigated the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in rats subjected to chronic mercury chloride exposure. The endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat aorta evoked by acetylcholine (ACh) and isoproterenol was impaired in a dose-dependent manner by chronic mercury chloride exposure. Endothelium-independent responses to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were not affected by chronic mercury chloride exposure. In healthy vessels, ACh-induced relaxation was inhibited by L-N-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 -4M) and partially by glybenclamide (10 -5M), indicating the involvement of NO and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). In vessels from mercury-exposed rats, responses to ACh were insensitive to L-NAME but were significantly reduced by glybenclamide, indicating selective loss of NO-mediated relaxation. In vessels from mercury-exposed rats, responses to ACh were partially restored after treatment with the antioxidant, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, this effect was not seen when aorta from exposed group was incubated with L-NAME along with SOD and catalase indicating selective loss of NO-mediated vasodilatation and with no affect the EDHF-mediated component of relaxation. The results imply that chronic mercury exposure selectively impairs the NO pathway as a consequence of oxidative stress, while EDHF is able to maintain endothelium-dependent relaxation at a reduced level. © SAGE Publications 2011.

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