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Dunn S.R.,University of Queensland | Thomas M.C.,Independent Marine Biochemical Research | Thomas M.C.,University of Queensland | Nette G.W.,Independent Marine Biochemical Research | Dove S.G.,University of Queensland
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis is arguably one of the most important within the marine environment in that it is integral to the formation of coral reefs. However, the regulatory processes that perpetuate this symbiosis remain unresolved. It is essential to understand these processes, if we are to elucidate the mechanisms that support growth and resource accumulation by coral host, and conversely, recently observed reduction and/or mortality of corals in response to rapid environmental change. This study specifically focused on one area of metabolic activity within the symbiosis, that of free fatty acid synthesis within both the dinoflagellate symbionts and cnidarian host. The main model system used was Aiptasia pulchella and Symbiodinium sp. in combination with aposymbiotic A. pulchella, the symbiotic coral Acropora millepora system and dinoflagellate culture. Fatty acids (FAs) were selected because of their multiple essential roles inclusive of energy storage (resource accumulation), membrane structure fluidity and cell signaling. The study addressed free FA lipogenesis by using a new method of enriched stable isotopic (13C) incorporation from dissolved inorganic carbon (DI13C) combined with HPLC-MS. FAs derived from DI13C aligned with a mixture of known lipogenesis pathways with the addition of some unusual FAs. After 120 hr, 13C-enriched FA synthesis rates were attributed to only a complex integration of both n-3 and n-6 lipogenesis pathways within the dinoflagellate symbionts. Furthermore, there was no detectible evidence of symbiont derived enriched isotope fatty acids, catabolized 13C derivatives or DI13C being directly utilized, in host late n-6 pathway long-chain FA lipogenesis. These findings do not align with a popular mutualistic translocation model with respect to the use of translocated symbiont photoassimilates in host long-chain FA lipogenesis, which has important connotations for linking nutrient sources with metabolite production and the dynamic regulation of this symbiosis. © 2012 Dunn et al. Source


Thomas M.C.,Independent Marine Biochemical Research | Thomas M.C.,University of Queensland | Dunn S.R.,University of Queensland | Altvater J.,Independent Marine Biochemical Research | And 2 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

The collision-induced dissociation (CID) of a range of deprotonated fatty acid standards was studied using linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Neutral losses of 78, 98, and 136 Da were consistently observed for fatty acids with five or more double bonds. Comparison of the MS/MS spectra of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and universally 13C-labeled DHA allowed the molecular formulas for these neutral losses to be determined as C6H 6, C5H6O2, and C8H 8O2. Knowledge of fatty acid fragmentation processes was then applied to identify fatty acids from a sea anemone, Aiptasia pulchella, and dinoflagellate symbiont, Symbiodinium sp. extract. Using HPLC-MS, fatty acids were separated and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry in data-dependent acquisition mode. Neutral loss chromatograms for 78, 98, and 136 Da allowed the identification of long-chain fatty acids with five or more double bonds. On the basis of precursor ion m/z ratios, chain length and degree of unsaturation for these fatty acids were determined. The application of this technique to an Aiptasia sp.-Symbiodinium sp. lipid extract enabled the identification of the unusual, long-chain fatty acids 24:6, 26:6, 26:7, 28:7, and 28:8 during a single 40 min HPLC-MS analysis. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

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