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Minaxi,Banasthali University | Minaxi,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Nain L.,Banasthali University | Yadav R.C.,Banasthali University | Saxena J.,Banasthali University
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2012

The rhizobacterial isolate RM-2 was characterized on the basis of sequencing of a partial 1270-bp fragment of 16S rDNA amplicon and validated as Bacillus sp. In view of using this strain as bioinoculant for sustainable agriculture in semi arid deserts, the plant growth promoting attributes were tested both in laboratory and field conditions. The isolate was found to have many beneficial attributes such as P solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, antifungal activity and ammonia and indole acetic acid production. The isolate positively influenced the growth and nutrient uptake of cowpea plants. Seeds coated with RM-2 showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in seed germination, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight, and leaf area. It was also able to colonize the rhizosphere of plants. Yield parameters such as number of pods and seeds and grain yield plant -1 were also enhanced significantly (P<0.05) in comparison to control in pot and field trials in natural semi arid conditions. RM-2 strain can be considered as a good addition to consortium of beneficial microbes for growth promotion of cowpea plants. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Gathala M.K.,International Rice Research Institute | Ladha J.K.,International Rice Research Institute | Kumar V.,Sardar Patel University | Saharawat Y.S.,International Rice Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2011

Rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the major cropping system occupying 13.5 million ha in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia. Conventional-tillage practices are resource and cost intensive. A 7-yr study evaluated six treatments (T) involving three tillage methods and two rice establishment methods on crop yield, water productivity, and economic profitability in a rice-wheat rotation. Average rice yields in the conventional practice of puddling and transplanting without (T1) and with (T2) mid-season alternate wetting-drying were highest (7.81-8.10 Mg ha -1) and increased with time (0.26 Mg ha -11 yr -1) in T2. Compared to T1, rice yields in direct drill-seeding with zero-tillage averaged 16% lower on flat (T5) and 43% lower in raised beds (T3). Rice yield in raised beds (T3 and T4) decreased with time (0.14-0.45 Mg ha -1 yr -1). Conversely, wheat yielded 18% higher after zero compared to conventional-tillage. Treatment 2, despite low soil matric potential during vegetative development, had higher water productivity with 25% less water use compared with T1 and 19% less compared with other treatments. Conventional-tillage and crop establishment practices had higher net cash return in rice but in wheat it was higher with zero-tillage. Overall, T2 and T5 had the highest net returns (~1225US$) and T3 and T4 had the lowest (747-846 US$) in the rice-wheat system. Zero-tillage on flat beds (T5), however, would conceivably be more sustainable than the conventional T2 in the long-run. Yields of zero-tillage with direct-seeding of rice on flat beds (T5) must improve before adoption occurs. © 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved. Source

Satapathy L.,Birla Institute of Technology | Singh D.,Birla Institute of Technology | Ranjan P.,Birla Institute of Technology | Kumar D.,Birla Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2014

WRKY, a plant-specific transcription factor family, has important roles in pathogen defense, abiotic cues and phytohormone signaling, yet little is known about their roles and molecular mechanism of function in response to rust diseases in wheat. We identified 100 TaWRKY sequences using wheat Expressed Sequence Tag database of which 22 WRKY sequences were novel. Identified proteins were characterized based on their zinc finger motifs and phylogenetic analysis clustered them into six clades consisting of class IIc and class III WRKY proteins. Functional annotation revealed major functions in metabolic and cellular processes in control plants; whereas response to stimuli, signaling and defense in pathogen inoculated plants, their major molecular function being binding to DNA. Tag-based expression analysis of the identified genes revealed differential expression between mock and Puccinia triticina inoculated wheat near isogenic lines. Gene expression was also performed with six rust-related microarray experiments at Gene Expression Omnibus database. TaWRKY10, 15, 17 and 56 were common in both tag-based and microarray-based differential expression analysis and could be representing rust specific WRKY genes. The obtained results will bestow insight into the functional characterization of WRKY transcription factors responsive to leaf rust pathogenesis that can be used as candidate genes in molecular breeding programs to improve biotic stress tolerance in wheat. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Chakraborty K.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute
Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB / Société française de physiologie végétale | Year: 2012

The objective of the present study was to examine the role of SOS pathway in salinity stress tolerance in Brassica spp. An experiment was conducted in pot culture with 4 Brassica genotypes, i.e., CS 52 and CS 54, Varuna and T 9 subjected to two levels of salinity treatments along with a control, viz., 1.65 (S(0)), 4.50 (S(1)) and 6.76 (S(2)) dS m(-1). Salinity treatment significantly decreased relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) and chlorophyll (Chl) content in leaves and potassium (K) content in leaf, stem and root of all the genotypes. The decline in RWC, MSI, Chl and K content was significantly less in CS 52 and CS 54 as compared to Varuna and T 9. In contrast, the sodium (Na) content increased under salinity stress in all the plant parts in all the genotypes, however, the increase was less in CS 52 and CS 54, which also showed higher K/Na ratio, and thus more favourable cellular environment. Gene expression studies revealed the existence of a more efficient salt overly sensitive pathway composed of SOS1, SOS2, SOS3 and vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter in CS 52 and CS 54 compared to Varuna and T 9. Sequence analyses of partial cDNAs showed the conserved nature of these genes, and their intra and intergenic relatedness. It is thus concluded that existence of an efficient SOS pathway, resulting in higher K/Na ratio, could be one of the major factor determining salinity stress tolerance of Brassica juncea genotypes CS 52 and CS 54. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved. Source

Kanakala S.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Singh B.P.,Mizoram University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2013

Musa paradisiaca is an important fruit crop of tropical and subtropical countries in the world. In a survey conducted during 2009-2011, a new root rot pathogen was observed in more than 15% banana plants growing in the fields at Mizoram, India. Causative agent of the disease was identified as Plectosphaerella cucumeria and pathogenicity was determined by inoculating to healthy seedlings. This is the first report of the P.cucumeria as both new root rot pathogen and p-solubiliser. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source

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