India Habitat Center

Delhi, India

India Habitat Center

Delhi, India
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Kukreja R.,National Institute of Technology Jalandhar | Jain S.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Aggarwal R.S.,India Habitat Center
Refrigeration Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Micro fin tubes are widely being used in condensers and evaporators of commercial air conditioners. These tubes enhance the heat transfer without causing the similar increase in refrigerant charge and pressure drop. The condensation heat transfer characteristics are strongly dependent on prevailing flow regimes. Conventionally, two phase heat transfer correlations are used for the design of condenser (Cavallini et al. (1999), Kedzierski & Gonclaves (1997) etc.). These correlations can pose serious errors, if these are inconsistent with the prevailing flow regime (Bell et al., 1970). The present study deals with the experimental investigations on local flow regimes and local condensation heat transfer coefficient at saturation temperatures of 35°C and 40°C respectively, in mass flux range of 200-400kg/m2-s & vapour quality range of 0.1-0.9 for R134a and in mass flux range of 200-300kg/m2-s & vapour quality range of 0.1-0.9 for R410A respectively using two horizontal micro fin tubes (9.54/9.52 mm OD) having helix angles of 15° and 18°, with fin height of 0.2mm each, apex angle of 44° & 55° and number of fins being 72 & 60 respectively. Various flow regimes encountered during the condensation of refrigerants R134a and R410A have been captured with high speed digital CMOS camera. Most of the flow regimes in the present study are observed to lie in Annular, Semi annular and stratified zone. Three existing flow regime maps, namely that of Breber, Tandon and Thome have been used to predict the flow regimes corresponding to different experimental conditions. It has been observed that the prediction capability of Tandon et al. (1982) flow regime map is very good as compared to Breber (1980) and Thome et al. (2003) flow regime maps, for both pure refrigerant R134a and mixture refrigerant R410A. The uncertainties in the measurement of refrigerant mass flow rate, test condenser water flow rate, refrigerant saturation temperature, wall temperature and water temperatures are ±0.002kg/s, ±5e-05m3/min, ±0.15°C, ±0.5°C & ±0.1°C respectively. The overall uncertainty in the measurement of local heat transfer coefficient was in the range of ±6-20% for R134a & 12-40% for R410A and that for average vapour quality was in the range of ±3-15% respectively.

Jejeebhoy S.J.,India Habitat Center | Kalyanwala S.,India Habitat Center | Zavier A.J.F.,India Habitat Center | Kumar R.,India Habitat Center | And 4 more authors.
Contraception | Year: 2011

Background: Although legal, access to safe abortion remains limited in India. Given positive experiences of task-shifting from other developing countries, there is a need to explore the feasibility of expanding the manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) provider base to include nurses in India. Study Design: A prospective, two-sided equivalence study was undertaken in five facilities of a non-government organisation in Bihar and Jharkhand to explore whether efficacy and safety rates associated with MVA provided by newly trained nurses were equivalent to those provided by physicians. Eight hundred and ninety-seven consenting women with gestation ages of ≤10 weeks were recruited. Results: Nurses were as skilled as physicians in assessing gestation age and completed abortion status, performing MVA and obtaining patient compliance. Overall failure and complication rates were low and equivalent between the two provider types, and both provider types were equally acceptable to women who underwent the procedure (98%). Conclusion: Findings of the study make a compelling case for amending existing laws to expand the MVA provider base in order to increase access to safe abortion in India. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Santhya K.G.,India Habitat Center | Acharya R.,India Habitat Center | Jejeebhoy S.J.,India Habitat Center | Ram U.,International Institute for Population Sciences
Culture, Health and Sexuality | Year: 2011

While several studies have documented the extent of pre-marital sexual experience among young people in India, little work has been done to explore the factors that are correlated with the timing of pre-marital sexual initiation. This paper examines age at initiation of pre-marital sex, circumstances in which first sex was experienced, nature of first sexual experience and correlates of age at initiation of pre-marital sex. Life table estimates suggest that pre-marital sexual initiation occurred in adolescence for 1 in 20 young women and 1 in 10 young men. For the majority of these young people, their first sex was with an opposite-sex romantic partner. First sex, moreover, was unprotected for the majority and forced for sizeable proportion of young women. A number of individual, family-, peer- and community-level factors were correlated with age at first pre-marital sex. Moreover, considerable gender differences were apparent in the correlates of age at first pre-marital sex, with peer- and parent-level factors found more often to be significant for young women than men. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Khan N.,India Habitat Center | Pradhan M.R.,International Institute for Population Sciences
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Maternal mortality has been identified as a priority issue in health policy and research in India. The country, with an annual decrease of maternal mortality rate by 4.9% since 1990, now records 63,000 maternal deaths a year. India tops the list of countries with high maternal mortality. Based on a verbal autopsy study of 403 maternal deaths, conducted in 2008, this paper explores the missed opportunities to save maternal lives, besides probing into the socioeconomic factors contributing to maternal deaths in Jharkhand, India. This cross-sectional study was carried out in two phases, and a multistage sampling design was used in selecting deaths for verbal autopsy. Informed consent was taken into consideration before verbal autopsy. The analytical approach includes bivariate analysis using SPSS 15, besides triangulation of qualitative and quantitative findings. Most of the deceased were poor (89%), non-literates (85%), and housewives (74%). Again, 80% died in the community/at home, 28% died during pregnancy while another 26% died during delivery. Any antenatal care was received by merely 28% women, and only 20% of the deliveries were conducted by skilled birth attendants (doctors and midwives). Delays in decision-making, travel, and treatment compounded by ignorance of obstetric complications, inadequate use of maternal healthcare services, poor healthcare infrastructure, and harmful rituals are the major contributing factors of maternal deaths in India. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

Santhya K.G.,India Habitat Center | Jejeebhoy S.J.,India Habitat Center
Global Public Health | Year: 2015

This paper reviews the evidence on sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) of adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) in light of the policy and programme commitments made at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), analyses progress since 1994, and maps challenges in and opportunities for protecting their health and human rights. Findings indicate that many countries have yet to make significant progress in delaying marriage and childbearing, reducing unintended childbearing, narrowing gender disparities that put girls at risk of poor SRH outcomes, expanding health awareness or enabling access to SRH services. While governments have reaffirmed many commitments, policy development and programme implementation fall far short of realising these commitments. Future success requires increased political will and engagement of young people in the formulation and implementation of policies and programmes, along with increased investments to deliver at scale comprehensive sexuality education, health services that are approachable and not judgemental, safe spaces programmes, especially for vulnerable girls, and programmes that engage families and communities. Stronger policy-making and programming also require expanding the evidence on adolescent health and rights in LMICs for both younger and older adolescents, boys and girls, and relating to a range of key health matters affecting adolescents. © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.

Kalyanwala S.,India Habitat Center | Acharya R.,India Habitat Center | Francis Zavier A.J.,India Habitat Center
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2012

Objective: This study was carried out to explore whether the rates of postabortion adoption of a contraceptive method, and continuation of contraception over 6 months, differ among women undergoing medical abortion (MA) or surgical abortion by manual vacuum aspiration (MVA). Methods: The study was conducted in Bihar and Jharkhand, 2 of the least-developed states of India. The analysis focused on 679 married women who were followed up 6 months after they underwent MA (n = 308) or MVA (n = 371) at clinics run by Janani, a nonprofit organization. Results: The rates of adoption and continuation of contraception were similar in the 2 groups, although with some notable distinctions in the timing of adoption of contraception and the method of contraception adopted. While the women who underwent MA were significantly less likely to adopt contraception in the month following abortion (58% vs 86%), this difference had narrowed considerably by the end of the second month (82% vs 91%); and by the end of the sixth month (89% vs 94%), respectively. There were no significant differences between the MA and the MVA groups with respect to the continuation of reversible contraception. Conclusions: The findings indicate that, in a setting that offers comprehensive counseling and a range of contraceptive methods, and where adoption of contraception is voluntary, a large majority of women will adopt and continue to use a method of contraception after an abortion even in these less developed parts of India. © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

Zavier A.J.F.,India Habitat Center | Jejeebhoy S.,India Habitat Center | Kalyanwala S.,India Habitat Center
Global Public Health | Year: 2012

Many married women in India experience abortion in their second trimester of pregnancy. While there is an impression that second trimester abortions are now overwhelmingly used for sex selection, little is known about the extent to which second trimester abortions are indeed associated with son preference and sex selection motives, relative to other factors. Using data from a community-based study in rural Maharashtra and Rajasthan, research highlights the role of limited access in explaining second trimester abortion. While women with a single child who was a daughter were indeed more likely than other women to have terminated a pregnancy carrying a female foetus in the second trimester, more strikingly, exclusion from abortion-related decision-making, unsuccessful prior attempts to terminate the pregnancy, and distance from the facility in which their abortion was performed, were significantly associated with second trimester abortion, even after controlling for confounding factors. The study calls for greater efficiency in implementing the PCPNDT Act and addressing deep-rooted son preference. At the same time, findings that poverty and limited access to facilities are as, if not more, important drivers of second trimester abortion, highlight the need to meet commitments to ensure accessible abortion facilities for poor rural women. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Acharya R.,India Habitat Center | Kalyanwala S.,India Habitat Center
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2012

Objective: To explore Indian abortion providers' knowledge of medical abortion (MA), their personal experiences and practices of providing medical abortion, and their attitudes toward providing MA to eligible women who were poor, uneducated, and/or from rural areas. Methods: In selected districts of India's Bihar and Maharashtra states, interviews were conducted with 270 physicians who were certified as abortion providers, using a structured questionnaire. Results: The providers' knowledge of the gestational limit, the recommended doses of mifepristone and misoprostol, and other aspects of the approved protocol was far from universal. Only about two-thirds of these physicians authorized to perform MA actually performed it. Although they all counseled women about the procedure before they took mifepristone, the matters discussed were often limited to pain management and possible complications. Contraception was usually not discussed until the follow-up visit. Most providers thus missed the opportunity to provide sustained counseling to their MA patients, and did not counsel them about the need to protect themselves in the 2 weeks following the administration of mifepristone. Moreover, many providers were reluctant to offer MA to poor, uneducated, and/or rural women. Conclusions: These findings shed light on the need to raise awareness and dispel misgivings about MA among certified providers of abortion services. By placing emphasis on the method's safety and effectiveness, additional training to these would increase their confidence about offering MA to eligible women. © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

Jejeebhoy S.J.,India Habitat Center | Santhya K.G.,India Habitat Center | Acharya R.,India Habitat Center
Global Public Health | Year: 2014

Intimate partner violence is pervasive in South Asia, yet married women's experiences regarding seeking help when faced with intimate partner violence and the health sector response remain largely unexplored. This commentary reviews the available published and unpublished literature and summarises what is known about the prevalence of marital violence against women and violence-related care-seeking experienced by women in this region. The commentary highlights that between one-fifth and one-half of married women are affected by violence perpetrated by their husband in South Asia, violence starts early in a marriage and the health consequences are wide ranging and long lasting. Yet, very few women seek support from the health sector, and the health system is not proactive in identifying and supporting women at risk. A greater commitment to making the health system responsive to women in distress is essential and should be undertaken with the same level of commitment given to prevention programmes. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

Gandhi K.K.,India Habitat Center
Annual Fuels and Lubes Asia Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2011

A discussion covers the Indian automotive industry; outcome of automotive fuel policy; current scenario in India; change in tailpipe emissions; India in relation to world CO 2 emission; increasing petrol and diesel consumption; fuel efficiency labels; and several issues and concerns, which include fuel specifications, fuel quality at retail outlet, fuel adulteration, court orders, and no clear roadmap on ethanol gasoline blends, biodiesel, LPG, CNG, and hydrogen and CNG blends. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 17th Annual Fuels & Lubes Asia Conference (Singapore 3/9-11/2011).

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