Mysore, India

CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, abbreviated to CSIR-CFTRI, is one of the 40 national research laboratories in India, set up under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research . It was opened on 21 October 1950 in Mysore, Karnataka. C.F.T.R.I. Mysore The center also has extended resource centers in Bangalore, Hyderabad, Lucknow and Mumbai, rendering technical assistance to numerous entrepreneurs.CSIR-CFTRI is a large and diversified laboratory headed by Ram Rajasekharan. Presently employing over 200 scientists, technologists, and engineers, and over 400 technicians, skilled workers, and support staff. There are sixteen research and development departments, including laboratories focusing on food biotechnology, microbiology, sensory science, and food safety.The institute has designed over 300 products, processes, and equipment types. It holds several patents and has released many publications. India is the world's second largest foodgrain, fruit and vegetable producer, and the institute is engaged in research in the production and handling of grains, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, and poultry.The institute develops technologies to increase efficiency and reduce postharvest losses, add convenience, increase export, find new sources of food products, integrate human resources in food industries, reduce costs, and modernize.CFTRI has developed over 270 products, processes and equipment designs, and close to 1600 licensees have availed themselves of 160 of these technologies for commercial exploitation. The achievements have been of considerable industrial value, social importance and national relevance, and coupled with the institute's wide-ranging facilities and services, have created an extensive impact on the Indian food industry and Indian society at large. Wikipedia.

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Sowbhagya H.B.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Celery is a commercially important seed spice belonging to the family Umbelliferrae. Celery is used in various forms such as fresh herb, stalk, seeds, oil, and oleoresin for flavoring of foods and for medicinal purposes. Celery seed contains 2% volatile oil that finds application for flavoring of foods and also in perfumery industry. Limonene and selinene form about 60% and 20% of the oil, respectively. However, the important flavor constituents of the oil responsible for the typical aroma are 3-n-butyl-4-5-dihydrophthalide (sedanenolide), 3-n-butyl phthalide, sedanolide, and sedanonic anhydride present in very low levels (1-3%). Celery contains 15% fatty oil with the fatty acids: petroselenic (64.3%), oleic (8.1%), linoleic (18%), linolenic (0.6%), and palmitic acids. Phthalides especially sedanenaloide possess many health benefits. Celery extracts are reported to possess many nutraceutical properties, viz., antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and anti-platelet aggregation. In the present review, the chemistry, processing, and biological activities of celery and the components responsible are discussed. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Rastogi N.K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition | Year: 2012

Fruit processing and preservation technologies must keep fresh-like characteristics while providing an acceptable and convenient shelf life as well as assuring safety and nutritional value. Processing technologies include a wide range of methodologies to inactivate microorganisms, improve quality and stability, and preserve and minimize changes of fruit fresh-like characteristics. Infrared (IR) heating offers many advantages over conventional heating under similar conditions, which include reduced heating time, uniform heating, reduced quality losses, versatile, simple and compact equipment, and significant energy saving. The integration of IR with other matured processing operations such as blanching, dehydration, freeze-dehydration, thawing, roasting, baking, cooking has been shown to open up new processing options. Combinations of IR heating with microwave heating and other common conductive and convective modes of heating have been gaining momentum because of increased energy throughput. A number of publications and patents have demonstrated novel and diverse uses of this technology. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. The effect of IR on food quality attributes is also discussed. The types of equipment commonly used for IR processing have also been summarized.

Thadathil N.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Velappan S.P.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Chitosanases (EC are glycosyl hydrolases that catalyse the endohydrolysis of β-1,4-glycosidic bonds of partially acetylated chitosan to release chitosan oligosaccharides (COS). Chitosanases are isolated, purified and characterised from different sources mainly from bacteria and fungi. Chitosanases have received much attention due to their wide range of applications including the preparation of bioactive COS and fungal protoplasts, as biocontrol agent against pathogenic fungi and insects, the bioconversion of chitinous bio waste associated with seafood processing, etc. Bioactive COS produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of chitosan have finds numerous health benefits as well as other biological activities. This review summarizes the recent advances in chitosanases research, the enzyme production processes, characterization, genetic improvement and their applications.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Srinivasan K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Food and Function | Year: 2013

Spices are valued for their medicinal properties besides their use as food adjuncts to enhance the sensory quality of food. Dietary garlic, onion, fenugreek, red pepper, turmeric, and ginger have been proven to be effective hypocholesterolemics in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia. The hypolipidemic potential of fenugreek in diabetic subjects and of garlic and onion in humans with induced lipemia has been demonstrated. Capsaicin and curcumin - the bioactive compounds of red pepper and turmeric - are documented to be efficacious at doses comparable to usual human intake. Capsaicin and curcumin have been shown to be hypotriglyceridemic, thus preventing accumulation of fat in the liver under adverse situations by enhancing triglyceride transport out of the liver. Capsaicin, curcumin, fenugreek, ginger, and onion enhance secretion of bile acids into bile. These hypocholesterolemic spices/spice principles reduce blood and liver cholesterol by enhancing cholesterol conversion to bile acids through activation of hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. Many human trials have been carried out with garlic, onion, and fenugreek. The mechanism underlying the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic influence of spices is fairly well understood. Health implications of the hypocholesterolemic effect of spices experimentally documented are cardio-protection, protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes by restoration of membrane cholesterol/phospholipid profile and prevention of cholesterol gallstones by modulation of the cholesterol saturation index in bile. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Namitha K.K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition | Year: 2010

Carotenoids are one of the most widespread groups of pigments in nature and more than 600 of these have been identified. Beside provitamin A activity, carotenoids are important as antioxidants and protective agents against various diseases. They are isoprenoids with a long polyene chain containing 3 to 15 conjugated double bonds, which determines their absorption spectrum. Cyclization at one or both ends occurs in hydrocarbon carotene, while xanthophylls are formed by the introduction of oxygen. In addition, modifications involving chain elongation, isomerization, or degradation are also found. The composition of carotenoids in food may vary depending upon production practices, post-harvest handling, processing, and storage. In higher plants they are synthesized in the plastid. Both mevalonate dependent and independent pathway for the formation of isopentenyl diphosphate are known. Isopentenyl diphosphate undergoes a series of addition and condensation reactions to form phytoene, which gets converted to lycopene. Cyclization of lycopene either leads to the formation of β-carotene and its derivative xanthophylls, β-cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and violaxanthin or α-carotene and lutein. Even though most of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes have been cloned and identified, some aspects of carotenoid formation and manipulation in higher plants especially remain poorly understood. In order to enhance the carotenoid content of crop plants to a level that will be required for the prevention of diseases, there is a need for research in both the basic and the applied aspects.

Sowbhagya H.B.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Cumin is a seed spice belonging to the family umbelliferae. Cumin and value added products from cumin are used in food flavoring and perfumery. Cumin contains volatile oil (3-4%), cuminaldehyde, the major active principle, which is present to an extent of 45-50%. Cumin and value added products from cumin, viz., cumin oil and oleoresin are exported. Cumin powder forms the main component of many spice mixes and curry powders. Cuminaldehyde is an important phytochemical and possesses many health benefits. Alcohol and water extract of cumin are reported to possess many nutraceutical properties like antiallergic, antioxidant, anti-platelet aggregation, and hypoglycemic. Cumin and value added products from cumin can be a good source of nutraceuticals with many biological activities. Incorporation of cumin into food products will have the benefits of a flavorant and nutraceutical at the same time. In the present review, the chemistry, processing, and biological activities of cumin and its components are discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Negi P.S.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

The microbial safety of foods continues to be a major concern to consumers, regulatory agencies and food industries throughout the world. Many food preservation strategies have been used traditionally for the control of microbial spoilage in foods but the contamination of food and spoilage by microorganisms is a problem yet to be controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobials are approved in many countries, the recent trend has been for use of natural preservatives, which necessitates the exploration of alternative sources of safe, effective and acceptable natural preservatives. Plants contain innumerable constituents and are valuable sources of new and biologically active molecules possessing antimicrobial properties. Plants extracts either as standardized extracts or as a source of pure compounds provide unlimited opportunities for control of microbial growth owing to their chemical diversity. Many plant extracts possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, yeast and molds, but the variations in quality and quantity of their bioactive constituents is the major detriments in their food use. Further, phytochemicals added to foods may be lost by various processing techniques. Several plant extracts or purified compounds intended for food use have been consumed by humans for thousands of years, but typical toxicological information is not available for them. Although international guidelines exist for the safety evaluation of food additives, owing to problems in standardization of plant extracts, typical toxicological values have not been assigned to them. Development of cost effective isolation procedures that yield standardized extracts as well as safety and toxicology evaluation of these antimicrobials requires a deeper investigation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Rastogi N.K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2011

The demand for convenience foods of the highest quality in terms of natural flavor and taste, and which are free from additives and preservatives, has spurred the need for the development of a number of non-thermal approaches to food processing, of which ultrasound technology has proven to be very valuable. Increasing number of recent publications have demonstrated the potential of this technology in food processing. A combination of ultrasound with pressure and/or heat is a promising alternative for the rapid inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes. Therefore, novel techniques like thermosonication, manosonication, and manothermosonication may be a more relevant energy-efficient processing alternative for the food industry in times to come. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. In addition to discussing the effects of ultrasound on foods, this review covers various areas that have been identified as having great potential for future development. It has been realized that ultrasound has much to offer to the food industry such as inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes, crystallization, drying, degassing, extraction, filtration, homogenization, meat tenderization, oxidation, sterilization, etc., including efficiency enhancement of various operations and online detection of contaminants in foods. Selected practical examples in the food industry have been presented and discussed. A brief account of the challenges in adopting this technology for industrial development has also been included. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Srinivasan K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Excessive free radical generation overbalancing the rate of their removal leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or suppress oxidative stress. There is a growing interest in natural antioxidants found in plants. Herbs and spices are most important targets to search for natural antioxidants from the point of view of safety. A wide variety of phenolic compounds present in spices that are extensively used as food adjuncts possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and cancer preventive activities. This paper reviews a host of spice compounds as exogenous antioxidants that are experimentally evidenced to control cellular oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo, and their beneficial role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative-stress-mediated diseases, from atherosclerosis to diabetes to cataract to cancer. The antioxidative effects of turmeric/curcumin, clove/eugenol, red pepper/capsaicin, black pepper/piperine, ginger/gingerol, garlic, onion, and fenugreek, which have been extensively studied and evidenced as potential antioxidants, are specifically reviewed in this treatise. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Bhattacharya S.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2010

Stress relaxation characteristics of moth bean (raw and roasted) flour doughs having different moisture contents were determined at two different strain levels (0.05 and 0.50). The decaying relaxation curves for raw flour showed an initial stress between 2 and 22 kPa when the moisture content varied from 28% to 34% at a strain of 0.05. Roasted flour doughs exhibited initial stresses between 0.06 and 2 kPa at moisture contents between 40% and 46%. Dough formation was not possible below 40% moisture content for roasted samples. An increase in moisture content markedly decreased initial and residual stresses. It is desirable that dough should possess a low value of residual stress when used for developing flattened/sheeted products. Models containing two or three parameters were found suitable for large-strain stress relaxation characteristics while low-strain data can be modelled by a 4-element Maxwell model with residual stress. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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