Indian Central Rice Research Institute

Cuttack, India

Indian Central Rice Research Institute

Cuttack, India
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Singh S.P.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Setter T.L.,Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2017

This survey examined the element toxicities in wheat grown in naturally waterlogged farmer's sodic fields. Seven sites located in three districts (Faizabad, Pratapgarh, and Ambedkar Nagar) of eastern Uttar Pradesh, India were selected for the study. The data on soil redox potential (Eh), soil pH, soil electrical conductivity (EC), waterlogging duration, and crop age during waterlogging were recorded at the time of plant sampling in all the sites. Waterlogging caused a reduction of 21% to 65% in shoot dry weight in the survey sites. During waterlogging, the concentrations of iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and sodium (Na) in leaves increased dramatically; the values of these elements were many folds higher than their reported critical toxicity levels (Fe-100 ppm, Al-50 ppm, and Na-8000 ppm, respectively). The results support the hypothesis that element toxicities occur during waterlogging in wheat grown in farmer's sodic field and identified Fe, Al, and Na toxicities as a major constraint for wheat production in the study area. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Datta A.,University of Aberdeen | Datta A.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Santra S.C.,Kalyani University | Adhya T.K.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

In the tropical experimental rice field of Central Rice Research Institute, Odisha, India, an experiment was conducted during the dry season (January-April) and wet season (July-November) of rice cultivation to study the effect of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilizer application on grain yield and methane (CH4) emission. The experiment was carried out with five treatments (No fertilizer (control), N-fertilizer, P-fertilizer, K-fertilizer and N + P + K fertilizer) with three replicates of each under a completely randomized block design. Significantly higher CH4 emission was recorded from all plots during wet season. Among fertilizer applied plots, significantly higher CH4 emission was recorded from N-fertilizer applied plots (dry season: 80.27 kg ha-1; wet season: 451.27 kg ha-1), while significantly lower CH4 emission was recorded from N + P + K applied plots (dry season: 34.60 kg ha-1; wet season: 233.66 kg ha-1). Low cumulative CH4 emission to grain yield ratio was recorded from N + P + K applied plots during both seasons (83.57 kg Mg-1 grain yield during dry season and 77.14 kg Mg-1 grain yield during wet season). CH4 emission from different treatment was positively correlated with microbial biomass carbon (r = 0.516), readily mineralizable carbon (r = 0.621) and sugar (r = 0.340) content of the soil. Negative CH4 emission was recorded during the fallow period which may be attributed to higher methanotrophic bacterial population. Study suggests that the effects of P and K-fertilizer on CH4 emission from rice field along with the CH4 emission during the fallow period need to be considered to reduce the uncertainty in upscaling process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Panda D.,Central University of Orissa | Sarkar R.K.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute
Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants | Year: 2013

Natural leaf senescence was investigated in four rainfed lowland rice cultivars, FR 13A (tolerant to submergence), Sabita and Sarala (adapted to medium depth, 0-50 cm stagnant flooding) and Dengi (conventional farmers' cultivar). Changes in the levels of pigment content, CO2 photosynthetic rate, photosystem II photochemistry and anti-oxidant enzyme activities of flag leaves during grain-filling stage were investigated. Chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and CO2 photosynthetic rate decreased significantly with the progress of grain-filling. Likely, the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely, superoxide dismutase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase decreased with progress of grain-filling. A substantial difference was observed among the four cultivars for the sustainability index (SI) of different photosynthetic parameters and antioxidant enzyme activities; SIs of those parameters, in general, were lower in low yielding cultivar FR 13A compared to the other three cultivars. Among the four cultivars Sabita gave maximum grain yield. Yet, SI of Pn was greater in Sarala and Dengi compared to the Sabita. SIs of electron transport (ETo/CS), maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), area above Fo and Fm, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were also greater in Sarala and Dengi. The data showed that among the different Chl a fluorescence parameters, PI could be used with greater accuracy to distinguish slow and fast senescence rice cultivars during grain-filling period. It was concluded that maintaining the vitality of rice plants during grain-filling gave guarantee to synthesize carbohydrate, however greater yield could be realized provided superior yield attributing parameters are present. © 2012 Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society.


Parida S.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Mukerji M.,Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology | Singh A.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh N.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2012

Background: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) validation and large-scale genotyping are required to maximize the use of DNA sequence variation and determine the functional relevance of candidate genes for complex stress tolerance traits through genetic association in rice. We used the bead array platform-based Illumina GoldenGate assay to validate and genotype SNPs in a select set of stress-responsive genes to understand their functional relevance and study the population structure in rice.Results: Of the 384 putative SNPs assayed, we successfully validated and genotyped 362 (94.3%). Of these 325 (84.6%) showed polymorphism among the 91 rice genotypes examined. Physical distribution, degree of allele sharing, admixtures and introgression, and amino acid replacement of SNPs in 263 abiotic and 62 biotic stress-responsive genes provided clues for identification and targeted mapping of trait-associated genomic regions. We assessed the functional and adaptive significance of validated SNPs in a set of contrasting drought tolerant upland and sensitive lowland rice genotypes by correlating their allelic variation with amino acid sequence alterations in catalytic domains and three-dimensional secondary protein structure encoded by stress-responsive genes. We found a strong genetic association among SNPs in the nine stress-responsive genes with upland and lowland ecological adaptation. Higher nucleotide diversity was observed in indica accessions compared with other rice sub-populations based on different population genetic parameters. The inferred ancestry of 16% among rice genotypes was derived from admixed populations with the maximum between upland aus and wild Oryza species.Conclusions: SNPs validated in biotic and abiotic stress-responsive rice genes can be used in association analyses to identify candidate genes and develop functional markers for stress tolerance in rice. © 2012 Parida et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Bal H.B.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Nayak L.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Das S.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Adhya T.K.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Adhya T.K.,KIIT University
Plant and Soil | Year: 2013

Aims: Bacteria possessing ACC deaminase activity reduce the level of stress ethylene conferring resistance and stimulating growth of plants under various biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study aims at isolating efficient ACC deaminase producing PGPR strains from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in coastal saline soils and quantifying the effect of potent PGPR isolates on rice seed germination and seedling growth under salinity stress and ethylene production from rice seedlings inoculated with ACC deaminase containing PGPR. Methods: Soils from root region of rice growing in coastal soils of varying salinity were used for isolating ACC deaminase producing bacteria and three bacterial isolates were identified following polyphasic taxonomy. Seed germination, root growth and stress ethylene production in rice seedlings following inoculation with selected PGPR under salt stress were quantified. Results: Inoculation with selected PGPR isolates had considerable positive impacts on different growth parameters of rice including germination percentage, shoot and root growth and chlorophyll content as compared to uninoculated control. Inoculation with the ACC deaminase producing strains reduced ethylene production under salinity stress. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing ACC deaminase for enhancing salt tolerance and consequently improving the growth of rice plants under salt-stress conditions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Das S.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Adhya T.K.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute
Geoderma | Year: 2014

Methane and nitrous oxide emissions, their global warming potential, carbon efficiency ratio and related biogeochemical properties of a tropical soil planted to rice were investigated under different N management [i.e. urea-N (120kgN ha-1), rice straw (RS) (30kgN ha-1)+urea-N (90kgN ha-1), compost (C) (30kgN ha-1)+urea-N (90kgN ha-1) and poultry manure (PM) (30kgN ha-1)+urea-N (90kgN ha-1)]. CH4 fluxes were increased by 82.7%, 65.1%, 63.4% and 31.9% in RS+urea-N, C+urea-N, PM+urea-N and urea-N, respectively whereas percentage increase in cumulative N2O emission was 390.6, 371.8, 315.6, and 253.1 in PM+urea-N, urea-N, C+urea-N and RS+urea-N, respectively over control (no fertilizer amendment). However, increase of GWPs in different manure+urea-N over that of control were 85.5%, 69.2%, 68.8% and 37.6% in RS+urea-N, C+urea-N, PM+urea-N and urea-N, respectively. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), readily mineralizable carbon (RMC) and fluorescence diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis activity were significantly affected by integrated N-management and followed the order of C+urea-N>PM+urea-N>RS+urea-N>urea-N>control. With considerably high microbial biomass C and microbial activity, high C efficiency ratio, high yield and low greenhouse gas intensity, C+urea-N could be a better option to mitigate CH4 and N2O emissions and to maintain soil biological quality and yield in tropical paddy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Maiti D.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Singh R.K.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Variar M.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2012

Two-year rice (Oryza sativa L.)-based crop rotation of "maize (Zea mays L.) relay cropped by horse gram (Dolichos biflorus L.) in the first year followed by upland rice in the second year", was reported earlier to increase phosphorus (P) uptake by rice through enhancing native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) activities. This crop rotation was compared with three other rice-based crop rotations practiced by the upland rice farmers of eastern India for AM-mediated P acquisition of upland rice through on-farm experiment in farmers' participatory mode during wet seasons of 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007 in fixed plots. The farmers' rotations included (1) green gram (Phaseolus aureus) in first year followed by upland rice in second year; (2) black gram (Phaseolus mungo) in first year followed by upland rice in second year; and (3) radish (Raphanus sativus) in first year followed by upland rice in second year. "Maize-horse gram/rice" rotation encouraged maximum native AM fungal colonization (10.4-38.8%) and P uptake (2.2-2.6 mg P/g plant) by rice over other three farmers' rotations tested. Rice grain yield was also highest (2.25-2.35 t/ha) in the maize-horse gram/rice rotation. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Das S.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Adhya T.K.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Response of methanogenesis and methanotrophy to elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2) could be affected by changes in soil moisture content and temperature. In soil microcosms contained in glass bottles and incubated under laboratory conditions, we assessed the impact of elevated CO 2 and temperature interactions on methanogenesis and methanotrophy in alluvial and laterite paddy soils of tropical origin. Soil samples were incubated at ambient (370μmolmol -1) and elevated (600μmolmol -1) CO 2 concentrations at 25, 35 and 45°C under non-flooded and flooded conditions for 60d. Under flooded condition, elevated CO 2 significantly increased methane (CH 4) production while under non-flooded condition, only marginal increase in CH 4 production was observed in both the soils studied and the increase was significantly enhanced by further rise in temperature. Increased methanogenesis as a result of elevated CO 2 and temperature interaction was mostly attributed to decreased soil redox potential, increased readily mineralizable carbon, and also noticeable stimulation of methanogenic bacterial population. In contrast to CH 4 production, CH 4 oxidation was consistently low under elevated CO 2 concentration and the decrease was significant with rise in temperature. The low affinity and high affinity CH 4 oxidation were faster under non-flooded condition as compared to flooded condition. Admittedly, decreased low and high affinity CH 4 oxidation as a result of elevated CO 2 and temperature interaction was related to unfavorable lower redox status of soil and the inhibition of CH 4-oxidizing bacterial population. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Singh D.P.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Sarkar R.K.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2014

Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits rice productivity worldwide. The problem is intense - particularly in areas with extremely dry and hot climatic conditions. Designing an effective phenotyping strategy requires thorough understanding of plant survival under stress. The investigation was conducted using 12 rice cultivars differing in salinity tolerance. Among these cultivars, seedling survival on day 10 of salt treatment (12dSm-1) was above 85% during wet season and 75% during dry season in FL478, AC39416, Pokkali and Kamini. Highly salt-tolerant cultivars maintained greater proportion of green leaf and chlorophyll content under salt stress. Unlike sensitive cultivars, tolerant cultivars taken up less Na+ and more K+, resulting in lower Na+:K+ ratio in leaf and sheath. Normalised chlorophyll a fluorescence data revealed that the Fv/Fm and PIABS values decreased on days 3 and 7, respectively, of salt stress in susceptible rice cultivar. Salinity factor index (SFI) calculated by giving different weights to relative PIABS values after variable days of salinity stress clearly distinguished the level of tolerance among rice cultivars. The SFI can be used for grouping of moderately to highly salt-tolerant cultivars based on their tolerance level. We conclude that maintenance of greater proportion of green leaf, and restricted transport of Na+ to sheath and leaf helps the plant to counteract adverse effects of salinity on rice growth. © CSIRO 2014.


Das S.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Ghosh A.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute | Adhya T.K.,Indian Central Rice Research Institute
Chemosphere | Year: 2011

Combination of divergent active principles to achieve broad-spectrum control is gaining popularity to manage the weed menace in intensive agriculture. However, such application could have non-target impacts on the soil processes affecting soil ecology and environmental interactions. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of separate and combined applications of herbicides bensulfuron methyl and pretilachlor on the emission of N2O and CH4, and related soil and microbial parameters in a flooded alluvial field planted to rice cv Lalat. Single application of the herbicide bensulfuron methyl or pretilachlor resulted in a significant reduction of N2O and CH4 emissions while the combination of these two herbicides distinctly increased N2O and CH4 emissions. Cumulative N2O emissions (kg N2O-N) followed the order of bensulfuron methyl (0.35kgha-1)

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