Khan N.,India Habitat Center |
Pradhan M.R.,International Institute for Population Sciences
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2013
Maternal mortality has been identified as a priority issue in health policy and research in India. The country, with an annual decrease of maternal mortality rate by 4.9% since 1990, now records 63,000 maternal deaths a year. India tops the list of countries with high maternal mortality. Based on a verbal autopsy study of 403 maternal deaths, conducted in 2008, this paper explores the missed opportunities to save maternal lives, besides probing into the socioeconomic factors contributing to maternal deaths in Jharkhand, India. This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases, and a multistage sampling design was used in selecting deaths for verbal autopsy. Informed consent was taken into consideration before verbal autopsy. The analytical approach includes bivariate analysis using SPSS 15, besides triangulation of qualitative and quantitative findings. Most of the deceased were poor (89%), non-literates (85%), and housewives (74%). Again, 80% died in the community/at home, 28% died during pregnancy while another 26% died during delivery. Any antenatal care was received by merely 28% women, and only 20% of the deliveries were conducted by skilled birth attendants (doctors and midwives). Delays in decision-making, travel, and treatment compounded by ignorance of obstetric complications, inadequate use of maternal healthcare services, poor healthcare infrastructure, and harmful rituals are the major contributing factors of maternal deaths in India. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.
Gandhi K.K.,India Habitat Center
Annual Fuels and Lubes Asia Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2011
A discussion covers the Indian automotive industry; outcome of automotive fuel policy; current scenario in India; change in tailpipe emissions; India in relation to world CO 2 emission; increasing petrol and diesel consumption; fuel efficiency labels; and several issues and concerns, which include fuel specifications, fuel quality at retail outlet, fuel adulteration, court orders, and no clear roadmap on ethanol gasoline blends, biodiesel, LPG, CNG, and hydrogen and CNG blends. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 17th Annual Fuels & Lubes Asia Conference (Singapore 3/9-11/2011).
Prakash R.,India Habitat Center |
Singh A.,International Institute for Population Sciences
Population Research and Policy Review | Year: 2014
Marriages in India, since the early period, are mostly characterized by family-arranged marriages where parents and family members take a prime responsibility in overall mate-selection process. Modern education has brought greater access to economic resources as well as media exposure among men and women of the present generation. These have also been found as contributing factors to late marriages, diminishing role of parents in mate selection, increased prevalence of self-selected marriages and greater space for personal choices in mate-selection process in most parts of the developed world. Evidence that has explored whether such choices are emerging in the societies traditionally characterized by family-arranged marriages and what are the implications of ongoing changes in mate-selection process on the present marriage market and on other social institutions are limited. Drawing on data from 544 married and unmarried young men and women and their parents from a traditional Indian society, we explore the ongoing changes in mate-selection preferences and its implication on various social institutions. Findings suggest that there is a growing evidence of valuing the economic potential, trustworthiness, equal temperament, physical look, and intelligence of the prospective partner among men and women of the present generation. The emergence of specific preferences also possesses great implication on the other social institutions because of increased divorced, increase in self-selected marriages, and delayed child bearing if the choices of men and women were not considered at the time of marriage. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Santhya K.G.,India Habitat Center |
Acharya R.,India Habitat Center |
Jejeebhoy S.J.,India Habitat Center |
Ram U.,International Institute for Population Sciences
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2011
While several studies have documented the extent of pre-marital sexual experience among young people in India, little work has been done to explore the factors that are correlated with the timing of pre-marital sexual initiation. This paper examines age at initiation of pre-marital sex, circumstances in which first sex was experienced, nature of first sexual experience and correlates of age at initiation of pre-marital sex. Life table estimates suggest that pre-marital sexual initiation occurred in adolescence for 1 in 20 young women and 1 in 10 young men. For the majority of these young people, their first sex was with an opposite-sex romantic partner. First sex, moreover, was unprotected for the majority and forced for sizeable proportion of young women. A number of individual, family-, peer- and community-level factors were correlated with age at first pre-marital sex. Moreover, considerable gender differences were apparent in the correlates of age at first pre-marital sex, with peer- and parent-level factors found more often to be significant for young women than men. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
Santhya K.G.,India Habitat Center |
Jejeebhoy S.J.,India Habitat Center
Global Public Health | Year: 2015
This paper reviews the evidence on sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) in light of the policy and programme commitments made at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), analyses progress since 1994, and maps challenges in and opportunities for protecting their health and human rights. Findings indicate that many countries have yet to make significant progress in delaying marriage and childbearing, reducing unintended childbearing, narrowing gender disparities that put girls at risk of poor SRH outcomes, expanding health awareness or enabling access to SRH services. While governments have reaffirmed many commitments, policy development and programme implementation fall far short of realising these commitments. Future success requires increased political will and engagement of young people in the formulation and implementation of policies and programmes, along with increased investments to deliver at scale comprehensive sexuality education, health services that are approachable and not judgemental, safe spaces programmes, especially for vulnerable girls, and programmes that engage families and communities. Stronger policy-making and programming also require expanding the evidence on adolescent health and rights in LMICs for both younger and older adolescents, boys and girls, and relating to a range of key health matters affecting adolescents. © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.