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Boca Raton, FL, United States

Literature on test validity and performance validity is reviewed to propose a framework for specification of an ability-focused battery (AFB). Factor analysis supports six domains of ability: first, verbal symbolic; secondly, visuoperceptual and visuospatial judgment and problem solving; thirdly, sensorimotor skills; fourthly, attention/working memory; fifthly, processing speed; finally, learning and memory (which can be divided into verbal and visual subdomains). The AFB should include at least three measures for each of the six domains, selected based on various criteria for validity including sensitivity to presence of disorder, sensitivity to severity of disorder, correlation with important activities of daily living, and containing embedded/derived measures of performance validity. Criterion groups should include moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Validation groups should also include patients with left and right hemisphere stroke, to determine measures sensitive to lateralized cognitive impairment and so that the moderating effects of auditory comprehension impairment and neglect can be analyzed on AFB measures. © 2014 © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

Larrabee G.J.,Independent Practice
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | Year: 2012

Failure to evaluate the validity of an examinee's neuropsychological test performance can alter prediction of external criteria in research investigations, and in the individual case, result in inaccurate conclusions about the degree of impairment resulting from neurological disease or injury. The terms performance validity referring to validity of test performance (PVT), and symptom validity referring to validity of symptom report (SVT), are suggested to replace less descriptive terms such as effort or response bias. Research is reviewed demonstrating strong diagnostic discrimination for PVTs and SVTs, with a particular emphasis on minimizing false positive errors, facilitated by identifying performance patterns or levels of performance that are atypical for bona fide neurologic disorder. It is further shown that false positive errors decrease, with a corresponding increase in the positive probability of malingering, when multiple independent indicators are required for diagnosis. The rigor of PVT and SVT research design is related to a high degree of reproducibility of results, and large effect sizes of d=1.0 or greater, exceeding effect sizes reported for several psychological and medical diagnostic procedures. © 2012 INS. Published by Cambridge University Press. Source

Chafetz M.,Independent Practice
Clinical Neuropsychologist | Year: 2011

The Symptom Validity Scale (SVS) for low-functioning individuals (Chafetz, Abrahams, & Kohlmaier, 2007) employs embedded indicators within the Social Security Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) to derive a score validated for malingering against two criterion tests: Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT). When any symptom validity test is used with Social Security claimants there is a known rate of mislabeling (1-specificity), essentially calling a performance biased (invalid) when it is not, also known as a false-positive error. The great costs of mislabeling an honest claimant necessitated the present study, designed to show how multiple positive findings reduce the potential for mislabeling. This study utilized a known-groups design to address the impact of using multiple embedded indicators within the SVS on the diagnostic probability of malingering. Using four SVS components, Sequence, Ganser, and Coding errors, along with Reliable Digit Span (RDS), the positive predictive power was computed directly or by the chaining of likelihood ratios. The posterior probability of malingering increased from one to two to three failed indicators. With three failed indicators, there were essentially no false positive errors, and the total SVS score was in the range consistent with Definite Malingering, as shown in Chafetz etal. (2007). Thus, in a typical PCE when an examiner might have only a few embedded indicators, more confidence in a diagnosis of malingering might be obtained with a finding of multiple failures. © 2011 Psychology Press. Source

Miller L.,Independent Practice
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2014

While rates of juvenile crime have declined over the past decade, public preoccupation with youth violence remains high, periodically fueling judicial and legislative "get-tough" policies and social movements. For most young people, criminal activity, if any, is mild, infrequent, peer-driven, and peaks in late adolescence and early adulthood, declining steadily thereafter. A small subset of persistently antisocial youths begin their criminal careers earlier, commit more frequent and more serious offenses, continue their offending throughout the life-course, and are characterized by a number of neurocognitive, personality, and diagnostic features. Individual, familial, and social forces all combine to influence juvenile criminal behavior, but another small subset of youths, with a characteristic cognitive and temperamental profile, appear to be staunchly resilient to the criminogenic influences around them. The success of intervention and treatment modalities for childhood antisocial behavior depends both on the type of subjects to which they are applied and the consistency and comprehensiveness with which they are implemented and carried out. © 2014. Source

Binder L.M.,Independent Practice
Clinical Neuropsychologist | Year: 2011

The frequencies of differences between highest and lowest subtest scores as a function of highest subtest score (relative scatter), are reported for the standardization sample of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV). Large differences between highest and lowest subtest scores were common. The degree of relative scatter was related to the height of the highest subtest score. For the 10 core WAIS-IV subtests, the correlation between the level of the highest subtest score and the amount of scatter was r =.62; for all 15 subtests the correlation was. 63. The level of the highest subtest score was more strongly related to scatter than was Full Scale IQ. Clinical implications for inferring cognitive impairment and estimating premorbid abilities are discussed. When considering the possibility of acquired cognitive impairment, we recommend caution in the interpretation of subtest score differences. © 2011 Psychology Press. Source

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