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Otanicar T.P.,Loyola Marymount University | Phelan P.E.,Arizona State University | Taylor R.A.,Arizona State University | Tyagi H.,India Institute of Technology
Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME | Year: 2011

Direct absorption solar thermal collectors have recently been shown to be a promising technology for photothermal energy conversion but many parameters affecting the overall performance of such systems have not been studied in depth, yet alone optimized. Earlier work has shown that the overall magnitude of the extinction coefficient can play a drastic role, with too high of an extinction coefficient actually reducing the efficiency. This study investigates how the extinction coefficient impacts the collector efficiency and how it can be tuned spatially to optimize the efficiency, and why this presents a unique design over conventional solar thermal collection systems. Three specific extinction profiles are investigated: uniform, linearly increasing, and exponentially increasing with the exponentially increasing profile demonstrating the largest efficiency improvement. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Source


Kumar S.K.,Loughborough University | Tiwari M.K.,India Institute of Technology
Computers and Industrial Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper considers the location, production-distribution and inventory system design model for supply chain for determining facility locations and their capacity. Risk pooling effect, for both safety stock and running inventory (RI), have been incorporated in the system to minimize the supply chain cost along with determining facility location and capacity. In order to study the benefit of risk pooling for safety stock and RI two cases have been considered, first when retailers act independently and second when DCs-retailers work jointly. The model is formulated as mixed integer nonlinear problem and divided into two stages. The first stage determines the optimal locations for plants and flow relation between plants-DCs and DCs-retailers. At this stage the problem has been linearized using piece-wise linear function. Second stage enumerates the required capacity of opened plants and DCs. The first stage problem is further divided in two sub-problems using Lagrangean relaxation. First sub-problem determines the flow relation between plants and DCs whereas; second sub-problem determines the DCs- retailers flow. Solution of the sub-problems provides the lower bound for the main problem. Computational results reveal that main problem is within the 8.25% of the lower bound and significant amount of cost reduction can be achieved for safety stock and RI costs when DC-Retailer acts jointly. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Royston T.J.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Dai Z.,University of Illinois at Chicago | Chaunsali R.,India Institute of Technology | Liu Y.,University of Illinois at Chicago | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2011

Previous studies of the first author and others have focused on low audible frequency (1 kHz) shear and surface wave motion in and on a viscoelastic material comprised of or representative of soft biological tissue. A specific case considered has been surface (Rayleigh) wave motion caused by a circular disk located on the surface and oscillating normal to it. Different approaches to identifying the type and coefficients of a viscoelastic model of the material based on these measurements have been proposed. One approach has been to optimize coefficients in an assumed viscoelastic model type to match measurements of the frequency-dependent Rayleigh wave speed. Another approach has been to optimize coefficients in an assumed viscoelastic model type to match the complex-valued frequency response function (FRF) between the excitation location and points at known radial distances from it. In the present article, the relative merits of these approaches are explored theoretically, computationally, and experimentally. It is concluded that matching the complex-valued FRF may provide a better estimate of the viscoelastic model type and parameter values; though, as the studies herein show, there are inherent limitations to identifying viscoelastic properties based on surface wave measurements. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America. Source


Jensen E.C.,University of California at Berkeley | Stockton A.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Stockton A.M.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Chiesl T.N.,University of California at Berkeley | And 4 more authors.
Lab on a Chip - Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2013

A digitally programmable microfluidic Automaton consisting of a 2-dimensional array of pneumatically actuated microvalves is programmed to perform new multiscale mixing and sample processing operations. Large (μL-scale) volume processing operations are enabled by precise metering of multiple reagents within individual nL-scale valves followed by serial repetitive transfer to programmed locations in the array. A novel process exploiting new combining valve concepts is developed for continuous rapid and complete mixing of reagents in less than 800 ms. Mixing, transfer, storage, and rinsing operations are implemented combinatorially to achieve complex assay automation protocols. The practical utility of this technology is demonstrated by performing automated serial dilution for quantitative analysis as well as the first demonstration of on-chip fluorescent derivatization of biomarker targets (carboxylic acids) for microchip capillary electrophoresis on the Mars Organic Analyzer. A language is developed to describe how unit operations are combined to form a microfluidic program. Finally, this technology is used to develop a novel microfluidic 6-sample processor for combinatorial mixing of large sets (>26 unique combinations) of reagents. The digitally programmable microfluidic Automaton is a versatile programmable sample processor for a wide range of process volumes, for multiple samples, and for different types of analyses. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Bouaziz M.,Unite de Physique des Dispositifs Semi conducteurs | Ouerfelli J.,Unite de Physique des Dispositifs Semi conducteurs | Srivastava S.K.,India Institute of Technology | Bernde J.C.,LaMP | Amlouk M.,Unite de Physique des Dispositifs Semi conducteurs
Vacuum | Year: 2011

Cu2SnS3 thin film have been synthesized by solid state reaction under vapour sulphur pressure at 530 °C, during 6 h, via a sequentially deposited copper and tin layers Cu/Sn/Cu...Sn/Cu/Sn. The structure and the composition were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA). X-ray diffraction revealed that as the deposited film crystallizes in the cubic structure and the crystallites exhibit preferential 111 orientation of the grains. Moreover, EPMA analysis confirmed that the obtained film is stoichiometric. The SEM study shows the presence of spherical particles of ≈100-120 nm diameters. The optical absorption coefficient and band gap of the film were estimated by means of transmission and reflection optical measurements at room temperature. A relatively high absorption coefficient in the range of 104 cm-1 was indeed obtained and the band gap value is of the order of 1.1 eV. On the other hand, the electrical conductivity of Cu2SnS3 film prepared in the present experiment is suitable for fabricating a thin film solar cell based on not cheaper and environmental friendly material. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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