Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute

Jodhpur, India

Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute

Jodhpur, India
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Mathur M.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute
Range Management and Agroforestry | Year: 2016

In natural communities, identification of environmental as well as species intrinsic factors associated with its spatial distribution is crucial one for establishing a more resilient community. Spatial paternities of Tephrosia purpurea were assessed at three different types of habitat, namely older alluvial plain (OAP), younger alluvial plain (YAP) and Piedmonts located (36 sites) with-in semiarid regions of the Indian Thar desert. Distinctive dispersion indices deals with diverse numerical inborn probabilities were quantified. The result revealed a dominant clumped pattern at OAP habitat, while site-specific patterns (random, uniform and clumped and uniform and random) recorded at YAP and at Piedmont. In totality, community parameters don’t demonstrate any noteworthy association with the clumped pattern type of this species at OAP and YAP habitats, further at YAP habitat, site quality elements were additionally non-significant for any example sort. Threshold limits of some exploratory parameters also record that possibly would decide the faith of its distribution type. © 2017, Range Management Society of India. All rights reserved.

Kasana R.C.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute | Pandey C.B.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology | Year: 2017

The bacterial genus Exiguobacterium accommodates many versatile species isolated from diverse environments. Exiguobacterium was described as a genus approximately three decades ago, and now, 17 species, growing over a broad range of temperatures and pH, have been recognized. Various isolates from different niches have been explored for biotechnological and industrial purposes, including enzyme production, bioremediation and degradation of toxic substances released into the environment. Some isolates possess plant growth promoting capabilities, and they are currently being explored for increasing agricultural production. The genome sequences of various strains of this genus have shown the presence of many genes encoding products of importance to agriculture and the environment. In addition, many strains possess stress-responsive genes helping them to colonize and thrive in diverse ecological niches. This review provides a broad view of the versatile genus Exiguobacterium and its potential for applications in agriculture, the environment and industry, as well as the underlying genomic determinants that drive its diversity and adaptability to various extreme environments. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Singh S.K.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute
Journal of environmental biology / Academy of Environmental Biology, India | Year: 2012

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an annual spice herb that belongs to umbel family Apiaceae with diversified uses. We investigated the extent of variability among 22 Indian varieties of coriander using phenotypic and genetic markers. Multilocus genotyping by nine RAPD primers detected an average of intraspecific variations amounting to 66.18% polymorphism in banding patterns. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that a greater proportion of total genetic variation exists within population (98%) rather than among populations (2%). Higher values of Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon Information Index (i) and genetic distance analysis validate wider genetic diversity among Indian coriander varieties. Besides total internal transcribed spacer (ITS) length variations and single nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions/deletions (INDELS) were detected at seven sites in ITS-1 region. Multiple sequence alignment of 12 sequenced varieties revealed cent per cent identities of 5.8S gene region (162 bp) that validates its conserved nature. Multiple sequence alignment of ITS-1 region may be of phylogenetic significance in distinguishing and cataloguing of coriander germplasm. The representative sequences of each subgroup and all distinct varieties of RAPD clusters have been submitted to NCBI database and assigned Gen Accession numbers HQ 377194-377205. The measures of relative genetic distances among the varieties of coriander did not completely correlate the geographical places of their development. Eventually, the knowledge of their genetic relationships and DNA bar coding will be of significance.

Jain N.,Birla Institute of Technology and Science | Bhargava A.,Birla Institute of Technology and Science | Majumdar S.,Birla Institute of Technology and Science | Tarafdar J.C.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute | Panwar J.,Birla Institute of Technology and Science
Nanoscale | Year: 2011

The present study demonstrates an eco-friendly and low cost protocol for synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the cell-free filtrate of Aspergillus flavus NJP08 when supplied with aqueous silver (Ag +) ions. Identification of the fungal isolate was based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) identities. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the formation of spherical metallic silver nanoparticles. The average particle size calculated using Dynamic Light Scattering measurements (DLS) was found to be 17 ± 5.9 nm. UV-Visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of extracellular proteins. SDS-PAGE profiles of the extracellular proteins showed the presence of two intense bands of 32 and 35 kDa, responsible for the synthesis and stability of silver nanoparticles, respectively. A probable mechanism behind the biosynthesis is discussed, which leads to the possibility of using the present protocol in future "nano-factories". © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Machiwal D.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute | Jha M.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2014

The aim of this study was to investigate rainfall-groundwater dynamics over space and annual time scales in a hard-rock aquifer system of India by employing time series, geographic information system and geostatistical modelling techniques. Trends in 43-year (1965-2007) annual rainfall time series of ten rainfall stations and 16-year (1991-2006) pre-monsoon and post-monsoon groundwater levels of 140 sites were identified by using Mann-Kendall, Spearman rank order correlation and Kendall rank correlation tests. Trends were quantified by Kendall slope method. Furthermore, the study involves novelty of examining homogeneity of pre-monsoon and post-monsoon groundwater levels, for the first time, by applying seven tests. Regression analysis between rainfall and post-monsoon groundwater levels was performed. The pre-monsoon and post-monsoon groundwater levels for four periods - 1991-1994, 1995-1998, 1999-2002 and 2003-2006 - were subjected to geographic information system-based geostatistical modelling. The rainfall showed considerable spatiotemporal variations, with a declining trend at the Mavli rainfall station (p-value<0.05). The Levene's tests revealed spatial homogeneity of rainfall at α=0.05. Regression analyses indicated significant relationships (r2>0.5) between groundwater level and rainfall for eight rainfall stations. Non-homogeneity and declining trends in the groundwater level, attributed to anthropogenic and hydrologic factors, were found at 5-61 more sites in pre-monsoon compared with post-monsoon season. The groundwater declining rates in phyllite-schist, gneiss, schist and granite formations were found to be 0.18, 0.26, 0.21 and 0.14myear-1 and 0.13, 0.19, 0.16 and 0.02myear-1 during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. The geostatistical analyses for four time periods revealed linkages between the rainfall and groundwater levels. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Yadav O.P.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute | Rai K.N.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics
Crop Science | Year: 2011

Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is an important cereal crop of arid and drier semiarid regions of south Asia and Africa valued for both grain and stover. Drought is the most common production constraint in these regions. Drought-resilient landraces are widely grown but their cultivation results in a yield penalty under favorable conditions. Both high productivity and adaptation to drought stress are essential for cultivars targeted for arid regions. This study was conducted to assess whether crosses between Indian pearl millet landraces and African elite composites offer any advantage over landraces. Twenty-five crosses produced by hybridizing five Indian landraces with five African elite composites were evaluated for three seasons (2006-2008) at Jodhpur, India. Improvement in crosses was quantified by measuring midparent heterosis and differences between crosses and their parental populations. On an average, crosses had significantly higher biomass and stover yield than both landraces and composites but had grain yield similar to the parental populations. There was differential magnitude and direction of midparent heterosis for various traits: heterosis was positive for bio-mass (10%) and stover yield (12%) but negative for harvest index (-7%). Although there was little overall heterosis for grain yield, a few individual crosses had significant grain yield heterosis up to +33%. More than one-third of the crosses had greater grain and stover yields than their landrace parent, resulting in a mean advantage of 18% in their total crop value over land-races. These results indicate that hybridization of Indian landraces with elite composites based on African germplasm is an attractive and useful strategy to enhance biomass, stover, and grain productivity under drought-prone conditions. © Crop Science Society of America.

Kumar S.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute | Mathur M.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute
Tropical Ecology | Year: 2014

Impacts of invasion of a ligneous weed, Prosopis juliflora, in plant communities of reserve forests, protected forests, unprotected forests and open grazing lands in Jamnagar district in arid coastal areas of Gujarat state of India were assessed. Sites invaded by P. juliflora had different ligneous plant composition with lower order seral species being dominant. In all landuses, Prosopis-invaded sites had more species richness, diversity, and evenness. However, increase in species richness was due to occurrence of more weedy species along with Prosopis juliflora. Even amongst the protected and undisturbed sites, dominance of late successional species, e.g., Acacia senegal, Maytenus emarginata, Ziziphus nummularia and Acacia nilotica, was less at sites with Prosopis juliflora than at sites without it. Density of Commiphora wightii, an endangered species, decreased with increasing density of P. juliflora. Invasion of P. juliflora has thus demonstrable adverse impacts on plant communities in arid grazing lands. © International Society for Tropical Ecology.

Yadav O.P.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

Drought is the primary constraint in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) production in the drier semi-arid and arid regions of south Asia and Africa. The traditional landraces from drier regions are good sources of drought adaptation but often lack high yield under near-optimum growing environments. The objective of this paper was to assess whether crosses between landrace populations and elite germplasm can produce hybrids with better grain yield under favourable conditions than landraces, without compromising grain yield under drought. The research evaluated 20 crosses and their nine parents (consisting of landrace-based populations and elite composites) under drought and non-drought conditions. Drought response index (DRI), based on flowering and grain yield measured in drought and non-drought environments, was used to assess drought tolerance. Landrace populations yielded significantly more grain under drought stress than elite composites and crosses and had the highest mean DRI (3.99). In contrast, composites showed maximum sensitivity to drought with significantly negative DRI (-3.64). Adaptation to either drought or high productivity conditions appeared to be associated with different plant types: higher panicle number, lower grain number per panicle, and smaller seed size were associated with drought adaptation; low tillering and greater number of large-sized seeds per panicle were favoured for optimum growing conditions. Crosses yielded significantly better than composites under drought, better than landrace populations under non-drought and had a wide range in drought sensitivity. Around 40% of crosses produced on average 23% higher grain yield than the best landrace under favourable conditions, without compromising grain yield under drought. The results illustrate that hybridization of landrace populations with elite composites can produce germplasm that combines drought tolerance of traditional material with high production potential of elite genetic material. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

This article deals with the use of quantitative ethnobotany for assessing potential and conservation priorities of the Thar Desert medicinal plants that are supposed to regulate the central nervous system (CNS). The study reveals that at least 35 plants of the region are so far documented for 9 different diseases related to CNS and 16 other body systems. Relative Importance Value (RIV) of these 35 medicinal plants ranges from 0.9 to 1.65. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of the plants for their use in 16 different body systems has grouped them into 3 clusters, while Principal Component Analysis highlights 3 plants under maximum usage for the diseases related to CNS. The higher usage of Abutilon indicum, Cocculus pendulus, Sida cordifolia, Abrus precatorious and Solanum surattense make them more vulnerable to degradation, and requiring urgent conservation measures, including standardization of agro-techniques for their incorporation in cropping system to counter indiscriminate wild harvesting. Such multivariate analyses can provides a basic groundwork for preparation of multi-herb combination.

Srivastava S.,Indian Central Arid Zone Research Institute | Srivastava A.K.,DRDO Defence Research & Development Establishment
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Lycopene, the predominant carotenoid in tomatoes, is among the major carotenoids in serum and tissues of humans. Epidemiological studies have proven the bioactive role and potential disease prevention property of carotenoids and their consumption has been associated with reduced risk of degenerative diseases. Lycopene is reported to have a variety of pharmacological and nutritional effects in animals and humans, on one hand and promising health benefits as an antioxidant on the other. However, a need exists for better exploration of its biosynthesis, metabolic aspects, tissue distribution and bioavailability. To contribute to this effort, this integrated review presents data on the physico-chemical aspects, biosynthesis and metabolism, with special focus on the stability and degradation under various abiotic parameters. Heat light and oxygen are the main factors which induce degradation of lycopene via trans-cis isomerization and oxidation and reduce its health benefits. The stability of lycopene is also varied in different food matrices. Controversy also exists on some issues such as bioavailability and absorption of this compound which needs to be explored further. © 2013, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

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