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Sharma S.K.,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Annals of Forest Research | Year: 2011

Rooting ability of the vegetative cutting depends upon the various factors: age, size, and diameter of cutting, season, rooting substrate and concentration of the applied growth hormone. For assessing the seasonal variation in rooting ability of shoot, cuttings were taken from 4 year old hedges. Shoot cuttings were collected after every two months of hedging spring (March), summer (June), autumn (September) and winter (December) and treated with 4000 ppm Indole Butyric Acid (IBA), mixed with talc powder and planted in vermiculite filled beds. Suitable control was also maintained, wherein only talc powder was applied to the basal portion of cuttings. Periodical observations were taken on cuttings, with regard to root initiation. The cuttings were uprooted after 12 weeks of planting and observations were recorded. Highly significant differences were observed between root length, shoot length, number of roots per cutting and rooting percentage. This has led to the evaluation of a standard technique for application of mass clonal propagation of Chir pine during summer season (June), which would result into a good success in rooting percentage. This technique could also be helpful in the establishment of germplasm banks of desired genotypes and Clonal Seed Orchards (CSOs). Further, this will also help in overcoming the problem of stock and scion incompatibility, which is commonly faced, when Clonal Seed Orchards are established through grafted material.

Pandey R.,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change | Year: 2011

Accounting the changes in the net carbon (C) sink-source balance is an important component for greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) inventories. However, carbon emission due to the vegetation biomass extraction for household purposes is generally not accounted in forest carbon budget analysis due to miniscule volume and non-availability of data. However, if vegetation remains in the forests, then vegetation biomass decomposes after natural death and decay and fixes some carbon to soil and releases some directly to the atmosphere. The study attempts to quantify the carbon removal against the biomass extraction for livestock feed by collecting primary data on feed from 316 randomly selected households engaged in livestock rearing in the lower Himalayas, Uttarakhand, India and carbon flow components due to livestock production. The analysis results that average daily forest fodder consumption was 13 kg per Adult Cattle Unit (ACU) and total of 20. 31 Million tonnes (Mt) consumption of forest biomass by total livestock of Uttarakhand. This results into absolute annual carbon removal of 3. 25 Mt from Uttarakhand forests against the livestock fodder. However, overall carbon flow including the enteric fermentation and manure management system of livestock estimated as per IPCC guidelines, results into emissions of 9. 42 Mt CO2 eq. Therefore, biomass extraction for household purposes should be accounted in regional carbon flow analysis and properly addressed in the GHG inventories of the forests and livestock sector. Suitable measures should be taken for emissions reduction generated due to forest based livestock production. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Mukesh,Wildlife Institute of India | Mukesh,Amity University | Sharma L.K.,Wildlife Institute of India | Sharma L.K.,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape. Copyright: © 2015 Mukesh et al.

Pandey R.,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Small-scale Forestry | Year: 2012

Fuelwood is important source of cooking energy in the majority of households of rural India. This paper discusses positive and negative externalities of fuelwood use including forest conservation and the health, welfare and environment for the forest-dependent tribal community of Jaunsar, based on survey data and visual observations from this remote area of the Lower Himalayas, India. Health issues due to fuelwood use are explored among tribal women using data collected from 50 randomly selected households spread in 13 randomly selected villages. The pattern of fuelwood use including hardships in terms of time spent and distance travelled for collection of cooking energy and the kitchen structures are also elaborated. The emission of four major pollution gases-CO, SO x, NO x and CO 2-due to fuelwood burning in kitchens is found to be beyond acceptable air standards, causing various reported health problems. Policy implications arise concerning options of local people to utilize other energy options. It is argued that the adverse impacts should be tackled by framing household energy policy in totality, not limited to concern over the energy crisis but also considering associated implications including health and drudgery. © 2011 Steve Harrison, John Herbohn.

Verma M.R.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Pandey R.,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences | Year: 2015

The sample allocation is an important aspect in stratified sampling. Pandey (2010) proposed the sample allocation procedure for assessment of the impact of development programme and assumed that the cost of selection of each unit is same in all the phases. But in real life situations, the cost of observing the units is not same in different phases. So in the present paper, we have suggested the sample allocation procedures for assessment of the impact of the development programmes when the cost of observing the units varies in different phases and phase effect is geometric. The proposed sample allocation procedure can be applied to the situation when the effect of phase on the development programme is geometric. The paper concludes with an empirical study.

Pandey R.,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Folia Forestalia Polonica, Series A | Year: 2010

Evaluation is primarily a measure of the effects and elaboration on the current performance of a program. It facilitates identification and choice of the ways to achieve the intended program objectives. The evaluation includes selection of samples, as well as collection and analysis of data. This paper discusses the issue of the allocation of samples for the population for which programs have been implemented in a phased manner. This needs special attention due to the temporal impact of allocations on the successive units. A method of proportional allocation has been proposed for the estimation of the sample size in different phases under the assumption that the impact of the latter phase is a multiplicative product of constant factor and the former phase.

Pandey R.,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Folia Forestalia Polonica, Series A | Year: 2011

Livestock sector forms an important livelihood activity for farmers, through supporting agriculture and supple-menting income in India. The lack of availability of sufficient feed is one of the major limiting factors for better productivity of livestock. The feed are of two types as roughages (high in crude fibrous material) available at public forest, farm lands, etc. and concentrates (high in nutrients and mixture of oil, coarse grain, and cereals). The general degradation of forest reduces the fodder availability, severely. Therefore, improving forest condition may provide pathways for sustainability of both, livestock and forest. This may be addressed through sustainable forest management, which requires scientific inputs and may be shifting of some demand of locals to other resources. This requires huge amount from government. Presently, livestock sector is part of the Agriculture and Allied Activities sector in the accounting system of India, and therefore, all related shares and expenditure is part of the component. This results into under allocation for the actual shares of forestry contribution to livestock, in the Forestry and Logging sector. This occurs primarily, due to the lack of scientific information on the share and value of fodder from forest. This study has been undertaken to estimate the share and economic value of forests derived livestock feed. Primary data has been collected as per pretested questionnaire from 316 randomly selected households engaged in livestock rearing from 66 villages distributed across the Uttarakhand, India. Information pertaining to the fodder to livestock from all sources and socio-economic attributes were collected from each household to understand the feed consumption behavior of livestock. The feed sources were classified in forests, other than forests and market. The shares and economic value of livestock feed derived from different sources has been estimated for all livestock. The prices of various feeds were either collected directly from market or estimated through non market valuation techniques based on two scenarios (contingent valuation and ratio of dry and green matter basis of 0.40). The average proportion of feed quantity consumed by livestock was 58% from forests, 39% from other than forests and 3% from markets for hilly region. It was 97% from other than forests and 3% from markets for plain region. For hilly region, the proportion of economic value varies from 40-41% for forest; 40-41% for agriculture and 18-20%o from market. The total value of forest fodder was Rs 4811 millions in scenario 1 and Rs 5209 millions in scenario 2 for the Uttarakhand. The study concludes and recommends that these proportions may be utilized to allocate the appropriate share of livestock feed into Forestry and Logging sector, which may results into the realistic share of the sector.

Yasmin S.,Patna Womens College | Ranjan S.,Patna Womens College | Hilaluddin,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education | D'Souza D.,Patna Womens College
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2013

Fluoride (F) is mainly ingested through drinking water and food. In addition to producing dental and skeletal fluorosis, excess fluoride may affect the functioning of many organs including the thyroid gland. The present study investigated the thyroid function of subjects with dental fluorosis from F-endemic areas of Gaya region, Bihar, India and compared it with control individuals from Bodh Gaya. The mean F concentration in groundwater of F-endemic area was 2.82 ± 0.18 mg/L (range 0.62-7.2 mg/L), while that of control area was 0.49 ± 0.04 mg/L (range 0.21-0.76 mg/L). Abnormal levels of T3, T4, and TSH were found in the study subjects from both control and F-endemic areas. © 2013 © 2013 Taylor & Francis.

Pandey R.,Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education
Italian Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Background: Household biomass combustion for cooking purposes produces pollutants. Exposure to these pollutants has various adverse health impacts and is a major contributor to global disease burden. However, a precise estimate of the burden attributable to biomass combustion at the local level is not available in different parts of the world, therefore restricting policymakers' ability to develop targeted actions against the health hazards. A study was conducted in the rural Himalayas to generate information about disease burden, with the purpose of aiding the development of strategies to improve public health. Methods: Exposure level, population exposed and other relevant data regarding fuel-wood use, were collected through questionnaire survey from 102 randomly selected households spread in 46 villages in a two phase cluster random sampling design study during 2008 - 09. The burden of disease for Acute Lower Respiratory Infection (ALRI), Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Lung Cancer were estimated as per fuel-based approach of WHO guidelines for rural hilly households, using fuelwood for cooking. Re sults: Households, primarily dependent on fuel-wood for fuel, had disability adjusted life years (DA LYs) lost and deaths that were much higher than the National status. The incidence of disease burden was 2 909 DA LYs lost, with a share of 1 987 for ALRI in children "up to" 5 years age, 730 for CO PD and 192 for Lung Cancer in adults more than 30 years old, respectively. This result has implications for policy makers when deciding on an effective exposure reduction strategy and describes the risks connected between these health hazards and the health outcome of inhabitants exposed to them. The paper also discusses the intervention strategies for "addressing" the issues relevant to fuel-wood generated exposure.

News Article | October 27, 2015
Site: phys.org

The study, by Dr Girish Chandra Pant of the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, assessed the present and future resource potential of Sal seeds, existing market mechanisms and their role in livelihood generation for rural communities in India. The Sal tree, Shorea robusta, is an evergreen species native to India, Myanmar and Nepal. Sal seeds are an important non timber forest product and source of income for about 90,000 forest fringe villages with a combined population of 56 million. The Sal seed is prized mainly for its oil, which has significant potential for export markets due to its low price. During the months of May and June, many rural people in central, eastern and northern India collect the seeds in order to supplement their incomes until the agricultural season begins. "There is an urgent need to attract villagers to Sal seed collection work, fix the procurement rates at a level that allows at least a minimum wage to be collected by the collectors, assess the sustainable harvesting levels and practices to ensure timely processing of the seeds to preserve their quality, and increase awareness among collectors to avoid the use of unhygienic sacks and pesticides for storing kernels," states Dr Pant. Based on his investigation of Sal seed collection activities at three sites in Uttarakhand state in northern India, the author recommends that clear-cut guidelines be set for estimating collection quantities so that planning for collection and marketing can be prepared accordingly. In addition, "the government should review the decision to ban Sal seed collection in Kumaun and allow the use of Sal fat in food items such as chocolates and ice creams," he concludes. The current ban on collecting Sal seeds in Kumaun was imposed to improve the regeneration of Sal trees in this region. More information: The paper is available online: www.pertanika.upm.edu.my/Pertanika%20PAPERS/JSSH%20Vol.%2023%20(3)%20Sep.%202015/09%20JSSH%201144-2014.pdf

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