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Mukhopadhyay S.,NCR | Rajput A.K.,Indian Central Electricity Authority
IEEE PES General Meeting, PES 2010 | Year: 2010

In the Indian power scenario Demand Side Management or DSM as popularly known has assumed a significant role in the recent five-year plans. Over the years power development has seen generation addition manifold along with expansion in transmission and distribution system. Optimum utilization of resources in overall sense, however, calls for managing the demand also for proper capacity utilization. This is valid even when both energy and peak shortage exists. More of course will be the pressure when the former is significantly reduced, but the latter is present, thus calling for efficiently managing the system instead of addition in facilities. Besides this, reduction in losses both in terms of power and energy or in other words enhancement in efficiency in load vis-à-vis associated delivery system is further an important step in DSM. Indian power sector has realized these aspects, estimated benefits accruable, and taken steps to achieve success. ©2010 IEEE.

Ravinder,Indian Central Electricity Authority | Awasthy A.,Indian Energy
43rd International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems 2010, CIGRE 2010 | Year: 2010

Indian market is over weight in tightly held long term contracts but trading in electricity has picked up after Electricity Act 2003, which has liberalized generation sector, mandating unbundling and provided for non-discriminatory open access. Inter-regional links together with day ahead dispatch procedure, real time energy accounting, financial settlement of deviations from dispatch schedules (UI mechanism) and open access regulations have provided the basic framework for trading. India is a vast country and power trading opportunities arise due to unevenly distributed generation resources, regional variations in demand pattern due to geographical, seasonal and daylight time variations despite an overall deficit scenario. The IEX exchange which started operations in June, 2008 is a nationwide voluntary automated online electricity trading platform conceived to bring ease, transparency and equity in day-ahead physical trading of electricity. It is a demutualised exchange with software enabled price discovery. Participants on the IEX exchange include 46 distribution utilities, 14 Independent Power Producers, 120 captive/cogeneration plants and 19 open access industrial consumers. There is considerable divergence between peak and off peak price of the day reflecting time value of electricity. High volatility, on month on month basis, in the average monthly prices has been witnessed which could be attributed to the nature of the short term demand and low volumes. Despite price volatility on the exchange the opening up of the market has been smooth because the existing long term PPAs have not been disturbed. More than 5 billion units have been traded on the IEX exchange and the average monthly volume has crossed the level of 500 MUs. The average daily volume has been around 12 MUs, however, off late the average volume has been in the range of 20 MUs. Due to transmission congestion the market has to be often split and buyers in the congested zone have to pay higher prices. Rather than buying power on the exchange or bilaterally, some buyers prefer to over draw from the grid because penal charges for overdrawing are not at the level of deterrence. There is resistance to free trade by the State Electricity Boards and Distribution Utilities and open access is often denied or delayed at the level of State Load Dispatch Centres whereas Central Electricity Regulatory Commission and Regional Load Dispatch Centres are actively facilitating open access.

Mukhopadhyay S.,University of Delhi | Soonee S.K.,Power System Operation Corporation Ltd | Joshi R.,Power-One | Rajput A.K.,Indian Central Electricity Authority
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2012

With more than 21,000 MW installed capacity of renewable energy sources as of now out of an estimated potential of about 189,000 MW, in the years to come it is really a challenge to integrate the same into the smart grids in a country like India. This is basically on account of unevenly distributed renewable resources. With 5 regional grids gradually getting connected, formation of national grid in totality is a reality. Of course with major sources of generation being thermal with availability up to certain distant future, entire thrust has been put in recent years on the development of renewable resources that would be the source of energy to run side by side to the conventional ones. At the same time vast assets created in transmission and distribution will also continue to be gainfully used, may be in conjunction other form of value addition to the same for proper functioning. Under this condition, keeping in mind the eventualities, regulations have been framed and so also the certification process has been made effective to handle the situation particularly on grid connectivity front. Expectations from smart grids by the consumers and suppliers as well of course may lead further refinement to the existing protocols in the process in the years to come as and when harnessing of renewable resources progresses to attain a very high level. © 2012 IEEE.

Singh M.,Indian Central Electricity Authority
Water and Energy International | Year: 2012

A thermal power plant produces electrical energy and also consumes a substantial amount of energy in the form of auxiliary power consumption (APC) required for various plant equipments and services. CII studies indicate that APC generally varies 3-6% for large power plants and close to 10% for smaller captive plants depending on unit size, technology, PLF, fuel quality etc. Energy conservation in Power stations is achieved mainly by operating the equipment at maximum efficiency and using energy efficient technologies which results in reduction of auxiliary power consumption. The advent of "Extremultus" high efficiency synthetic modern Flat Belts drive, a technological innovation in power transmission has a potential to save 4-6% energy as compared to "V" belts drives.

Saha R.,Indian Central Electricity Authority | Singh B.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Proceedings of 6th IEEE Power India International Conference, PIICON 2014 | Year: 2014

In a combination of multi-pulse and multi-level voltage source converter (VSC) topology employed in high power rating Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), when the pulse-order is increased, there is a corresponding increase in the requirement of converter units and magnetics, which increases the complexity of controllability and cost. This paper is aimed to achieve a lower-pulse order high power rating STATCOM enabling to obtain a reasonably acceptable harmonics and operational performance at optimum cost. A three-level 18-pulse STATCOM employing three numbers 6-pulse neutral point diode clamped (NPC) GTO-VSCs operated under fundamental frequency switching (FFS) modulation, in combination with typical magnetics architecture and angle control is modeled and simulated in MATLAB platform demonstrating performance equivalent to a 36-pulse STATCOM for power system applications. The simulation results for voltage control and unity power factor correction in a transmission system during steady state and dynamic system conditions are well supporting to validate the model. © 2014 IEEE.

Saha R.,Indian Central Electricity Authority | Singh B.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
IET Power Electronics | Year: 2010

A modified three-level 48-pulse ± 100 MVAr static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) employing four pairs of elementary six-pulse neutral-point diode-clamped gate turn-off thyristor-based voltage source converters with fundamental frequency switching modulation is realised using angle control methodology and pre-calculated dead angle (the duration in which converter-terminal voltage is clamped to zero) in d-q synchronous rotating frame. With a magnetics configuration designed for summing up of output voltages of four converter pairs and simultaneously stepping up of its voltage to the transmission level, and employing proportional and integral controllers in the control, the operating performance equivalent to 96-pulse STATCOM is achieved through optimising harmonics distortion. This compensator is modelled and its performance is simulated in MATLAB using SimPowerSystem toolbox for voltage regulation in transmission system. The obtained results show reasonably good characteristics of the compensator to control system dynamics under steady-state and dynamic system conditions. © 2010 © The Institution of Engineering and Technology.

Saha R.,Indian Central Electricity Authority | Singh B.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
International Journal of Power Electronics | Year: 2011

In this paper, a 24-pulse three-level ±100 MVAR STATCOM (static synchronous compensator) is evolved employing 4 × 6-pulse NPC GTO-VSCs(neutral point diode clamped gate-turn-off thyristor based voltage source converters) with magnetics optimised to a single stage. Through an angle control, the magnitude and phase angle of the STATCOM voltage is controlled with a pre-calculated dead angle in d-q synchronously rotating frame. While the performance of STATCOM is simulated in MATLAB platform for the voltage control in transmission system, its operating characteristics in respect of system dynamics and harmonics distortion are observed analogous to that of aconventional 48-pulse STATCOM. It has emerged to be cost effective topology of STATCOM. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Batra P.,Indian Central Electricity Authority
CIGRE 2011 Bologna Symposium - The Electric Power System of the Future: Integrating Supergrids and Microgrids | Year: 2011

Renewable sources of energy include such generation as wind, solar, biomass, hydro, geothermal, etc. Hydro generation has been in integrated operation with the grid since a long time and we know that this renewable source of energy does not cause any problem with respect to its controllability of active or reactive power. Biomass is something like coal based generation and is therefore not variable. Therefore it poses no problem in integration into the grid. The renewable sources of energy that are increasing round the world in leaps and bounds are wind and solar energy. These variable sources of energy, however, because of their natural variability, have to be managed by the system operator to ensure that load generation balance is ensured at each point of time in the integrated grid. As the percentage from such variable sources of energy grows, the challenge to manage them becomes greater. Solar energy is still more predictable, especially on a clear day. Wind energy, on the other hand is the most difficult to integrate into the grid, because of its variability. Yet serious efforts are being made worldwide to harness this type of energy. India has a federal system, much like the USA with Central and State jurisdiction in power. Therefore it has State and Central Controls areas, with scheduling at the boundaries of the States and Regions. This paper discusses the method adopted by India for scheduling of variable generation, viz. Wind and solar energy into the grid, in the effort to integrate such renewable sources of energy into the grid to the maximum possible extent without endangering grid security. Using the existing balancing market prevalent in India, which is the frequency linked unscheduled interchange (UI) market, the wind generators have been made accountable for scheduling their energy, to the extent that they are able to forecast wind generation, since commercial forecasting software is readily available in the market. Therefore wind generators are subject to financial implications if their forecast goes beyond a certain accuracy. Solar generators have, however, not been made accountable at present, since solar-based generation is more predictable on a clear day and for weather based variability, software is still under development. Moreover, the installed capacity of grid connected solar power plants in India is still miniscule. This could be reviewed later after substantial capacity comes up. This paper gives the details of the balancing market prevailing in the country and how the balancing market is used to induce the wind generators to forecast properly and thereby make the system operator feel comfortable with the variability. The variability of generation in this mechanism is felt by the host State, irrespective of whether power is sold by the variable generator to a consumer within the State or across the State's boundary to another State. It provides how the financial implication of the host State is socialized to all States of the country. The scheduling mechanism for variable generation allows revision of schedule every three pre-defined hours. However, from the point of view of optimum utilization of transmission capacity, it would be preferable for variable generation to be utilized within the State instead of being sold to other States, which may involve frequent re-scheduling across Regional/State's boundaries. The other States, who have a Renewable Purchase Obligation, may fulfil the same through purchase of Renewable Energy Certificates.

Chandra A.,Indian Central Electricity Authority
Water and Energy International | Year: 2010

The soaring energy consumption that tracks the rise of the consumer society is a surging indicator of environmental harm. Reduction of T&D losses and efficiency in manufacturing end use equipment is going to be the cornerstone of this strategy for low carbon growth development in the country. The magnitude of energy dissipation depends largely on the pattern of loading of transmission and distribution lines, types of loads, design of lines etc. It is not possible to eliminate such losses inherent in a system altogether. APDRP during 10th plan has helped the Utilities in reducing their AT&C losses and in bringing about a positive cultural change resulting in improvement of their overall performance. The deteriorating trend in the condition of distribution services has been reversed. High-efficiency transformers are not being purchased because of the assumptions built into utility investment decisions, regulatory practices and tender evaluation methodologies adopted for purchases. Increased competition compels many utilities to reduce short-run costs.

Satapathy S.,Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology | Patel S.K.,National Institute of Technology Rourkela | Mishra P.D.,Indian Central Electricity Authority
International Journal of Services and Operations Management | Year: 2012

The conflicting preferences amongst stakeholders and the incomplete, uncertain and contradictory understanding about water service by the Indian consumers, it is recognised that managing water resources sustain ably is a wicked problem. In India customer, satisfaction and service care are every day pushing professionals in the water industry to seek to improve their performance, lowering costs and increasing the provided service level the actual water supply available to the residents is intermittent and inequitable. Despite concerted efforts the demand-supply gap is on the rise. This imbalance is further exacerbated by the high level of non-revenue water - including both technical and commercial losses. This paper develops a systematic assessment of the sustainability of water services provided to the consumers in rural, urban and municipality area in India by neural network method and also consumer wise perception is calculated by linear discriminant method. Copyright © 2012 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

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