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Marudhupandi T.,Annamalai University | Marudhupandi T.,Sathyabama University | Ajith Kumar T.T.,Annamalai University | Ajith Kumar T.T.,Indian Council of Agriculture Research
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2015

The present study was conducted to evaluate the anticancer activity of fucoidan isolated from brown seaweed Turbinaria conoides. Extracted fucoidan contained 53±0.69% of fucose and 38±0.42% of sulphate, respectively. Functional groups and structural characteristics of the fucoidan were analyzed by FT-IR and NMR. In vitro anticancer effect was studied on A549 cell line. Fucoidan inhibited the growth of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner and potent anticancer activities were 24.9-73.5% in the concentrations of 31.25-500μg/ml. The CTC50 value against the cancer cell was found to be 45μg/ml and the CTC50 value of normal Vero cell line is 325μg/ml. This study suggests that the fucoidan from T. conoides could be significantly improved if the active component is further purified and tested for further investigation in various cancer cell lines. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Marudhupandi T.,Annamalai University | Marudhupandi T.,Sathyabama University | Sathishkumar R.,Annamalai University | Kumar T.T.A.,Annamalai University | Kumar T.T.A.,Indian Council of Agriculture Research
Biotechnology Reports | Year: 2016

Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to enhance the biomass and lipid content in Nannochloropsis salina due to its economic importance. Preliminary screening results revealed that the heterotrophically cultivated N. salina with various carbon and nitrogen sources yielded higher biomass (0.91 ± 0.0035 g/L) and lipid content (37.1 ± 0.49 mg/L) than that of the photoautotrophical cultivation (0.21 ± 0.009 g/L and 22.16 ± 0.27 mg/L). Significant sources that greatly influenced on biomass and lipid content of the alga were optimized through RSM. The medium consisting of glucose (7.959 g/L), sodium acetate (1.46 g/L), peptone (7.6 g/L) and sodium thiosulphate (1.05 g/L) was found to be the optimal concentration for heterotrophic cultivation by response optimizer. Confirmation experiment results for the RSM optimized concentration yielded the biomass of 1.85 g/L and total lipid content of 48.6 mg/L. In this study, we provide with a strategy for enhancing the biomass and lipid content in N. salina. © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Mallick S.,National Research Center on Meat | Aggarwal A.,National Dairy Research Institute | Prakash B.S.,Indian Council of Agriculture Research
Biological Rhythm Research | Year: 2016

The aim of the study was to assess the influence of summer and winter seasons on semen quality and plasma hormone concentrations in cross-bred bulls. Semen was collected by an artificial vagina from eight bulls and microscopically evaluated for quality parameters. Semen volume was higher in summer season (p < 0.05) than winter season, whereas nonsignificant variation (p > 0.05) was observed in mass motility, individual motility, sperm viability, sperm concentration and percentage of membrane-intact and acrosome-intact spermatozoa. Plasma prolactin and testosterone concentration were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in summer season than winter season. Plasma testosterone levels were positively correlated with semen volume and negatively correlated with individual motility (p < 0.05). Prolactin showed a significant positive correlation with semen volume. A well-defined seasonal pattern in semen characteristics was not observed and few correlations existed between plasma hormone levels and semen characteristics in Karan Fries bulls. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Lekshmy S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Jain V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Jain V.,Indian Council of Agriculture Research | Khetarpal S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Pandey R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv PBW 343 was grown in Hoagland solution devoid of nitrogen (-N) under two CO2 levels viz. ambient (380 μL L-1, AC) and elevated (600 ± 50 μL L-1, EC) for 20 days in growth chambers. The rate of uptake, assimilation and accumulation of nitrate was compared. At lows nitrate concentration up to 0.5 mM, rate of nitrate uptake was higher in EC grown seedlings as compared to AC. Under non-limiting supply of external nitrate, the rate of uptake declined in EC grown seedlings. Nitrate reductase (NR) activity increased in EC grown seedlings at low external concentrations of nitrate. However, AC grown plants showed higher NR activity, but at very high concentrations of nitrate. EC grown plants showed low level of accumulation of nitrate in shoots under limited nitrate availability, indicating lower influx towards storage pool and more availability of nitrate in metabolic pool. Increasing nitrogen (N) fertilization therefore may not compensate for slower NO3}- assimilation rates under EC, as uptake and assimilation both decline under nitrate sufficient conditions. Effective management practices and changes in the pattern of fertigation may be required in response to rising atmospheric CO2 levels for wheat production. © 2013 Indian Society for Plant Physiology.


AbdelRahman M.A.E.,National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space science NARSS | Natarajan A.,Indian Council of Agriculture Research | Srinivasamurthy C.A.,Bangalore University | Hegde R.,Indian Council of Agriculture Research
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science | Year: 2015

Soil physical degradation is a major environmental problem throughout the world due to its negative impact on biomass and economic production. This study presented new ways of combining rapid soil analysis using GIS and remote sensing imagery to provide a precision mapping of soil physical condition indicators in the study area and producing fertility status using Geostatistical approach. Study has been carried out to map the areas with physical degradation using remotely sensed data from Indian Remote Sensing LISS III sensor. It was observed that the data enabled better delineation of small units of eroded areas. Satellite data have been used for qualitative assessment of areas, being subject to soil erosion. Soil erosion was found to be none or slight to very sever using visual interpretation of IRS data along with field survey method where soil erosion was found to be moderate to high using the RUSLE method. The eroded areas of degraded lands will be used as an input for planning reclamation and conservation programs in Chamarajanagar district of Karnataka.Soil compaction is a form of physical degradation resulting in densification and distortion of the soil where biological activity, porosity and permeability are reduced, strength is increased and soil structure partly destroyed. Compaction can reduce water infiltration capacity and increase erosion risk by accelerating run-off. The compaction process can be initiated by wheels, tracks, rollers or by the passage of animals. Some soils are naturally compacted, strongly cemented or have a thin topsoil layer on rock subsoil. Soils can vary from being sufficiently strong to resist all likely applied loads to being so weak that they are compacted by even light loads. © 2015 Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences.


Lokeshwari D.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | Krishna Kumar N.K.,Indian Council of Agriculture Research | Manjunatha H.,Kuvempu University
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2016

The melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important cosmopolitan and extremely polyphagous species capable of causing direct and indirect damage to various crops. Insecticide resistance in melon aphids is of particular concern. To determine the basis of resistance, organophosphate (OP)-resistant strains of A. gossypii were obtained by continuous selection with dimethoate in the laboratory, and resistance mechanisms were investigated along with susceptible strains. Three resistant strains LKR-1, LKR-2, and LKR-3 exhibiting 270-, 243-, and 210-fold resistance obtained after 30 generations of selection with dimethoate, respectively, were utilized in this study. The role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a target enzyme for OPs and carbamates (CMs), was investigated. AChE enzyme assay revealed that there was no significant change in the activities of AChE in resistant and susceptible strains. However, AChE inhibitory assay showed that 50% of the enzyme activity in resistant strains was inhibited at significantly higher concentration of dimethoate (131.87, 158.65, and 99.29 μmolL-1) as compared with susceptible strains (1.75 and 2.01 μmolL-1), indicating AChE insensitivity owing to altered AChE. Molecular diagnostic tool polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed the existence of two consistent non-synonymous point mutations, single-nucleotide polymorphism, viz., A302S (equivalent to A201 in Torpedo californica Ayres) and S431F (equivalent to F331 in T. californica), in the AChE gene Ace2 of resistant strains. Further, cloning and sequencing of a partial fragment of Ace2 (897 bp) gene from susceptible and resistant strains revealed an additional novel mutation G221A in resistant strains, LKR-1 and LKR-2. Susceptible Ace2 genes shared 99.6 and 98.9% identity at the nucleic acid and amino acid levels with resistant ones, respectively. Functional analysis of these point mutations was assessed by in silico docking studies using the modeled wild-type and naturally mutated AChE2. Computational analysis showed that the conformational changes in AChE2 active site due to structural gene substitutions (A302S, S431F, and G221A) significantly reduced the level of ligand (OP-dimethoate, omethoate, and CM-pirimicarb) binding, suggesting that they are potentially associated with resistance development. These results unambiguously suggested that multiple mutations located in the enzyme active site are responsible for AChE insensitivity to dimethoate and are likely the molecular basis for dimethoate resistance in these selected field populations of A. gossypii. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.


Lokeshwari D.,Indian Institute of Horticultural Research | Kumar N.K.K.,Indian Council of Agriculture Research | Manjunatha H.,Kuvempu University
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2015

The melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a cosmopolitan polyphagous aphid species that inflicts serious damage to a wide spectrum of crops and has an extraordinary ability to transmit viruses in either a nonpersistent or persistent mode. It tends to specialize on a few host plants species, resulting in parapatric divergence among populations in a given geographical area over a period of time. This seems to be the major reason for its remarkable diversity resulting in the evolution of biotypes and cryptic species favoring host adaptation and reproductive isolation across various localities. This notorious pest is supposed to have a number of putative biotypes associated with hosts or geographical locations. It is suspected that A. gossypii occurring on cotton (Malvaceae) and melons (Cucurbitaceae) are different biotypes. The relationship between host or geographic preference and genetic variation of aphids is unclear and thus requires further investigation. In light of this, the present study was conducted to determine if host- or geographical location-associated genetic differences are indeed present in 116 populations of A. gossypii collected from various agroclimatic zones of India on various host plants with special emphasis on Malvaceae and Cucurbitaceae families using the well-known mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) marker. Alignment of mtCOI sequences of A. gossypii along with available sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), GenBank, and Barcode of Life Data (BOLD) system revealed maximum sequence identity of 99% with very few variable sites indicating an extremely low level of intraspecific variation. The phylogram strongly suggested that there is no major host- or geographical location-associated genetic differences in A. gossypii, and it is a single cosmopolitan species devoid of genetic variations. This study aids to resolve evolutionary relationships among closely related species groups and detect newly evolving biotypes. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved.


Abdelrahman M.A.E.,National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Science NARSS | Natarajan A.,Indian Council of Agriculture Research | Hegde R.,Indian Council of Agriculture Research
Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science | Year: 2016

To reduce the human influence on natural resources and to identify an appropriate land use, it is essential to carry out scientific land evaluations. Such kind of analysis allows identifying the main limiting factors for the agricultural production and enables decision makers to develop crop managements able to increase the land productivity. Objectives of this study were to develop a GIS based approach for land use suitability assessment which will assist land managers and land use planners to identify areas with physical constraints for a range of nominated land uses. Georeferenced soil survey data and field work observations have been integrated in a GIS based land use suitability assessment for agricultural planning in Chamarajanagar district, Karnataka, India. Also, GIS has been used to match the suitability for main crops based on the requirements of the crops and the quality and characteristics of land. Different land quality parameters, viz. soil texture, depth, erosion, slope, flooding and coarse fragments under various land units were evaluated for the crops. Subsequently all of them were integrated using a sequence of logical operations to generate land suitability and capability maps. Suitability and capability maps for each land use were developed to illustrate these suitability degrees and display the spatial representation of soils suitable for agriculture. It was also found that better land use options could be implemented in different land units as the conventional land evaluation methods suffer from limitation of spatial analysis for the suitability of various crops. © 2016 National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences.


PubMed | ICAR National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics, Institute of Animal Health and Veterinary Biologicals and Indian Council of Agriculture Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary world | Year: 2017

This study was conducted for the isolation and molecular characterization of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) isolated from the nasal and vaginal swabs collected from naturally infected cattle showing clinical symptoms of the respiratory disease.Isolation of BoHV-1 virus performed on clinical samples collected from 65 cattle from five states of India. The BoHV-1 isolates were further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for glycoprotein B (gB) genomic region. PCR amplification was performed using previously published gB gene-specific primer pairs. gB PCR amplicons obtained from all isolates were sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using software.A total of 12 samples were found positive in cell culture isolation. 11 isolates showed the visible cytopathic effect on Madin-Darby bovine kidney after 72 h. Partial sequence analysis of gB gene of all isolates revealed 99.0-100% homology between them. All isolates showed 99.2-99.8% homology with Cooper stain.BoHV-1.1 is the predominant circulating subtype of BoHV in India, and all isolates have homology with Cooper stain.


PubMed | Indian Council of Agriculture Research and National Dairy Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Journal of animal science and technology | Year: 2015

As an alternative to radioimmunoassay a simple and highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed and validated for androstenedione quantification in plasma of Karan Fries bulls using second antibody coating technique. The wells of the microtitreplate were coated with affinity-purified goat immunoglobulin (antirabbit IgG) that binds the hormone specific antibody. The EIA was performed to analyze androstenedione directly in 40l of bull plasma. The androstenedione standards ranged from 0.20 to 200pg/40l /well and the sensitivity of the assay was 5pg/ml plasma. Serially diluted bull plasma containing high endogenous androstenedione showed good parallelism with bovine androstenedione standard curve. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were found to be 8 and 9%, respectively. Peripheral plasma androstenedione concentrations determined in young and adult bull samples ranged between 104-990pg/ml and 184-2040pg/ml, respectively.

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