Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Delhi, India

The Indian Agricultural Research Institute commonly known as Pusa Institute is India's premier national Institute for agricultural research, education and extension.Situated in Delhi, it is financed and administered by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research . The IARI was responsible for the research leading to the "Green Revolution in India" of the 1970s. Wikipedia.

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Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Date: 2013-12-14

The present invention relates to the field of double-stranded RNA (ds RNA) mediated gene silencing of root knot nematodes. The invention particularly provides an effective method for reducing the number of reproducing population and the number of progenies per individual of the root knot nematodes. The present invention also relates to host delivered dsRNA for controlling infection of root knot nematodes.

Dhurua S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gujar G.T.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: The pink bollworm is one of the most destructive pests of cotton. Transgenic cotton producing Bt toxin Cry1Ac or a combination of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 has been used effectively against this pest. However, some other insects have evolved resistance to Bt toxins in the field. During the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons, pink bollworm populations in India were surveyed to evaluate their responses to Cry1Ac and seed powder containing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2. RESULTS: The results provide evidence that resistance to Cry1Ac had evolved by 2008 in a population sampled from non-Bt cotton in the Amreli district of Gujarat in western India. The median lethal concentration of Cry1Ac for five-day-old larvae (LC50) was significantly higher for insects derived in 2008 from Amreli than for any of the other field populations tested from four locations in India. For Cry1Ac, the mean LC50 for the strain derived from Amreli in 2008 was 44 times higher than for the most susceptible population. However, for seed powder of Bollgard II containing primarily Cry2Ab2, the 2008 Amreli population was only slightly less susceptible than the most susceptible population. CONCLUSIONS: The data reported here constitute the first evidence of field-evolved resistance of pink bollworm to Cry1Ac. This initial evidence spurred more extensive evaluations during the 2009-2010 growing season, which confirmed field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac in Amreli. The lack of cross-resistance to Cry2Ab2 suggests that plants producing this toxin are likely to be more effective against resistant populations than plants producing only Cry1Ac. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

Singh N.K.,P.A. College | Dhar D.W.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Agronomy for Sustainable Development | Year: 2011

Microalgae are autotrophic microorganisms having extremely high photosynthetic efficiency and are valued as rich source of lipids, hydrocarbons, and other complex oils for biodiesel besides being an invaluable source of bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Biodiesel produced from oilseed crops such as jatropha and soy have lower yields per unit land area and threaten food security. Indeed, microalgae have higher oil yields amounting to about 40 times more oil per unit area of land in comparison to terrestrial oilseed crops such as soy and canola. Further, microalgae production does not require arable land for cultivation. Biofuel is regarded as a proven clean energy source and several entrepreneurs are attempting to commercialize this renewable source. Technology for producing and using biofuel has been known for several years and is frequently modified and upgraded. In view of this, a review is presented on microalgae as second generation biofuel. Microalgal farming for biomass production is the biggest challenge and opportunity for the biofuel industry. These are considered to be more efficient in converting solar energy into chemical energy and are amongst the most efficient photosynthetic plants on earth. Microalgae have simple cellular structure, a lipid-rich composition, and a rapid rate of reproduction. Many microalgal strains can be grown in saltwater and other harsh conditions. Some autotrophic microalgae can also be converted to heterotrophic ones to accumulate high quality oils using organic carbon. However, there are several technical challenges that need to be addressed to make microalgal biofuel profitable. The efficiency of microalgal biomass production is highly influenced by environmental conditions, e.g., light of proper intensity and wavelength, temperature, CO2 concentration, nutrient composition, salinities and mixing conditions, and by the choice of cultivation systems: open versus closed pond systems, photobioreactors. Currently, microalgae for commercial purpose are grown mostly in open circular/elongated "raceway" ponds which generally have low yields and high production costs. However, a hybrid system combining closed photobioreactor and open pond is a better option. The biggest hurdle in commercialization of microalgal biofuel is the high cost and energy requirement for the microalgal biomass production, particularly agitation, harvesting, and drying of biomass. In order to conserve energy and reduce costs, algae are often harvested in a two-step process involving flocculation followed by centrifugation, filtration, or micro-straining to get a solid concentration. However, the major bottlenecks in algal biodiesel production within the cell can be identified and handled by adopting a system approach involving transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Research and developments in the field of new materials and advanced designs for cultivation in closed bioreactors, use of waste water for biomass production, screening of efficient strains, high-value coproduct strategy, and cutting-edge metabolic engineering are thought to provide the biggest opportunities to substantially improve the cost effectiveness of such production systems. © INRA and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

Khanna-Chopra R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Protoplasma | Year: 2012

Leaf senescence is a genetically programmed decline in various cellular processes including photosynthesis and involves the hydrolysis of macromolecules such as proteins, lipids, etc. It is governed by the developmental age and is induced or enhanced by environmental stresses such as drought, heat, salinity and others. Internal factors such as reproductive structures also influence the rate of leaf senescence. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is one of the earliest responses of plant cells under abiotic stresses and senescence. Chloroplasts are the main targets of ROS-linked damage during various environmental stresses and natural senescence as ROS detoxification systems decline with age. Plants adapt to environmental stresses through the process of acclimation, which involves less ROS production coupled with an efficient antioxidant defence. Chloroplasts are a major site of protein degradation, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is rapidly and selectively degraded during senescence and stress. The process of protein degradation is initiated by ROS and involves the action of proteolytic enzymes such as cysteine and serine proteases. The mechanism of Rubisco degradation still remains to be elucidated. The molecular understanding of leaf senescence was achieved through the characterization of senescence-associated genes and various senescence mutants of Arabidopsis, which is a suitable model plant showing monocarpic senescence. The regulation of senescence involves many regulatory elements composed of positive and negative elements to fine-tune the initiation and progression of senescence. This review gives an overview on chloroplast protein degradation during leaf senescence and abiotic stresses and also highlights the role of ROS management in both processes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Singh R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Shukla A.,Coventry University | Tiwari S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Srivastava M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

In the recent past, significant research has been made by thermal, mechanical, chemical and microbial pretreatments in the process of delignification. Production of ethanol from the lignocellulosic material has been done in three major steps: (i) delignification; (ii) depolymerization and (iii) fermentation. Pretreatment has been one of the most expensive processing steps in cellulosic biomass to fermentable sugar conversion. Present review article presents recent advances in the field of delignification. Research article also comprehensively discusses the different pretreatment methods along with effect of delignification on ethanol production and the uses of lignin in different industries. It has been found out that; pretreatment methods have significant impact on production efficiency of ethanol from biomass. This further signifies that, the pretreatment results must be balanced against their impact on cost of the processing steps and the trade-off between operating costs, capital costs and biomass cost. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Singh R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Shukla A.,Coventry University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2014

Application of renewable energy technology is essential for achieving zero carbon buildings within the timescale envisaged by the UK government and the EU because the carbon intensity of the grid will still be high (well above 70% of current level) by 2016 and 2019. The biomass is a key renewable energy source, but its use in buildings is often affected by the emission of particulates and other pollutants in the waste gas, resulting in significant resistant to the technology by building users. The proposed research investigated various ways of removing pollutants, from the exhaust gas of biomass boilers. The review of literature shows that low cost and low maintenance technologies e.g. cyclones are preferred choices however they come with some limitation in removal of particulates. Recent advances in flue gas cleaning came with novel hybrid solutions to overcome traditionally used technologies for flue gas cleaning. Use of electrostatic preceptors with combination of other technologies is one example. The study found that it is difficult to obtain high removal efficiency for smaller particle range and require combination of technologies and improved hybrid solutions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Katiyar A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression mainly by post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and in some cases by transcriptional genes silencing (TGS). miRNAs play critical roles in developmental processes, nutrient homeostasis, abiotic stress and pathogen responses of plants. In contrast to the large number of miRNAs predicted in cereal model plant rice, only 148 miRNAs were predicted in sorghum till date (miRBase release 17). This suggested that miRNAs identified in sorghum is far from saturation. Hence, we developed a bioinformatics pipeline using an in-house PERL script and publicly available structure prediction tools to identify miRNAs and their target genes from publically available Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) and Genomic Survey Sequence (GSS). About 1379 known and unique plant miRNAs from 33 different crops were used to predict new miRNAs in sorghum. We identified 31 new miRNAs belonging to 10 different miRNA families. We predicted 72 potential target genes for 31 miRNAs, and most of these target genes are predicted to be involved in plant growth and development.These newly identified miRNAs add to the growing database of miRNA and lay the foundation for further understanding of miRNA function in sorghum plant development.

Singh Y.V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2013

A field experiment was conducted during the wet seasons of 2010 and 2011 at New Delhi, India to study the influence of organic, inorganic, and integrated sources of nutrient supply under three methods of rice cultivation on rice yield and water productivity. The experiments were laid out in FRBD with nine treatment combinations. Treatment combinations included three sources of nutrient supply viz., organic, integrated nutrient management, and inorganic nutrition and three rice production systems viz., conventional transplanting, system of rice intensification (SRI) and aerobic rice system. Results indicated that the conventional and SRI showed at par grain and straw yields but their yields were significantly higher than aerobic rice. Grain yield under organic, inorganic and integrated sources of nutrient supply was at par since the base nutrient dose was same. Plant growth parameters like plant height, tillers, and dry matter accumulation at harvest stage were almost same under conventional and SRI but superior than aerobic rice system. Root knot nematode infestation was significantly higher in aerobic rice as compared to SRI and conventional rice. However, organic, inorganic and integrated sources of nutrient supply did not affect nematode infestation. There was significant advantage in term of water productivity under SRI over conventional transplanted (CT) rice and less quantity of water was utilized in SRI for production of each unit of grain. A water saving of 34. 5-36. 0 % in SRI and 28. 9-32. 1 % in aerobic rice was recorded as compared to CT rice. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Investigation of conformational changes in a protein is a prerequisite to understand its biological function. To explore these conformational changes in proteins we developed a strategy with the combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The major goal of this work is to investigate how far computer simulations can meet the experiments. Vinculin tail protein is chosen as a model system as conformational changes within the vinculin protein are believed to be important for its biological function at the sites of cell adhesion. MD simulations were performed on vinculin tail protein both in water and in vacuo environments. EPR experimental data is compared with those of the simulated data for corresponding spin label positions. The calculated EPR spectra from MD simulations trajectories of selected spin labelled positions are comparable to experimental EPR spectra. The results show that the information contained in the spin label mobility provides a powerful means of mapping protein folds and their conformational changes. The results suggest the localization of dynamic and flexible regions of the vinculin tail protein. This study shows MD simulations can be used as a complementary tool to interpret experimental EPR data.

Kumar J.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes | Year: 2010

Controlled release (CR) formulations of metribuzin in Polyvinyl chloride [(PVC) (emulsion)], carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC), and carboxy methyl cellulose-kaolinite composite (CMC-KAO), are reported. Kinetics of its release in water and soil was studied in comparison with the commercial formulation (75 DF). Metribuzin from the commercial formulation became non-detectable after 35 days whereas it attained maxima between 35-49 days and became non-detectable after 63 days in the developed products. Amongst the CR formulations, the release in both water and soil was the fastest in CMC and slowest in PVC. The CMC-KAO composite reduced the rate of release as compared to CMC alone. The diffusion exponent (n value) of metribuzin in water and soil ranged from 0.515 to 0.745 and 0.662 to 1.296, respectively in the various formulations. The release was diffusion controlled with half release time (t(1/2)) from different controlled release matrices of 12.98 to 47.63 days in water and 16.90 to 51.79 days in soil. It was 3.25 and 4.66 days, respectively in the commercial formulation. The period of optimum availability of metribuzin in water and soil from controlled released formulations ranged from 15.09 to 31.68 and 17.99 to 34.72 days as against 5.03 and 8.80 days in the commercial formulation.

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