Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Blake J.S.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2017
Prominent theories of ethnic conflict argue that instrumental ethnic elites incite violence in order to promote their own power. Yet this approach focuses primarily on political leaders and ignores other ethnic elites, meaning that we know little about how other influential actors think about provocation. In this paper, I present novel data from Northern Ireland on diverse elite attitudes toward polarising Protestant parades with a long history of sparking ethnic violence. Using original surveys of Protestant elected officials and clergy as well as interviews with ex-paramilitaries, this paper demonstrates that these elite groups have different, often competing, interests and opinions regarding contested parades: while politicians tend to support provocative parades, the others do not. By addressing elite actors that are often ignored, I present a more nuanced picture of elite-mass relations and ethnic mobilisation in conflict. © 2017 Taylor & Francis
Vitos B.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Leisure Sciences | Year: 2017
Psytrance music festivals provide familiar environments, typically outside city limits, where release is sought from daily reality, working routines, or common sense. While sharing these goals with other leisure activities, the festivals also aim for the actualization of encountering unknown or alien destinations. This journey is enabled by the media ecology of the festival, which notably includes the effects of psychedelic drugs. Drawing on ethnographic research of Melbourne-based festivals, this article explores the cultural meanings of getting “trashed” or “wasted” on psychedelic drugs within the outdoor festival environment. The partygoers' temporary retreat into nature ties into the theme of an exile that traces back to the 1960s and still pervades psychedelic culture. This article reworks this theme by addressing the ironic reconfiguration of nature at psytrance festivals, where excessive media consumption leads to an authentic way to connect our urban cultures with nature in its contemporary unauthenticity. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Baglar R.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Medical Anthropology: Cross Cultural Studies in Health and Illness | Year: 2013
This article explores diabetes mellitus in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with an analysis of gift exchange and hospitality revealing how rapid environmental and economic transformations have led to chronicities of physical activity, food, and stress; uniting at a critical point in time to produce chronicities of modernity that precipitate diabetes. The high value of commensality and the association between food (particularly sugar) and honor offers insight into the motives for both the quantity and quality of food consumed. Emirati understandings of self and disease confirm the anthropological adage that disease and illness are not the same and suggests there is the potential to stem the growth of diabetes in the UAE with greater attention to structural issues through an anthropological understanding of the sociocultural conditions in which it thrives. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Gallagher M.J.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2014
It has been suggested that a nexus between terrorist groups and those involved in organised crime exists. This study explores the co-operative possibilities that exist between these phenomena, focusing specifically on the level of assistance participants in organised criminal activity might provide to those engaged in terrorism, the "initial nexus." This was achieved initially through interviews with subject matter experts with knowledge of the organised crime and counter terrorism situation in Scotland. Thereafter, law enforcement personnel who investigate serious and organised crime were interviewed, and their opinions sought in respect of the likely actions of those they investigate. The data gathered is subject to analysis and comment are provided as to what level of co-operation between those involved in organised crime and terrorism can be expected; what motivational factors may have a bearing on the level of co-operation provided; and discussion of "tipping points," ethical or otherwise, where the withdrawal of co-operation could occur, providing opportunities for increasingly successful law enforcement intervention. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Ghayuri M.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2016
We use the Jeans equations for an ensemble of collisionless particles to describe the distribution of broad-line region (BLR) cloud in three classes: (A) non-disc (B) disc-wind (C) pure disc structure. We propose that clumpy structures in the brightest quasars belong to class A, fainter quasars and brighter Seyferts belong to class B, and dimmer Seyfert galaxies and all lowluminosity AGNs (LLAGNs) belong to class C. We derive the virial factor, f, for disc-like structures and find a negative correlation between the inclination angle, θ0, and f. We find similar behaviour for f as a function of the FWHM and σz, the z component of velocity dispersion. For different values of θ0 we find that 1.0 ≲ f ≲ 9.0 in type1 AGNs and 0.5 ≲ f ≲ 1.0 in type2 AGNs. Moreover we have 0.5 ≲ f ≲ 6.5 for different values of FWHM and 1.4 ≲ f ≲ 1.8 for different values of σz. We also find that f is relatively insensitive to the variations of bolometric luminosity and column density of each cloud and the range of variation of f is in order of 0.01. Considering wide range of f we see the use of average virial factor (f) is not very safe. Therefore we propose AGN community to divide a sample into a few subsamples based on the value of θ0 and FWHM of members and calculate (f) for each group separately to reduce uncertainty in black hole mass estimation. © 2016 The Author.
Burki S.K.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2011
Suicide attacks are an important, and effective, terror tactic in Al Qaeda and other Islamist Movements' (AQOIM) tool kit as they wage jihad al saghir (lesser jihad) against the kuffar (infidels). The successful 9/11 terrorist attacks on American soil would not have been possible without the willingness of 19 young Arab men to commit intihar (suicide). AQOIM's "marketing" of suicide attacks in their propaganda campaigns as "martyrdom operations," leads one to ask: Is the use of suicide as a military tactic in war against the kuffar sanctioned in Islam both scripturally and/or by the interpretations/opinions of Muslim scholars and religious figures, as well as by the Muslim public? This article explores the ongoing jihad (struggle) within Islam on what does and does not constitute "martyrdom operations." It does so by exploring the legality of such acts through the lens of Islamic doctrine (Quran and Hadith), as well as studying the interpretations of respected ulema (scholars) on whether or not suicide attacks are indeed "martyrdom operations" to be praised as "halal," or to be condemned as "haram" (forbidden). © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Baker J.E.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Mechanism and Machine Theory | Year: 2012
Bricard's doubly collapsible octahedron gives rise to a set of analogous mobile networks. The "skew" variety, composed of Bennett isograms, is examined in a partly illustrative manner, thereby easing the tasks addressed. The four "non-hybrid" six-bars identified in the network are confirmed as identical with members of an established trio of hybrid six-bars but distinct from a "foldable" group. The six four-bars making up the eight-bar colligation are found to consist of three kinematically "similar" pairs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
De Danieli F.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2014
Background: In the wake of collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has transformed into a key hub along the Afghan opiates trafficking routes. Around 30 percent of the heroin manufactured in Afghanistan is estimated to be smuggled through Central Asian republics in its way to booming drug markets in Russia and Eastern Europe. Methods: Building upon available evidence and extensive fieldwork research, the article seeks to confute mainstream analyses which emphasize connections between criminal and terrorist networks. The focus is on conducive factors for the establishment of drug routes in Central Asia, the characteristics of drug related networks, and the nature of political-criminal relations across the region. Results: It is argued that in all five Central Asia republics strategic partnerships have formed between drug traffickers and state actors around the exploitation of drug rents and that mafias' influence on politics is stronger in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, the region's poorest countries. Conclusion: By moving the focus from narco-terror to the state-crime connections, the article provides a critical insight into political economy issues surrounding a complex and multifaceted phenomenon such as the drug trade. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Baker J.E.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Mechanism and Machine Theory | Year: 2014
Five- and six-bar linkages are formidable subjects for mobility analysis. Apart from those loops that arise through inspiration or hybridisation, success in isolating a new solution is generally only possible now under imposed and significantly simplifying geometrical constraints. Presented here is a modest example of such an approach, suggested by linkages already discovered. The establishment of mobility criteria is assisted by an examination of the single screw reciprocal to the screw system defined by the loop's articulations. Although the resulting kinematic chain is a minor extension of a known six-bar, knowledge of its existence is a worthwhile achievement, along with the elimination of ineligible sets of constraints. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Alaruri S.D.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Measurement Science and Technology | Year: 2014
An optical system for qPCR fluorescence measurements which incorporates high-power white LEDs, PMMA plastic lenses and an Offner multichannel (imaging) CCD-based spectrometer has been developed and validated. The optical system can detect twenty reaction vessels in an asynchronous manner and up to seven different fluorescent dyes (7 plex) at 1 nM dye concentrations in each of the reaction vessels. Furthermore, PCR curves obtained using the optical measurement system for a genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template containing HEX and Texas Red fluorescent probes (fluorophores) are discussed. Thespectral resolution, dynamic range and repeatability of the measurement system are<15 nm,>3 decades and<1% CV, respectively. © 2014 IOP Publishing Ltd.