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Mori Y.,Meiji University | Honda T.,Meiji University | Lu R.,Meiji University | Hayakawa N.,Independent Administrative Institution | Miyakoshi T.,Meiji University
Polymer Degradation and Stability | Year: 2015

Six types of poly(vinyl alcohol) were degraded by ultraviolet irradiation with wavelengths of 185, 254, and 365 nm, respectively. The degradation fragments were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT/IR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) including two-dimensional (2D) NMR measurements. Absorption peaks assigned to C-O at 1020, 1090, 1180, and 1250 cm-1 were observed in ATR-FT/IR spectra, and molecular weights decreased from 9 × 104 to about 7 × 104 in GPC measurements. In addition, spectra of proton and carbon NMR including 2D-NMR were clearly measured and analyzed after ultraviolet irradiation of PVA films from both front and back sides. Based on these results, the degradation mechanism is discussed and concluded. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Habu J.,University of California at Berkeley | Matsui A.,Independent Administrative Institution | Yamamoto N.,Nagoya University | Kanno T.,Tohoku University
Quaternary International | Year: 2011

This paper reviews recent progress of Japanese shell midden archaeology and discusses how the information from shell middens can help answer some of the key questions in anthropological archaeology today. Over the past several decades, shell midden archaeology in Japan has made significant advances both in terms of theory and method. Active interaction with Japanese and Anglo-American archaeology has resulted in the development of new theoretical approaches, including environmental archaeology, zooarchaeology, and hunter-gatherer archaeology. Methodologically, the adoption of the flotation and water-screening methods has enabled archaeologists to collect quantitative data of faunal assemblages, and sometimes of floral assemblages as well. The dense distribution of shell middens in northeastern Japan and its changes through time are closely related to the regional and temporal variability of the prehistoric Jomon culture (ca. 14,000-500 BC). In this article, shell middens from four regions of Japan are examined: 1) Tohoku, 2) Kanto, 3) Chubu, and 4) Western Japan. The final section of this paper discusses the implications of regional and temporal variability observed among these shell middens. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. Source


Yamada K.,Independent Administrative Institution | Yamada K.,Shibaura Institute of Technology | Tsuji H.,Independent Administrative Institution
European Signal Processing Conference | Year: 2015

We propose a new model of scattering for use in evaluating the degradation of a signal impinging on a base station's antenna after passing through a Nakagami-Rice fading channel. We have proposed a scheme to reduce degradation of the signal by selecting the direction-of-arrival (DOA) of the signal for use in forming the antenna beam. In this scheme, the degradation is considered to be caused by the delay spread of scattered waves arriving from the vicinity of the nominal DOA. However, the degradation observed in a low-ISI environment cannot be explained by this consideration. To explain degradation in a low-ISI environment, we propose a new model of scattering in which we consider signal degradation to be caused by Nakagami-Rice fading. We then apply the method to determine the DOA that provides the best quality for the signal. Some numerical results are given to verify that the proposed method is effective. © 2002 EUSIPCO. Source


Tazato N.,TechnoSuruga Laboratory Co. | Handa Y.,TechnoSuruga Laboratory Co. | Nishijima M.,TechnoSuruga Laboratory Co. | Kigawa R.,Independent Administrative Institution | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2015

Ten strains of Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, non-motile coccobacilli were isolated from the plaster wall surface of 1300-year-old mural paintings inside the stone chamber of the Takamatsuzuka tumulus in Asuka village (Asuka-mura), Nara Prefecture, Japan. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of the isolates, they belonged to the proteobacterial genus Bordetella (class Betaproteobacteria) and could be separated into three groups representing novel lineages within the genus Bordetella. Three isolates were selected, one from each group, and identified carefully using a polyphasic approach. The isolates were characterized by the presence of Q-8 as their major ubiquinone system and C16 : 0 (30.0–41.8 %), summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c; 10.1–27.0 %) and C17 : 0 cyclo (10.8–23.8 %) as the predominant fatty acids. The major hydroxy fatty acids were C12 : 0 2-OH and C14 : 0 2-OH. The DNA G+C content was 59.6–60.0 mol%. DNA–DNA hybridization tests confirmed that the isolates represented three separate novel species, for which the names Bordetella muralis sp. nov. (type strain T6220-3-2bT=JCM 30931T=NCIMB 15006T), Bordetella tumulicola sp. nov. (type strain T6517-1-4bT=JCM 30935T=NCIMB 15007T) and Bordetella tumbae sp. nov. (type strain T6713-1-3bT=JCM 30934T=NCIMB 15008T) are proposed. These results support previous evidence that members of the genus Bordetella exist in the environment and may be ubiquitous in soil and/or water. © 2015 IUMS. Source


Nagatsuka Y.,TechnoSuruga Laboratory Co. | Ninomiya S.,TechnoSuruga Laboratory Co. | Ninomiya S.,Ogawaya Misoten Co. | Kiyuna T.,TechnoSuruga Laboratory Co. | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology | Year: 2016

Analysis of D1/D2 large-subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequences predicted that 17 yeast isolates, mainly from viscous gels (biofilms) taken from the stone chamber interior of the Kitora tumulus in Nara, Japan, were placed in the Yamadazyma and Zygoascus clades. Polyphasic characterization, including morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, multigene sequence divergence and DNA-DNA hybridization, strongly suggested the assignment of one novel species to each of the clades; these are Yamadazyma kitorensis f.a., sp. nov., with the type strain JCM 31005T (ex-type CBS 14158T=isolate K8617-6-8T), and Zygoascus biomembranicola f.a., sp. nov., with the type strain JCM 31007T (ex-type CBS 14157T=isolate K61208-2-11T). Furthermore, the transfer of five known species of the genus Candida as novel combinations to the genera Yamadazyma and Zygoascus is proposed; these are Yamadazyma olivae f.a., comb. nov. (type strain CBS 11171T=ATCC MYA-4568T), Yamadazyma tumulicola f.a., comb. nov. (type strain JCM 15403T=ex-type CBS 10917T=isolate T6517-9-5T), Yamadazyma takamatsuzukensis f.a., comb. nov. (type strain JCM 15410T=CBS 10916T=isolate T4922-1-1T), Zygoascus polysorbophila f.a., comb. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-27161T=CBS 7317T) and Zygoascus bituminiphila f.a., comb. nov. (type strain CBS 8813T=MUCL 41424T). © 2016 IUMS. Source

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