Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Mysore, India

CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, abbreviated to CSIR-CFTRI, is one of the 40 national research laboratories in India, set up under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research . It was opened on 21 October 1950 in Mysore, Karnataka. C.F.T.R.I. Mysore The center also has extended resource centers in Bangalore, Hyderabad, Lucknow and Mumbai, rendering technical assistance to numerous entrepreneurs.CSIR-CFTRI is a large and diversified laboratory headed by Ram Rajasekharan. Presently employing over 200 scientists, technologists, and engineers, and over 400 technicians, skilled workers, and support staff. There are sixteen research and development departments, including laboratories focusing on food biotechnology, microbiology, sensory science, and food safety.The institute has designed over 300 products, processes, and equipment types. It holds several patents and has released many publications. India is the world's second largest foodgrain, fruit and vegetable producer, and the institute is engaged in research in the production and handling of grains, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, and poultry.The institute develops technologies to increase efficiency and reduce postharvest losses, add convenience, increase export, find new sources of food products, integrate human resources in food industries, reduce costs, and modernize.CFTRI has developed over 270 products, processes and equipment designs, and close to 1600 licensees have availed themselves of 160 of these technologies for commercial exploitation. The achievements have been of considerable industrial value, social importance and national relevance, and coupled with the institute's wide-ranging facilities and services, have created an extensive impact on the Indian food industry and Indian society at large. Wikipedia.

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Srinivasan K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2017

Dietary hypocholesterolemic spices—curcumin (active compound of turmeric (Curcuma longa)) and capsaicin (active compound of red pepper (Capsicum annuum)), the active principles of spices—turmeric (Curcuma longa) and red pepper (Capsicum annuum), fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds, garlic (Allium sativum), and onion (Allium cepa) are documented to have anti-cholelithogenic property in animal model. These spices prevent the induction of cholesterol gallstones by lithogenic high cholesterol diet and also regress the pre-established cholesterol gallstones, by virtue of their hypolipidemic potential. The antilithogenic influence of these spices is primarily attributable to their hypocholesterolemic effect. Increased cholesterol saturation index, cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and cholesterol:bile acid ratio in the bile caused by the lithogenic diet was countered by these spices. The antilithogenicity of these hypocholesterolemic spices was considered to be due also to their influence on biliary proteins that have pro-nucleating activity and anti-nucleating activity. Investigations on the involvement of biliary proteins in cholesterol crystal nucleation revealed that in an in vitro bile model, low molecular weight biliary proteins of the lithogenic diet fed animals have a pro-nucleating activity. On the contrary, low molecular weight biliary proteins of the animals fed hypocholesterolemic spices along with lithogenic diet showed a potent anti-nucleating activity. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Prasad S.N.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Muralidhara M.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Chemico-Biological Interactions | Year: 2014

In the recent past, several phytoconstituents are being explored for their potential neuromodulatory effects in neurological diseases. Repeated exposure of acrylamide (ACR) leads to varying degree of neuronal damage in experimental animals and humans. In view of this, the present study investigated the efficacy of geraniol (GE, a natural monoterpene) to mitigate acrylamide (ACR)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity in a rat model and compared its efficacy to that of curcumin (CU, a spice active principle with multiple biological activities). ACR administration (50 mg/kg bw, i.p. 3 times/week) for 4 weeks to growing rats caused typical symptoms of neuropathy. ACR rats provided with daily oral supplements of phytoconstituents (GE: 100 mg/kg bw/d; CU: 50 mg/kg bw/d, 4 weeks) exhibited marked improvement in behavioral tests. Both phytoconstituents markedly attenuated ACR-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by the diminished levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and nitric oxide and restored the reduced glutathione levels in sciatic nerve (SN) and brain regions (cortex - Ct, cerebellum - Cb). Further, both phytoconstituents effectively diminished ACR-induced elevation in cytosolic calcium levels in SN and Cb. Furthermore, diminution in the levels of oxidative markers in the mitochondria was associated with elevation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. While ACR mediated elevation in the acetylcholinesterase activity was reduced by both actives, the depletion in dopamine levels was restored only by CU in brain regions. Taken together our findings for the first time demonstrate that the neuromodulatory propensity of GE is indeed comparable to that of CU and may be exploited as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of varied human neuropathy conditions. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Denny Joseph K.M.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute | Muralidhara,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2013

While the beneficial effects of fish oil (FO) supplements on the central nervous system function are well established, few findings have led to the hypothesis that long term n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplements at higher doses render the membranes more susceptible to lipid peroxidation. Hence recent studies suggest the use of dietary antioxidants as adjuncts with n-3 fatty acids to effectively improve the clinical outcome in neurological disorders. In the present investigation, we examined the hypothesis, if enrichment of FO with quercetin (a natural flavonoid) can provide a higher degree of neuroprotection and tested the same in a 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA) rat model. Growing male rats administered with NPA (25. mg/kg bw/d, i.p. 4. days) were provided either with FO (2. mL/kg bw), or Q (25. mg/kg bw) or FO. +. Q for 14. days. NPA elicited marked oxidative stress in brain (striatum and cerebellum) as evidenced by significantly enhanced ROS, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyls and nitric oxide levels. Although varying degree of protection was evident among FO or Q groups, complete normalization of oxidative markers ensued only among FO. +. Q rats. Further, FO. +. Q combination completely normalized the elevated acetylcholinesterase activity and protected against NPA-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions. NPA induced depletion of dopamine levels was restored among all groups. Interestingly, NPA induced motor deficits were significantly improved among FO. +. Q rats. However, further studies are necessary to understand the mechanism/s by which FO enrichment with Q provides higher degree of protection. Nevertheless, our findings clearly suggest that the use of natural phytochemicals with moderate doses of FO may provide better neuroprotection and higher therapeutic advantage in the prevention or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases like Huntington's disease. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Rastogi N.K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Critical reviews in food science and nutrition | Year: 2012

Fruit processing and preservation technologies must keep fresh-like characteristics while providing an acceptable and convenient shelf life as well as assuring safety and nutritional value. Processing technologies include a wide range of methodologies to inactivate microorganisms, improve quality and stability, and preserve and minimize changes of fruit fresh-like characteristics. Infrared (IR) heating offers many advantages over conventional heating under similar conditions, which include reduced heating time, uniform heating, reduced quality losses, versatile, simple and compact equipment, and significant energy saving. The integration of IR with other matured processing operations such as blanching, dehydration, freeze-dehydration, thawing, roasting, baking, cooking has been shown to open up new processing options. Combinations of IR heating with microwave heating and other common conductive and convective modes of heating have been gaining momentum because of increased energy throughput. A number of publications and patents have demonstrated novel and diverse uses of this technology. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. The effect of IR on food quality attributes is also discussed. The types of equipment commonly used for IR processing have also been summarized.

Srinivasan K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Food and Function | Year: 2013

Spices are valued for their medicinal properties besides their use as food adjuncts to enhance the sensory quality of food. Dietary garlic, onion, fenugreek, red pepper, turmeric, and ginger have been proven to be effective hypocholesterolemics in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia. The hypolipidemic potential of fenugreek in diabetic subjects and of garlic and onion in humans with induced lipemia has been demonstrated. Capsaicin and curcumin - the bioactive compounds of red pepper and turmeric - are documented to be efficacious at doses comparable to usual human intake. Capsaicin and curcumin have been shown to be hypotriglyceridemic, thus preventing accumulation of fat in the liver under adverse situations by enhancing triglyceride transport out of the liver. Capsaicin, curcumin, fenugreek, ginger, and onion enhance secretion of bile acids into bile. These hypocholesterolemic spices/spice principles reduce blood and liver cholesterol by enhancing cholesterol conversion to bile acids through activation of hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. Many human trials have been carried out with garlic, onion, and fenugreek. The mechanism underlying the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic influence of spices is fairly well understood. Health implications of the hypocholesterolemic effect of spices experimentally documented are cardio-protection, protection of the structural integrity of erythrocytes by restoration of membrane cholesterol/phospholipid profile and prevention of cholesterol gallstones by modulation of the cholesterol saturation index in bile. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

Sowbhagya H.B.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Cumin is a seed spice belonging to the family umbelliferae. Cumin and value added products from cumin are used in food flavoring and perfumery. Cumin contains volatile oil (3-4%), cuminaldehyde, the major active principle, which is present to an extent of 45-50%. Cumin and value added products from cumin, viz., cumin oil and oleoresin are exported. Cumin powder forms the main component of many spice mixes and curry powders. Cuminaldehyde is an important phytochemical and possesses many health benefits. Alcohol and water extract of cumin are reported to possess many nutraceutical properties like antiallergic, antioxidant, anti-platelet aggregation, and hypoglycemic. Cumin and value added products from cumin can be a good source of nutraceuticals with many biological activities. Incorporation of cumin into food products will have the benefits of a flavorant and nutraceutical at the same time. In the present review, the chemistry, processing, and biological activities of cumin and its components are discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Negi P.S.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

The microbial safety of foods continues to be a major concern to consumers, regulatory agencies and food industries throughout the world. Many food preservation strategies have been used traditionally for the control of microbial spoilage in foods but the contamination of food and spoilage by microorganisms is a problem yet to be controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobials are approved in many countries, the recent trend has been for use of natural preservatives, which necessitates the exploration of alternative sources of safe, effective and acceptable natural preservatives. Plants contain innumerable constituents and are valuable sources of new and biologically active molecules possessing antimicrobial properties. Plants extracts either as standardized extracts or as a source of pure compounds provide unlimited opportunities for control of microbial growth owing to their chemical diversity. Many plant extracts possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, yeast and molds, but the variations in quality and quantity of their bioactive constituents is the major detriments in their food use. Further, phytochemicals added to foods may be lost by various processing techniques. Several plant extracts or purified compounds intended for food use have been consumed by humans for thousands of years, but typical toxicological information is not available for them. Although international guidelines exist for the safety evaluation of food additives, owing to problems in standardization of plant extracts, typical toxicological values have not been assigned to them. Development of cost effective isolation procedures that yield standardized extracts as well as safety and toxicology evaluation of these antimicrobials requires a deeper investigation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Rastogi N.K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2011

The demand for convenience foods of the highest quality in terms of natural flavor and taste, and which are free from additives and preservatives, has spurred the need for the development of a number of non-thermal approaches to food processing, of which ultrasound technology has proven to be very valuable. Increasing number of recent publications have demonstrated the potential of this technology in food processing. A combination of ultrasound with pressure and/or heat is a promising alternative for the rapid inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes. Therefore, novel techniques like thermosonication, manosonication, and manothermosonication may be a more relevant energy-efficient processing alternative for the food industry in times to come. This review aims at identifying the opportunities and challenges associated with this technology. In addition to discussing the effects of ultrasound on foods, this review covers various areas that have been identified as having great potential for future development. It has been realized that ultrasound has much to offer to the food industry such as inactivation of microorganisms and enzymes, crystallization, drying, degassing, extraction, filtration, homogenization, meat tenderization, oxidation, sterilization, etc., including efficiency enhancement of various operations and online detection of contaminants in foods. Selected practical examples in the food industry have been presented and discussed. A brief account of the challenges in adopting this technology for industrial development has also been included. © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Srinivasan K.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2014

Excessive free radical generation overbalancing the rate of their removal leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or suppress oxidative stress. There is a growing interest in natural antioxidants found in plants. Herbs and spices are most important targets to search for natural antioxidants from the point of view of safety. A wide variety of phenolic compounds present in spices that are extensively used as food adjuncts possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and cancer preventive activities. This paper reviews a host of spice compounds as exogenous antioxidants that are experimentally evidenced to control cellular oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo, and their beneficial role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative-stress-mediated diseases, from atherosclerosis to diabetes to cataract to cancer. The antioxidative effects of turmeric/curcumin, clove/eugenol, red pepper/capsaicin, black pepper/piperine, ginger/gingerol, garlic, onion, and fenugreek, which have been extensively studied and evidenced as potential antioxidants, are specifically reviewed in this treatise. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Bhattacharya S.,Indian Central Food Technological Research Institute
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2010

Stress relaxation characteristics of moth bean (raw and roasted) flour doughs having different moisture contents were determined at two different strain levels (0.05 and 0.50). The decaying relaxation curves for raw flour showed an initial stress between 2 and 22 kPa when the moisture content varied from 28% to 34% at a strain of 0.05. Roasted flour doughs exhibited initial stresses between 0.06 and 2 kPa at moisture contents between 40% and 46%. Dough formation was not possible below 40% moisture content for roasted samples. An increase in moisture content markedly decreased initial and residual stresses. It is desirable that dough should possess a low value of residual stress when used for developing flattened/sheeted products. Models containing two or three parameters were found suitable for large-strain stress relaxation characteristics while low-strain data can be modelled by a 4-element Maxwell model with residual stress. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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