Baglar R.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Medical Anthropology: Cross Cultural Studies in Health and Illness | Year: 2013
This article explores diabetes mellitus in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with an analysis of gift exchange and hospitality revealing how rapid environmental and economic transformations have led to chronicities of physical activity, food, and stress; uniting at a critical point in time to produce chronicities of modernity that precipitate diabetes. The high value of commensality and the association between food (particularly sugar) and honor offers insight into the motives for both the quantity and quality of food consumed. Emirati understandings of self and disease confirm the anthropological adage that disease and illness are not the same and suggests there is the potential to stem the growth of diabetes in the UAE with greater attention to structural issues through an anthropological understanding of the sociocultural conditions in which it thrives. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source
Gallagher M.J.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2014
It has been suggested that a nexus between terrorist groups and those involved in organised crime exists. This study explores the co-operative possibilities that exist between these phenomena, focusing specifically on the level of assistance participants in organised criminal activity might provide to those engaged in terrorism, the "initial nexus." This was achieved initially through interviews with subject matter experts with knowledge of the organised crime and counter terrorism situation in Scotland. Thereafter, law enforcement personnel who investigate serious and organised crime were interviewed, and their opinions sought in respect of the likely actions of those they investigate. The data gathered is subject to analysis and comment are provided as to what level of co-operation between those involved in organised crime and terrorism can be expected; what motivational factors may have a bearing on the level of co-operation provided; and discussion of "tipping points," ethical or otherwise, where the withdrawal of co-operation could occur, providing opportunities for increasingly successful law enforcement intervention. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source
Baker J.E.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Mechanism and Machine Theory | Year: 2012
Bricard's doubly collapsible octahedron gives rise to a set of analogous mobile networks. The "skew" variety, composed of Bennett isograms, is examined in a partly illustrative manner, thereby easing the tasks addressed. The four "non-hybrid" six-bars identified in the network are confirmed as identical with members of an established trio of hybrid six-bars but distinct from a "foldable" group. The six four-bars making up the eight-bar colligation are found to consist of three kinematically "similar" pairs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Burki S.K.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2011
Suicide attacks are an important, and effective, terror tactic in Al Qaeda and other Islamist Movements' (AQOIM) tool kit as they wage jihad al saghir (lesser jihad) against the kuffar (infidels). The successful 9/11 terrorist attacks on American soil would not have been possible without the willingness of 19 young Arab men to commit intihar (suicide). AQOIM's "marketing" of suicide attacks in their propaganda campaigns as "martyrdom operations," leads one to ask: Is the use of suicide as a military tactic in war against the kuffar sanctioned in Islam both scripturally and/or by the interpretations/opinions of Muslim scholars and religious figures, as well as by the Muslim public? This article explores the ongoing jihad (struggle) within Islam on what does and does not constitute "martyrdom operations." It does so by exploring the legality of such acts through the lens of Islamic doctrine (Quran and Hadith), as well as studying the interpretations of respected ulema (scholars) on whether or not suicide attacks are indeed "martyrdom operations" to be praised as "halal," or to be condemned as "haram" (forbidden). © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source
De Danieli F.,Independent Scholar--Avrin, William F.
International Journal of Drug Policy | Year: 2014
Background: In the wake of collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has transformed into a key hub along the Afghan opiates trafficking routes. Around 30 percent of the heroin manufactured in Afghanistan is estimated to be smuggled through Central Asian republics in its way to booming drug markets in Russia and Eastern Europe. Methods: Building upon available evidence and extensive fieldwork research, the article seeks to confute mainstream analyses which emphasize connections between criminal and terrorist networks. The focus is on conducive factors for the establishment of drug routes in Central Asia, the characteristics of drug related networks, and the nature of political-criminal relations across the region. Results: It is argued that in all five Central Asia republics strategic partnerships have formed between drug traffickers and state actors around the exploitation of drug rents and that mafias' influence on politics is stronger in Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan, the region's poorest countries. Conclusion: By moving the focus from narco-terror to the state-crime connections, the article provides a critical insight into political economy issues surrounding a complex and multifaceted phenomenon such as the drug trade. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source