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Singh M.,Indian Central Electricity Authority
Water and Energy International | Year: 2012

A thermal power plant produces electrical energy and also consumes a substantial amount of energy in the form of auxiliary power consumption (APC) required for various plant equipments and services. CII studies indicate that APC generally varies 3-6% for large power plants and close to 10% for smaller captive plants depending on unit size, technology, PLF, fuel quality etc. Energy conservation in Power stations is achieved mainly by operating the equipment at maximum efficiency and using energy efficient technologies which results in reduction of auxiliary power consumption. The advent of "Extremultus" high efficiency synthetic modern Flat Belts drive, a technological innovation in power transmission has a potential to save 4-6% energy as compared to "V" belts drives. Source

Ravinder,Indian Central Electricity Authority | Awasthy A.,Indian Energy
43rd International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2010, CIGRE 2010 | Year: 2010

Indian market is over weight in tightly held long term contracts but trading in electricity has picked up after Electricity Act 2003, which has liberalized generation sector, mandating unbundling and provided for non-discriminatory open access. Inter-regional links together with day ahead dispatch procedure, real time energy accounting, financial settlement of deviations from dispatch schedules (UI mechanism) and open access regulations have provided the basic framework for trading. India is a vast country and power trading opportunities arise due to unevenly distributed generation resources, regional variations in demand pattern due to geographical, seasonal and daylight time variations despite an overall deficit scenario. The IEX exchange which started operations in June, 2008 is a nationwide voluntary automated online electricity trading platform conceived to bring ease, transparency and equity in day-ahead physical trading of electricity. It is a demutualised exchange with software enabled price discovery. Participants on the IEX exchange include 46 distribution utilities, 14 Independent Power Producers, 120 captive/cogeneration plants and 19 open access industrial consumers. There is considerable divergence between peak and off peak price of the day reflecting time value of electricity. High volatility, on month on month basis, in the average monthly prices has been witnessed which could be attributed to the nature of the short term demand and low volumes. Despite price volatility on the exchange the opening up of the market has been smooth because the existing long term PPAs have not been disturbed. More than 5 billion units have been traded on the IEX exchange and the average monthly volume has crossed the level of 500 MUs. The average daily volume has been around 12 MUs, however, off late the average volume has been in the range of 20 MUs. Due to transmission congestion the market has to be often split and buyers in the congested zone have to pay higher prices. Rather than buying power on the exchange or bilaterally, some buyers prefer to over draw from the grid because penal charges for overdrawing are not at the level of deterrence. There is resistance to free trade by the State Electricity Boards and Distribution Utilities and open access is often denied or delayed at the level of State Load Dispatch Centres whereas Central Electricity Regulatory Commission and Regional Load Dispatch Centres are actively facilitating open access. Source

Mukhopadhyay S.,University of Delhi | Soonee S.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Joshi R.,Power-One | Rajput A.K.,Indian Central Electricity Authority
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2012

With more than 21,000 MW installed capacity of renewable energy sources as of now out of an estimated potential of about 189,000 MW, in the years to come it is really a challenge to integrate the same into the smart grids in a country like India. This is basically on account of unevenly distributed renewable resources. With 5 regional grids gradually getting connected, formation of national grid in totality is a reality. Of course with major sources of generation being thermal with availability up to certain distant future, entire thrust has been put in recent years on the development of renewable resources that would be the source of energy to run side by side to the conventional ones. At the same time vast assets created in transmission and distribution will also continue to be gainfully used, may be in conjunction other form of value addition to the same for proper functioning. Under this condition, keeping in mind the eventualities, regulations have been framed and so also the certification process has been made effective to handle the situation particularly on grid connectivity front. Expectations from smart grids by the consumers and suppliers as well of course may lead further refinement to the existing protocols in the process in the years to come as and when harnessing of renewable resources progresses to attain a very high level. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Dixit M.,Crompton Greaves Ltd. | Kedia S.,Crompton Greaves Ltd. | Kulkarni S.,Crompton Greaves Ltd. | Patil S.,Crompton Greaves Ltd. | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity | Year: 2012

CG Global R&D is developing a resistive-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) under the Ministry of Power, National Perspective Plan for R&D in Indian Power Sector. A resistive-type 440-V 800-A single-phase SFCL is developed using YBCO tape in stage I of the project, and an 11-kV 1250-A three-phase SFCL will be developed in stage II. The 440-V 800-A SFCL is assembled with seven parallel modules. Each module has series-connected YBCO tapes to accommodate the design length. The SFCL is tested at 77 K for continuous current of few hours, fault currents at low voltage, and fault currents at 440 V up to 100 ms (5 cycles). The evaluated data will be used to develop an 11-kV 1250-A three-phase SFCL in stage II. © 2002-2011 IEEE. Source

Saha R.,Indian Central Electricity Authority | Singh B.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Proceedings of 6th IEEE Power India International Conference, PIICON 2014 | Year: 2014

In a combination of multi-pulse and multi-level voltage source converter (VSC) topology employed in high power rating Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), when the pulse-order is increased, there is a corresponding increase in the requirement of converter units and magnetics, which increases the complexity of controllability and cost. This paper is aimed to achieve a lower-pulse order high power rating STATCOM enabling to obtain a reasonably acceptable harmonics and operational performance at optimum cost. A three-level 18-pulse STATCOM employing three numbers 6-pulse neutral point diode clamped (NPC) GTO-VSCs operated under fundamental frequency switching (FFS) modulation, in combination with typical magnetics architecture and angle control is modeled and simulated in MATLAB platform demonstrating performance equivalent to a 36-pulse STATCOM for power system applications. The simulation results for voltage control and unity power factor correction in a transmission system during steady state and dynamic system conditions are well supporting to validate the model. © 2014 IEEE. Source

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