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The Indian Agricultural Research Institute commonly known as Pusa Institute is India's premier national Institute for agricultural research, education and extension.Situated in Delhi, it is financed and administered by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research . The IARI was responsible for the research leading to the "Green Revolution in India" of the 1970s. Wikipedia.

Khanna-Chopra R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Protoplasma | Year: 2012

Leaf senescence is a genetically programmed decline in various cellular processes including photosynthesis and involves the hydrolysis of macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, etc. It is governed by the developmental age and is induced or enhanced by environmental stresses such as drought, heat, salinity and others. Internal factors such as reproductive structures also influence the rate of leaf senescence. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is one of the earliest responses of plant cells under abiotic stresses and senescence. Chloroplasts are the main targets of ROS-linked damage during various environmental stresses and natural senescence as ROS detoxification systems decline with age. Plants adapt to environmental stresses through the process of acclimation, which involves less ROS production coupled with an efficient antioxidant defence. Chloroplasts are a major site of protein degradation, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is rapidly and selectively degraded during senescence and stress. The process of protein degradation is initiated by ROS and involves the action of proteolytic enzymes such as cysteine and serine proteases. The mechanism of Rubisco degradation still remains to be elucidated. The molecular understanding of leaf senescence was achieved through the characterization of senescence-associated genes and various senescence mutants of Arabidopsis, which is a suitable model plant showing monocarpic senescence. The regulation of senescence involves many regulatory elements composed of positive and negative elements to fine-tune the initiation and progression of senescence. This review gives an overview on chloroplast protein degradation during leaf senescence and abiotic stresses and also highlights the role of ROS management in both processes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Katiyar A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression mainly by post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and in some cases by transcriptional genes silencing (TGS). miRNAs play critical roles in developmental processes, nutrient homeostasis, abiotic stress and pathogen responses of plants. In contrast to the large number of miRNAs predicted in cereal model plant rice, only 148 miRNAs were predicted in sorghum till date (miRBase release 17). This suggested that miRNAs identified in sorghum is far from saturation. Hence, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline using an in-house PERL script and publicly available structure prediction tools to identify miRNAs and their target genes from publically available Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) and Genomic Survey Sequence (GSS). About 1379 known and unique plant miRNAs from 33 different crops were used to predict new miRNAs in sorghum. We identified 31 new miRNAs belonging to 10 different miRNA families. We predicted 72 potential target genes for 31 miRNAs, and most of these target genes are predicted to be involved in plant growth and development.These newly identified miRNAs add to the growing database of miRNA and lay the foundation for further understanding of miRNA function in sorghum plant development.

Singh R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Shukla A.,Coventry University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Application of renewable energy technology is essential for achieving zero carbon buildings within the timescale envisaged by the UK government and the EU because the carbon intensity of the grid will still be high (well above 70% of current level) by 2016 and 2019. The biomass is a key renewable energy source, but its use in buildings is often affected by the emission of particulates and other pollutants in the waste gas, resulting in significant resistant to the technology by building users. The proposed research investigated various ways of removing pollutants, from the exhaust gas of biomass boilers. The review of literature shows that low cost and low maintenance technologies e.g. cyclones are preferred choices however they come with some limitation in removal of particulates. Recent advances in flue gas cleaning came with novel hybrid solutions to overcome traditionally used technologies for flue gas cleaning. Use of electrostatic preceptors with combination of other technologies is one example. The study found that it is difficult to obtain high removal efficiency for smaller particle range and require combination of technologies and improved hybrid solutions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Investigation of conformational changes in a protein is a prerequisite to understand its biological function. To explore these conformational changes in proteins we developed a strategy with the combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The major goal of this work is to investigate how far computer simulations can meet the experiments. Vinculin tail protein is chosen as a model system as conformational changes within the vinculin protein are believed to be important for its biological function at the sites of cell adhesion. MD simulations were performed on vinculin tail protein both in water and in vacuo environments. EPR experimental data is compared with those of the simulated data for corresponding spin label positions. The calculated EPR spectra from MD simulations trajectories of selected spin labelled positions are comparable to experimental EPR spectra. The results show that the information contained in the spin label mobility provides a powerful means of mapping protein folds and their conformational changes. The results suggest the localization of dynamic and flexible regions of the vinculin tail protein. This study shows MD simulations can be used as a complementary tool to interpret experimental EPR data.

Singh Y.V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2013

A field experiment was conducted during the wet seasons of 2010 and 2011 at New Delhi, India to study the influence of organic, inorganic, and integrated sources of nutrient supply under three methods of rice cultivation on rice yield and water productivity. The experiments were laid out in FRBD with nine treatment combinations. Treatment combinations included three sources of nutrient supply viz., organic, integrated nutrient management, and inorganic nutrition and three rice production systems viz., conventional transplanting, system of rice intensification (SRI) and aerobic rice system. Results indicated that the conventional and SRI showed at par grain and straw yields but their yields were significantly higher than aerobic rice. Grain yield under organic, inorganic and integrated sources of nutrient supply was at par since the base nutrient dose was same. Plant growth parameters like plant height, tillers, and dry matter accumulation at harvest stage were almost same under conventional and SRI but superior than aerobic rice system. Root knot nematode infestation was significantly higher in aerobic rice as compared to SRI and conventional rice. However, organic, inorganic and integrated sources of nutrient supply did not affect nematode infestation. There was significant advantage in term of water productivity under SRI over conventional transplanted (CT) rice and less quantity of water was utilized in SRI for production of each unit of grain. A water saving of 34. 5-36. 0 % in SRI and 28. 9-32. 1 % in aerobic rice was recorded as compared to CT rice. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

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