Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research

Dhanbad, India

Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research

Dhanbad, India

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Ram L.C.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research | Masto R.E.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
Earth-Science Reviews | Year: 2014

Globally, fly ash (FA), generated in huge quantities from coal fired power plants is a problematic solid waste. Utilization of FA as an ameliorant for improving soil quality has received a great deal of attention over the past four decades, and many studies have been carried out worldwide. The silt-sized particles, low bulk density (BD), higher water holding capacity (WHC), favorable pH, and significant presence of plant nutrients in FA, make it a potential amendment for soils. The studies suggest enormous potential for the use of FA to improve cultivable, degraded/waste land, mine soil, landfills, and also to reclaim abandoned ash ponds, for agriculture and forestry. FA application improves the physical, chemical and biological qualities of soils to which it is applied. However, in some cases, depending on the characteristics of FA, the release of trace elements and soluble salts from FA to a soil-plant-human system could be a constraint. The effect is minimal in the case of weathered FA. The findings reflected the heterogeneity of ash characteristics, soil types, and agro-climatic conditions, thus a generalized conclusion on the impact of FA on plant species and soil quality is difficult. It is very important that the application of FA to soil must be very specific depending on the properties of the FA and soil. A considerable amount of research has been carried out to blend FA with varieties of organic and inorganic materials, like lime, gypsum, red mud, animal manure, poultry manure, sewage sludge, composts, press mud, vermicompost, biochar, bioinoculants, etc. Co-application of FA with these materials has much advantage: enhanced nutrient availability, decreased bioavailability of toxic metals, pH buffering, organic matter addition, microbial stimulation, overall improvement in the general health of the soil, etc. The performance of FA blending with organic and inorganic materials is better than FA alone treatments. Farm manure was found to be the most promising amendment used along with FA. While using FA in agriculture as a soil ameliorant, it is better to seek the locally available fitting blend materials for exploiting the benefits from their synergistic interaction. However, continuous research in parallel for long durations to dispel apprehension, if any, is desirable under well defined regulatory measures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Singh A.K.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

Road dust collected from India's richest and oldest coal mining belt of Dhanbad and Bokaro regions was analysed for particle size characteristics and elemental composition. The particle size distribution pattern shows dominance of 500-250 μm and 250-125 μm size fractions, constituting 45-58% of the mass size spectrum. Si is the most dominant element and its concentration varied between 29.3 and 36.4% with the average value 34.3%. Fe, Ti and Mn are the dominant heavy metals followed by Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Co. No significant differences concentration of metals between sampling sites was apparent; however, some sites tend to accommodate relatively higher metals due to its proximity to industrial and mining sites. In general, finer fraction (<63 μm) tend to contain 1-3 times higher metals as compared with the bulk composition. Except Pb and Mn all the measured metals are generally lie below grade zero, suggesting that there is no pollution threat with respect to these metals in roadway dust from the studied sites. Geochemical speciation study shows that the lithogenic phase is the major sink for heavy metals. Fe-Mn oxide and organic are the major non-lithogenic phases and Pb and Zn are the major elements of the non-lithogenic phase. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Giri S.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research | Singh A.K.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2014

Surface water samples were collected from 21 sampling sites throughout the Subarnarekha River during pre monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon seasons. The concentrations of metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the seasonal fluctuation, source apportionment and risk assessment. The results demonstrated that concentrations of the metals showed significant seasonality and most variables exhibited higher levels in the pre monsoon season. Principal component analysis (PCA) outcome of four factors together explained 76.9% of the variance with >1 initial eigenvalue indicated both innate and anthropogenic activities are contributing factors as source of metal profusion in Subarnarekha River. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) by ingestion and dermal pathways for adult and child and it was indicated that As with HQingestion>1, was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic concerns. The largest contributors to chronic risks were As, V and Co, in all the seasons. The HQdermal of all the elements for adult and child were below unity, suggesting that the metals posed little hazards via dermal absorption indicating that the oral intake was the primary exposure pathway. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Singh R.V.K.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2013

Spontaneous heating and fire in coal mines is a major problem worldwide and has been a great concern both for the industry and researchers in this field. Majority of fires existing today in different coalfields are mainly due to spontaneous combustion of coal. The auto oxidation of coal ultimately leads to spontaneous combustion which is the major root cause for the disastrous of coal mine in leading and coal producing countries like USA, China, Australia, India and Germany. It is a slow process and the heat evolved is carried away by air. This process of self-heating of coal or other carbonaceous material resulting eventually in its ignition is termed as "spontaneous heating" or "auto oxidation". Coal can interact with oxygen in the air at ambient temperature liberating heat. If the heat is allowed to accumulate the interaction rate increases and may ultimately lead to fires - known as spontaneous fires. The exact mechanism of the reaction of oxygen with coal is not completely understood as the chemical nature of coal is not yet fully established. But most of the workers agree that the reaction of oxygen with coal is a surface phenomenon and proceeds through a loosely bound coal-oxygen-water complex with subsequent steps being breakdown of the complex to simpler molecules such as CO, CO2 and H2O etc. Most popular hypothesis is that the overall reaction proceeds through a chain mechanism with moisture facilitating the formation of free radicals that act as chain carrier. Due to fire in coal mines, hues quantity of noxious gases liberated in the atmosphere which damage the ecological balance of nature. There are various technologies available in different parts of world to prevent and control spontaneous heating. Out of these technologies, chemical inhibitors play a vital role to control and combat fires. The main objective of this paper is to elaborate the causes, mechanism of spontaneous heating and technological advancement mainly development of chemical inhibitors for controlling and combating fire in coal mines. © 2013 International Association for Fire Safety Science.


Bagde M.N.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences | Year: 2016

The Ajanta caves are classified as a UNESCO World-heritage monument, where ancient Buddhist rock-cut caves from the Second Century BC to 6th Century AD are found. The caves were carved manually in Basaltic rock mass in the Deccan trap basaltic flow of the Ajanta Formation of the Sahyadri Group in the Upper Cretaceous age. In the Ajanta caves, the hillside slopes are predominantly covered by surface boulders. Boulder dislocations caused by long-term rock mass deterioration, distressing, water percolation and weathering for a strike length of 600. m, and a height of 75. m; are a major concern when considering the safety of both visitors and site personnel, as well as with regard to the preservation of the historic UNESCO World Heritage site. This study was carried out to assess and characterize the formation of boulders with possible stabilization measures to be planned of a boulder field and slope surface is described and discussed herewith. The possible geological mode of development of the boulder field, rock mass characterization of slope, boulder stabilization philosophy is presented herewith along with planned various stabilization measures considering the esthetic value of the World Heritage site at Ajanta. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Singh P.K.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research | Roy M.P.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences | Year: 2010

This paper describes effect of blast produced ground vibration on damage potential to residential structures to determine safe levels of ground vibration for the residential structures and other buildings in mining areas. Impacts of 341 blasts detonated at two mines were monitored at the test structures and 1871 blast vibrations signatures were recorded on or near the test structures. Cosmetic cracks in a native brick-mud-cement house were detected at peak particle velocities (PPV) between 51.6 and 56.3. mm/s. The reinforced concrete and cement mortar (RCC) structure experienced cosmetic cracks at PPVs of 68.6-71.3. mm/s at the first floor, whereas at second floor it was detected at PPV levels of 71.2-72.2. mm/s. Minor damage in brick-mud-cement house was recorded at PPV levels of 81.0-89.7. mm/s. The RCC structure at first and second floors experienced minor damage at PPV levels of 104 and 98.3-118. mm/s, respectively. The brick-mud-cement house experienced major damage at PPV level of 99.6-113.0. mm/s, while major damage was recorded in RCC structure on first floor at PPV of 122. mm/s, the second floor at PPV levels of 128.9-161. mm/s. Recommended threshold limits of vibrations for the different type of structures is based on these measurements and observations. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Bandopadhyay A.K.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
International Journal of Coal Geology | Year: 2010

A suite of thirteen Indian thermal coals have been subjected to FTIR examination to determine their quartz content. The coal samples were ashed at 815 ± 10 °C using standard procedures and the high temperature ash (HTA) of each coal was used to make a tablet with KBr under pressure. Each tablet was then subjected to FTIR scanning to obtain a spectrum at a resolution of 2 cm- 1. The 800 cm- 1 quartz doublet observed in each spectrum was used to obtain quantitative information on the percentage of quartz present. The data were compared with interpretations from ash analysis. The result showed a good correlation between the two sets of data (R2 = 0.84), suggesting the potential of the method for routine testing of quartz content of coal in laboratory, especially as it takes less time than other methods. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Bandopadhyay A.K.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
International Journal of Coal Geology | Year: 2010

The quartz content of each of the 61 thermal coals used in power stations in India has been determined using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy. It has been observed that quartz is abundant in the thermal coals and its proportion varies from 5 to 20% by wt. The abrasion index (AI), a measure of abrasion caused by coals, has been determined for each coal according to the procedure laid down in Indian Standard IS: 9949-1986. The data generated on abrasion together with ash and quartz percentages of the coals studied have been subjected to regression and correlation analysis. Positive correlations have been found between AI and quartz content and between AI and ash yield, but the correlation between AI and ash (A) and quartz (Q) percentages has been observed to be the most significant (R2=0.86). The linear regression model AI=1.00A+1.35Q thus developed has the ability to predict AI of the thermal coals within±10mg/kg at 95.5% confidence level. Results of application of the model to predicting abrasion of a limited number of foreign coals with different origins have been found to be encouraging. Integration of other variables like the size and the shape of the abrading particles along with other physical properties of coal, like the bulk density and the grindability, with the model, in addition to the variables already considered, has been suggested for improved prediction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Chaubey R.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research | Sahu S.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research | James O.O.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research | Maity S.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2013

Hydrogen is considered as the fuel for next generation and extensive research is being pursued for search of new techniques for hydrogen production from renewable sources. There is a diverse collection of hydrogen production processes at their different stages of development. This review paper analyzes the industrial and emerging hydrogen production technologies. These processes include steam methane reformation, partial oxidation, autothermal reforming, steam iron, plasma reforming, thermochemical water splitting and biological processes. Till date, steam reformation of methane is the most used industrial technique and its efficiency can go up to 85%. It meets up to 50% of total hydrogen consumption in the world. Continuous research is going on to enhance production yield as well as to improve the process economics. Considerable work is going on about sorption enhanced reforming and membrane reactor for this purpose. Partial oxidation and autothermal reforming processes are the other two processes which are also used for industrial. The most sought process is the thermochemical water splitting using sunlight. Several research institutes are engaged in the development of hydrogen production technologies using renewable sources. Plasma reformation and biological processes are intensively worked out throughout the globe. The present article reviews the recent developments in industrial techniques which will lead to enhancement of hydrogen production. The non-conventional techniques are described in this article as emerging techniques, which are the promising approaches for hydrogen production from biomass, an abundant, clean and renewable source. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Giri S.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research | Singh A.K.,Indian Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2015

Groundwater samples were collected from 30 sampling sites throughout the Subarnarekha River Basin for source apportionment and risk assessment studies. The concentrations of As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, V and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results demonstrated that concentrations of the metals showed significant spatial variation with some of the metals like As, Mn, Fe, Cu and Se exceeding the drinking water standards at some locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) outcome of four factors that together explained 84.99 % of the variance with >1 initial eigenvalue indicated that both innate and anthropogenic activities are contributing factors as source of metal in groundwater of Subarnarekha River Basin. Risk of metals on human health was then evaluated using hazard quotients (HQ) and cancer risk by ingestion for adult and child, and it was indicated that Mn was the most important pollutant leading to non-carcinogenic concerns. The carcinogenic risk of As for adult and child was within the acceptable cancer risk value of 1 × 10−4. The largest contributors to chronic risks were Mn, Co and As. Considering the geometric mean concentration of metals, the hazard index (HI) for adult was above unity. Considering all the locations, the HI varied from 0.18 to 11.34 and 0.15 to 9.71 for adult and child, respectively, suggesting that the metals posed hazard by oral intake considering the drinking water pathway. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

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