Indian Agriculture Research Institute

Delhi, India

Indian Agriculture Research Institute

Delhi, India

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Kumari P.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Singh K.P.,Raja Balwant Singh College
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences India Section B - Biological Sciences | Year: 2017

In India, about 40 % of the land area comes under the category of wasteland. Jatropha curcas is a wild species and member of family Euphorbiaceae. The species is attracting people’s attention due to production of bio-diesel and fulfilling the future energy demands. The proper utilization of waste lands for cultivation of energy crop has required an appropriate model. Field experiment was laid-out on alkali wasteland at Mainpuri (Uttar Pradesh, India) to develop a module of package of practices for J. curcas cultivation. The effect of four AM fungi with seven fertilizer combinations has been evaluated for the establishment and biomass production of J. curcas. The auger pits were dug and filled with molasses and compost before transplantation of J. curcas plants. The soil samples of experimental field were also collected before and after plantation of each year for analysis of nutrient availability. The field data was collected periodically after each quarter. The result of the study revealed that use of Urea + SSP + FYM + Vermicompost + molasses inoculated with Acaulospora laevis and Glomus constrictum improved the establishment and biomass production of J. curcas in alkali soil conditions. The physico-chemical properties of the soil have also improved after 3 years of plantation. The moisture per cent, WHC, OM, OC, N, P and EC increased significantly while the pH decreased. © 2015, The National Academy of Sciences, India.


Chakraborty K.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Sairam R.K.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Bhattacharya R.C.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

The objective of the present study was to examine the role of SOS pathway in salinity stress tolerance in Brassica spp. An experiment was conducted in pot culture with 4 Brassica genotypes, i.e., CS 52 and CS 54, Varuna and T 9 subjected to two levels of salinity treatments along with a control, viz., 1.65 (S 0), 4.50 (S 1) and 6.76 (S 2) dS m -1. Salinity treatment significantly decreased relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) and chlorophyll (Chl) content in leaves and potassium (K) content in leaf, stem and root of all the genotypes. The decline in RWC, MSI, Chl and K content was significantly less in CS 52 and CS 54 as compared to Varuna and T 9. In contrast, the sodium (Na) content increased under salinity stress in all the plant parts in all the genotypes, however, the increase was less in CS 52 and CS 54, which also showed higher K/Na ratio, and thus more favourable cellular environment. Gene expression studies revealed the existence of a more efficient salt overly sensitive pathway composed of SOS1, SOS2, SOS3 and vacuolar Na +/H + antiporter in CS 52 and CS 54 compared to Varuna and T 9. Sequence analyses of partial cDNAs showed the conserved nature of these genes, and their intra and intergenic relatedness. It is thus concluded that existence of an efficient SOS pathway, resulting in higher K/Na ratio, could be one of the major factor determining salinity stress tolerance of Brassica juncea genotypes CS 52 and CS 54. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.


Minaxi,Banasthali University | Minaxi,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Nain L.,Banasthali University | Yadav R.C.,Banasthali University | Saxena J.,Banasthali University
Applied Soil Ecology | Year: 2012

The rhizobacterial isolate RM-2 was characterized on the basis of sequencing of a partial 1270-bp fragment of 16S rDNA amplicon and validated as Bacillus sp. In view of using this strain as bioinoculant for sustainable agriculture in semi arid deserts, the plant growth promoting attributes were tested both in laboratory and field conditions. The isolate was found to have many beneficial attributes such as P solubilization, ACC deaminase activity, antifungal activity and ammonia and indole acetic acid production. The isolate positively influenced the growth and nutrient uptake of cowpea plants. Seeds coated with RM-2 showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in seed germination, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight, and leaf area. It was also able to colonize the rhizosphere of plants. Yield parameters such as number of pods and seeds and grain yield plant -1 were also enhanced significantly (P<0.05) in comparison to control in pot and field trials in natural semi arid conditions. RM-2 strain can be considered as a good addition to consortium of beneficial microbes for growth promotion of cowpea plants. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Gathala M.K.,International Rice Research Institute | Ladha J.K.,International Rice Research Institute | Kumar V.,Sardar Patel University | Saharawat Y.S.,International Rice Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2011

Rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the major cropping system occupying 13.5 million ha in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia. Conventional-tillage practices are resource and cost intensive. A 7-yr study evaluated six treatments (T) involving three tillage methods and two rice establishment methods on crop yield, water productivity, and economic profitability in a rice-wheat rotation. Average rice yields in the conventional practice of puddling and transplanting without (T1) and with (T2) mid-season alternate wetting-drying were highest (7.81-8.10 Mg ha -1) and increased with time (0.26 Mg ha -11 yr -1) in T2. Compared to T1, rice yields in direct drill-seeding with zero-tillage averaged 16% lower on flat (T5) and 43% lower in raised beds (T3). Rice yield in raised beds (T3 and T4) decreased with time (0.14-0.45 Mg ha -1 yr -1). Conversely, wheat yielded 18% higher after zero compared to conventional-tillage. Treatment 2, despite low soil matric potential during vegetative development, had higher water productivity with 25% less water use compared with T1 and 19% less compared with other treatments. Conventional-tillage and crop establishment practices had higher net cash return in rice but in wheat it was higher with zero-tillage. Overall, T2 and T5 had the highest net returns (~1225US$) and T3 and T4 had the lowest (747-846 US$) in the rice-wheat system. Zero-tillage on flat beds (T5), however, would conceivably be more sustainable than the conventional T2 in the long-run. Yields of zero-tillage with direct-seeding of rice on flat beds (T5) must improve before adoption occurs. © 2011 by the American Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.


Praveen S.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Ramesh S.V.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Mishra A.K.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Koundal V.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Palukaitis P.,Scottish Crop Research Institute
Transgenic Research | Year: 2010

We investigated viral gene suppression in an infected tomato, by transforming it with RNA inhibition (RNAi) constructs derived from same viral gene. To develop RNAi constructs, conserved sequences ranging from 21 to 200 nt of the viral target AC4 gene of various viruses causing the tomato leaf curl disease were chosen. The double-stranded (ds)RNA producing constructs carry the sense and antisense portions of these sequences and are separated by different introns behind a constitutive promoter. We compared the levels of suppression of the viral target gene by transforming four different RNAi constructs with varied arm length of dsRNA. Gene silencing levels of the viral target gene were found to be directly proportional to the arm length of the dsRNA. We observed that dsRNA derived from longer arm-length constructs generating a pool of siRNAs that were more effective in targeting gene silencing. After transformation, one of the RNAi construct having a 21 nt arm-length produced aberrant phenotypes. These phenotypic anomalies may be due to unintended ('off-target') host transcript silencing. The unintended host transcript silencing showed modest reversion in the presence of the viral target gene. The findings presented here suggest that the arm length of dsRNA capable of producing a pool of diced siRNAs is more efficient in gene silencing, the effect of off-targeting siRNA is minimized in a pool, and off-targeting silencing can be minimized in the presence of target gene. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.


Chakraborty K.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Sairam R.K.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Bhattacharya R.C.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2012

The objective of the present study was to assess the role of salinity-induced expression of pyrrolline 5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), P5CS activity, and proline accumulation on salinity tolerance in Brassica genotypes. A pot culture experiment was conducted with four Brassica genotypes viz. CS 52, CS 54, Varuna, (B. juncea) and T 9 (B. campestris) under control and two salinity levels, i. e., 1. 65, 4. 50 and 6. 76 dS m -1. Proline contents increased with increasing levels of salinity, and the highest content were recorded at post-flowering stage in CS 52 and CS 54. Activity of P5CS recorded at flowering stage was highest at higher level of salinity, with CS 52 and CS 54 recording highest activity. Gene expression of P5CS, which regulates the synthesis of proline, was higher in CS 52 and CS 54 under salt stress than Varuna and T 9. Comparison of partial nucleotide as well as amino acid sequence showed conserved domains, and inter and intra generic relatedness of these genes. The study suggests that salinity-induced expression of P5CS, pyrrolline-phosphate synthetase activity and proline accumulation may serve as one of the mechanism of salinity stress tolerance in Brassica genotypes. © 2012 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków.


Chakraborty K.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute
Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB / Société française de physiologie végétale | Year: 2012

The objective of the present study was to examine the role of SOS pathway in salinity stress tolerance in Brassica spp. An experiment was conducted in pot culture with 4 Brassica genotypes, i.e., CS 52 and CS 54, Varuna and T 9 subjected to two levels of salinity treatments along with a control, viz., 1.65 (S(0)), 4.50 (S(1)) and 6.76 (S(2)) dS m(-1). Salinity treatment significantly decreased relative water content (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI) and chlorophyll (Chl) content in leaves and potassium (K) content in leaf, stem and root of all the genotypes. The decline in RWC, MSI, Chl and K content was significantly less in CS 52 and CS 54 as compared to Varuna and T 9. In contrast, the sodium (Na) content increased under salinity stress in all the plant parts in all the genotypes, however, the increase was less in CS 52 and CS 54, which also showed higher K/Na ratio, and thus more favourable cellular environment. Gene expression studies revealed the existence of a more efficient salt overly sensitive pathway composed of SOS1, SOS2, SOS3 and vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter in CS 52 and CS 54 compared to Varuna and T 9. Sequence analyses of partial cDNAs showed the conserved nature of these genes, and their intra and intergenic relatedness. It is thus concluded that existence of an efficient SOS pathway, resulting in higher K/Na ratio, could be one of the major factor determining salinity stress tolerance of Brassica juncea genotypes CS 52 and CS 54. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


Ojha S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Goyal S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Kumari S.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Arya D.S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology | Year: 2012

Pyruvate, a potent endogenous antioxidant and an important metabolic fuel is essential for the cardiac function and tissue defense mechanism. The present study was evaluated to investigate whether pyruvate attenuates the development of cardiotoxicity in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction by assessing hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological parameters. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85. mg/kg) administered for 2 days at an interval of 24. h was used for induction of cardiotoxicity. ISO administration significantly decreased arterial pressure indices, heart rate, contractility {(+)LVd. P/d. t} and relaxation {(-)LVd. P/d. t} and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. In addition, a significant reduction in activities of myocardial creatine phosphokinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione levels along with increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also observed following ISO administration. However, pretreatment with pyruvate (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0. g/kg, p.o.) favorably modulated all most every studied parameters in ISO-induced myocardial injury. Furthermore, protective effect of pyruvate was confirmed by histopathological studies. Rats pretreated only with pyruvate did not produce significant change in hemodynamic, biochemical and histopathological parameters. Pyruvate at 0.50 and 1.0. g/kg doses was found to exert optimal cardioprotective effect against ISO-induced myocardial infarction. The results of our study suggest that pyruvate possessing antioxidant activity has a significant cardioprotective effect against ISO-induced myocardial injury. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.


Kanakala S.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute | Singh B.P.,Mizoram University
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2013

Musa paradisiaca is an important fruit crop of tropical and subtropical countries in the world. In a survey conducted during 2009-2011, a new root rot pathogen was observed in more than 15% banana plants growing in the fields at Mizoram, India. Causative agent of the disease was identified as Plectosphaerella cucumeria and pathogenicity was determined by inoculating to healthy seedlings. This is the first report of the P.cucumeria as both new root rot pathogen and p-solubiliser. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Usha T.N.,University of Agrilcultural and Horticultural Science | Dadlani M.,Indian Agriculture Research Institute
Legume Research | Year: 2016

Free radical and lipid peroxidation are widely considered to be major contributor to seed deterioration in soybean. Three lots of soybean high, medium and low vigour were stored under ambient storage conditions. Free radical scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase activities and ascorbic acid contents were measured for a year with three months interval. There was gradual increase in the activities of glutathione reductase and catalase reaching a peak earliest in the low vigour seed lots than in medium and high vigour lots during storage, followed by a steady decline. Similar trend was noticed incase of ascorbic acid content. This is the first such report (of rise in the enzyme activity during seed aging) which needs detailed examination for validation. © 2016, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.

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