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Pandey R.,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2011

Accounting the changes in the net carbon (C) sink-source balance is an important component for greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) inventories. However, carbon emission due to the vegetation biomass extraction for household purposes is generally not accounted in forest carbon budget analysis due to miniscule volume and non-availability of data. However, if vegetation remains in the forests, then vegetation biomass decomposes after natural death and decay and fixes some carbon to soil and releases some directly to the atmosphere. The study attempts to quantify the carbon removal against the biomass extraction for livestock feed by collecting primary data on feed from 316 randomly selected households engaged in livestock rearing in the lower Himalayas, Uttarakhand, India and carbon flow components due to livestock production. The analysis results that average daily forest fodder consumption was 13 kg per Adult Cattle Unit (ACU) and total of 20. 31 Million tonnes (Mt) consumption of forest biomass by total livestock of Uttarakhand. This results into absolute annual carbon removal of 3. 25 Mt from Uttarakhand forests against the livestock fodder. However, overall carbon flow including the enteric fermentation and manure management system of livestock estimated as per IPCC guidelines, results into emissions of 9. 42 Mt CO2 eq. Therefore, biomass extraction for household purposes should be accounted in regional carbon flow analysis and properly addressed in the GHG inventories of the forests and livestock sector. Suitable measures should be taken for emissions reduction generated due to forest based livestock production. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Pandey R.,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Folia Forestalia Polonica, Series A | Year: 2010

Evaluation is primarily a measure of the effects and elaboration on the current performance of a program. It facilitates identification and choice of the ways to achieve the intended program objectives. The evaluation includes selection of samples, as well as collection and analysis of data. This paper discusses the issue of the allocation of samples for the population for which programs have been implemented in a phased manner. This needs special attention due to the temporal impact of allocations on the successive units. A method of proportional allocation has been proposed for the estimation of the sample size in different phases under the assumption that the impact of the latter phase is a multiplicative product of constant factor and the former phase. Source

Pandey R.,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Folia Forestalia Polonica, Series A | Year: 2011

Livestock sector forms an important livelihood activity for farmers, through supporting agriculture and supple-menting income in India. The lack of availability of sufficient feed is one of the major limiting factors for better productivity of livestock. The feed are of two types as roughages (high in crude fibrous material) available at public forest, farm lands, etc. and concentrates (high in nutrients and mixture of oil, coarse grain, and cereals). The general degradation of forest reduces the fodder availability, severely. Therefore, improving forest condition may provide pathways for sustainability of both, livestock and forest. This may be addressed through sustainable forest management, which requires scientific inputs and may be shifting of some demand of locals to other resources. This requires huge amount from government. Presently, livestock sector is part of the Agriculture and Allied Activities sector in the accounting system of India, and therefore, all related shares and expenditure is part of the component. This results into under allocation for the actual shares of forestry contribution to livestock, in the Forestry and Logging sector. This occurs primarily, due to the lack of scientific information on the share and value of fodder from forest. This study has been undertaken to estimate the share and economic value of forests derived livestock feed. Primary data has been collected as per pretested questionnaire from 316 randomly selected households engaged in livestock rearing from 66 villages distributed across the Uttarakhand, India. Information pertaining to the fodder to livestock from all sources and socio-economic attributes were collected from each household to understand the feed consumption behavior of livestock. The feed sources were classified in forests, other than forests and market. The shares and economic value of livestock feed derived from different sources has been estimated for all livestock. The prices of various feeds were either collected directly from market or estimated through non market valuation techniques based on two scenarios (contingent valuation and ratio of dry and green matter basis of 0.40). The average proportion of feed quantity consumed by livestock was 58% from forests, 39% from other than forests and 3% from markets for hilly region. It was 97% from other than forests and 3% from markets for plain region. For hilly region, the proportion of economic value varies from 40-41% for forest; 40-41% for agriculture and 18-20%o from market. The total value of forest fodder was Rs 4811 millions in scenario 1 and Rs 5209 millions in scenario 2 for the Uttarakhand. The study concludes and recommends that these proportions may be utilized to allocate the appropriate share of livestock feed into Forestry and Logging sector, which may results into the realistic share of the sector. Source

Sharma S.K.,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Annals of Forest Research | Year: 2011

Rooting ability of the vegetative cutting depends upon the various factors: age, size, and diameter of cutting, season, rooting substrate and concentration of the applied growth hormone. For assessing the seasonal variation in rooting ability of shoot, cuttings were taken from 4 year old hedges. Shoot cuttings were collected after every two months of hedging spring (March), summer (June), autumn (September) and winter (December) and treated with 4000 ppm Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), mixed with talc powder and planted in vermiculite filled beds. Suitable control was also maintained, wherein only talc powder was applied to the basal portion of cuttings. Periodical observations were taken on cuttings, with regard to root initiation. The cuttings were uprooted after 12 weeks of planting and observations were recorded. Highly significant differences were observed between root length, shoot length, number of roots per cutting and rooting percentage. This has led to the evaluation of a standard technique for application of mass clonal propagation of Chir pine during summer season (June), which would result into a good success in rooting percentage. This technique could also be helpful in the establishment of germplasm banks of desired genotypes and Clonal Seed Orchards (CSOs). Further, this will also help in overcoming the problem of stock and scion incompatibility, which is commonly faced, when Clonal Seed Orchards are established through grafted material. Source

Yasmin S.,Patna Womens College | Ranjan S.,Patna Womens College | Hilaluddin,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education | D'Souza D.,Patna Womens College
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2013

Fluoride (F) is mainly ingested through drinking water and food. In addition to producing dental and skeletal fluorosis, excess fluoride may affect the functioning of many organs including the thyroid gland. The present study investigated the thyroid function of subjects with dental fluorosis from F-endemic areas of Gaya region, Bihar, India and compared it with control individuals from Bodh Gaya. The mean F concentration in groundwater of F-endemic area was 2.82 ± 0.18 mg/L (range 0.62-7.2 mg/L), while that of control area was 0.49 ± 0.04 mg/L (range 0.21-0.76 mg/L). Abnormal levels of T3, T4, and TSH were found in the study subjects from both control and F-endemic areas. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

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