Shah B.,Indian Council of Medical Research
Indian journal of pediatrics
Rheumatic heart disease, a neglected disease, continues to be a burden in India and other developing countries. It is a result of an autoimmune sequalae in response to group A beta hemolytic streptococcus (GAS) infection of the pharynx. Acute rheumatic fever (RF), a multisystem inflammatory disease, is followed by rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and has manifestations of joints, skin and central nervous system involvement. A review of epidemiological studies indicates unchanged GAS pharyngitis and carrier rates in India. The apparent decline in RHD rates in India as indicated by the epidemiological studies has to be taken with caution as methodological differences exist among studies. Use of echocardiography increases case detection rates of RHD in population surveys. However, the significance of echo based diagnosis of carditis needs further evaluation to establish the significance. Research in this area through prospective follow up studies will have to be undertaken by the developing countries as the interest of developed countries in the disease has waned due the declined burden in their populations. Prevention of RHD is possible through treatment of GAS pharyngitis (primary prophylaxis) and continued antibiotic treatment for number of years in patients with history of RF to prevent recurrences (secondary prophylaxis). The cost effectiveness and practicality of secondary prophylaxis is well documented. The challenge to any secondary prophylaxis program for prevention of RF in India will be the availability of benzathine penicillin G and dissipation of fears of allergic reactions to penicillin among practitioners, general public and policy makers. The authors review here the progress and challenges in epidemiology, diagnosis and primary and secondary prevention of RF and RHD. Source
Kant L.,Indian Council of Medical Research |
Krishnan S.K.,WHO Country Office for India
BMC Public Health
India has made appreciable progress and continues to demonstrate a strong commitment for establishing and operating a disease surveillance programme responsive to the requirements of the International Health Regulations (IHR). Within five years of its launch, India has effectively used modern information and communication technology for collection, storage, transmission and management of data related to disease surveillance and effective response. Terrestrial and/or satellite based linkages are being established within all states, districts, state-run medical colleges, infectious disease hospitals, and public health laboratories. This network enables speedy data transfer, video conferencing, training and e-learning for outbreaks and programme monitoring. A 24x7 call centre is in operation to receive disease alerts. To complement these efforts, a media scanning and verification cell functions to receive reports of early warning signals. During the 2009 H1N1 outbreak, the usefulness of the information and communication technology (ICT) network was well appreciated. India is using ICT as part of its Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) to help overcome the challenges in further expansion in hard-to-reach populations, to increase the involvement of the private sector, and to increase the use of other modes of communication like e-mail and voicemail. © 2010 Kant and Krishnan; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source
Bhattacharya S.M.,s Memorial Medical And Research Center |
Jha A.,Indian Council of Medical Research
Fertility and Sterility
Objective: To compare the effects of oral contraceptive pills containing desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, and drospirenone, in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), after 6 and 12 months of therapy. Design: Double-blind randomized controlled trial. Setting: Gynecologic clinic of the first author. Patient(s): Women (n = 171) with PCOS (Androgen Excess Society criteria, 2006). Intervention(s): The three-arm trial involved 58, 56, and 57 cases in desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, and drospirenone groups, respectively. Body mass index, abdominal circumference, hirsutism score (modified Ferriman Galwey), acne and acanthosis nigricans scores, and blood pressure were noted. Blood levels of total T, sex hormone-binding globulin, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin were measured. Free androgen index, glucose-insulin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were calculated. Follow-up was after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Main Outcome Measure(s): Primarily, absolute change in the Free Androgen Index score between the three groups and, secondarily, changes in the clinical and other hormonal and biochemical parameters were studied. Result(s): Six months of treatment showed similar effects. After 12 months, cyproterone acetate significantly decreased the modified Ferriman Galwey score (change = -5.29) compared with both desogestrel (change = -1.69) and drospirenone (change = -2.12); cyproterone acetate significantly increased sex hormone-binding globulin (change = 142.91) compared with desogestrel (change = 99.53); drospirenone significantly increased sex hormone-binding globulin (change = 131.52) compared with desogestrel; and cyproterone acetate significantly decreased the Free Androgen Index (change = -10.57) compared with desogestrel (change = -5.58). Conclusion(s): No difference in effects after 6 months. At 12 months, cyproterone acetate showed the strongest antiandrogen activities. Effects on metabolic parameters were identical. © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Published by Elsevier Inc. Source
Indian Council Of Medical Research | Date: 2014-05-05
Provided herein is a drug delivery system for curcumin comprising fibrinogen, thrombin and curcumin.
Indian Council Of Medical Research and The King's University | Date: 2014-03-04
Provided herein are primers and probes for the detection of Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus in a sample, a reaction mixture for multiplex real time PCR for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of Hepatitis B and C and a test kit based on multiplex real time PCR for the simultaneous detection and quantitation of Hepatitis B and C.