Issaquah, WA, United States
Issaquah, WA, United States

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Liu S.,EPRI | Hou Y.,University of Hong Kong | Liu C.-C.,Washington State University | Podmore R.,Incremental Systems Corporation
IEEE Power and Energy Magazine | Year: 2014

Major electric power disturbances can be triggered by storms, heat waves, solar flares, and many other sources, but all have their roots in the mechanical, cyber, and human vulnerabilities of existing power grids. As shown in ?Figure 1, 2012 was a particularly bad year for extreme weather in the United States. An aging grid infrastructure only exacerbates this problem by creating new concerns over energy reliability and grid resiliency. A single storm can cost billions of U.S. dollars in terms of direct damage to the grid, and it can cause significant power outage-related costs, including lost productivity. © 2003-2012 IEEE.

Greitzer F.L.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Podmore R.,Incremental Systems Corporation | Robinson M.,PowerData Corporation | Ey P.,SOS Intl
International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction | Year: 2010

Investigations of large-scale outages in the North American interconnected electric system often attribute the causes to three t's: trees, training, and tools. To document and understand the mental processes used by expert operators when making critical decisions, a naturalistic decision making (ndm) model was developed. Transcripts of conversations were analyzed to reveal and assess ndm-based performance criteria. An item analysis indicated that the operators' situation awareness levels, mental models, and mental simulations can be mapped at different points in the training scenario. This may identify improved training methods or analytical/visualization tools. This study applies for the first time the concepts of recognition primed decision making, situation awareness levels, and cognitive task analysis to training of electric power system operators. The ndm approach provides a viable framework for systematic training management to accelerate learning in simulator-based training scenarios for power system operators and teams. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Louie H.,Seattle University | O'Grady E.,PowerGen Renewable Energy | Van Acker V.,Alstom | Szablya S.,Seattle University | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Electrification Magazine | Year: 2015

Access to electricity is a persistent, endemic challenge impeding development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Decades of postcolonial underinvestment have resulted in just 80 GW of installed generation capacity?less than that of the United Kingdom?in a region with over 860 million people. Of the 20 countries with the lowest electrification rates in the world, 19 are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where, on average, fewer than one in three people have access to electricity. In rural areas, electrification rates plummet to less than 15%. © 2013 IEEE.

Podmore R.,Incremental Systems Corporation | Larsen R.,SLAC | Louie H.,Seattle University | Waldron B.,Gonzaga University
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2011

This paper describes efforts by the IEEE PES Community Solutions Initiative (CSI) to provide reliable electricity to the 1.6 billion low income people who do not have access to electric light. The Community Solutions Initiative is a virtual community of professionals from a wide variety of backgrounds who are providing largely pro-bono efforts to design, develop, deliver and promote sustainable energy solutions for developing communities. The CSI Community Charging Station (CCS) is designed to charge batteries that are transported to and from their customers' home or business sites. The CCS can be based upon some combination of solar, wind, biogas, biodiesel and / or human powered generation. In the short time since CSI was formed in April 2010 several instances of the CCS have been developed. The CSI LightCycle is a 60 watt pedal powered generator. Two and half hours of daily pedaling can provide four hours of reading quality light for 100 homes. Home owners can buy a locally made LED reading lamp for $1 and have their batteries charged for around $1 per month. The goal is to make the choice for electric light so affordable that home owners will not have to think twice about converting from expensive, unsafe and unhealthy cancerous kerosene. The CSI Solar Trailer is a 1.4 kW charging station with six 235 watt PV solar panels and four large 245 Amp Hour local storage batteries. The Solar Trailer has 20 parallel controllers for charging portable 12 volt home batteries. The Solar Trailer is sized to support 40 homes each with 100 watt hours of daily consumption. With IEEE funding, three pilot systems are being built for installation in Haiti. The open source 10' diameter wind turbine built by the CSI IEEE PES and EWB-USA Seattle Team provides 700 watts in 22 mph wind and costs less than $500 excluding the tower. An effort to build low cost bamboo wind turbine towers is underway. The CCS can be used to charge a range of batteries sizes and types. Open source designs are provided so that local businesses / entrepreneurs can assemble simple but highly effective LED based flashlights, desk/task lamps and ambient / room lamps for a few dollars; excluding battery costs. The CSI products are all based on an open Sustainable Energy Reference Architecture (SERA) so that there is compatibility in all interfaces and maximum commonality of components. The CSI family of products conforms to the criteria defined by Paul Polak; they are extremely affordable and highly miniaturized but infinitely scalable. It now appears that it is a reasonable goal to ensure that the entire world can have access to safe, reliable electric light by the year 2020. © 2011 IEEE.

Podmore R.,Incremental Systems Corporation | Larsen R.,Stanford University | Louie H.,Seattle University | Dauenbauer P.,Incremental Systems Corporation | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Power and Energy Magazine | Year: 2012

The World Bank estimates that roughly 1.6 billion people-nearly one out of every four people on the planet-do not have regular access to electricity. This form of energy poverty disproportionately afflicts people living in developing countries. For example, in sub-Saharan Africa excluding South Africa, 75 percent of households, some 550 million people, have no access to network electricity. In South Asia, 700 million are similarly not connected to the electricity grid. © 2003-2012 IEEE.

Podmore R.,Incremental Systems Corporation | Robinson M.R.,PowerData Corporation
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2011

This paper reviews the practices that are currently used for development, maintenance and exchange of power system operating models including the data sets and display sets. The paper then describes how the various Smart Grid functions will impact how the generation, transmission and distribution systems will need to be modeled in the future. A primary conclusion is that complete synchronous interconnections will need to be modeled down to the feeder breaker level in order to accommodate the dynamic and variable response of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, distributed generation, distributed storage, direct appliance control and real-time pricing for customers. The paper recommends that the CIM Graphic Exchange Standard (GES) be rapidly and widely adopted and implemented as critical enabler in the development, maintenance and exchange of future Smart Grid models. © 2011 IEEE.

Podmore R.,Incremental Systems Corporation | Robinson M.R.,PowerData Corporation
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2010

The implementation of highly realistic real-time, massive, online, multitime frame simulations is proposed as a means for building a common vision of smart grid functions among politicians, regulators, managers, operators, engineers, and technicians. These massive simulations will include hundreds of participants that play roles of reliability coordinators, transmission operators, distribution operators, power plant operators, and substation operators. These highly visible drills can demonstrate how the new smart grid systems, people, and processes can all work together economically and reliably. The industry, especially smart grid system designers, can get feedback from low cost, safe, and easily configurable simulations instead of waiting for expensive and hardwired deployments. Direct load control of millions of customer appliances is identified as a silver bullet to build self-healing and maximal flow smart grids that can accommodate large penetrations of intermittent wind and solar generation and rapid load growth due to plug-in electric vehicles. The paper recommends that up to 50% of load be controlled with minimal inconvenience to customers to potentially enhance angle, voltage, frequency, and thermal stability. An expert operator decision model is described with a view to helping system developers build operator-centered and friendly smart grid control systems. © 2010 IEEE.

Podmore R.,Incremental Systems Corporation
IEEE PES General Meeting, PES 2010 | Year: 2010

This paper addresses how future Smart Grid measurement, analysis and control technologies could be applied to significantly enhance methods for system restoration. The paper reviews the common phases for system restoration from system assessment, creation of restoration building blocks, expansion of islands, re-integration with neighboring systems through to customer load restoration. A number of novel restoration concepts including phasor based state and topology estimation, automatic island frequency control, virtual synchroscopes, simultaneous line end energization, simultaneous generator synchronization, stabilization of parallel plant units and temporary low voltage operation of transmission lines are presented. The concepts in general are based upon applying smarter computer, communication and control processes while minimizing the need for capital investment in transmission equipment. These concepts will allow EHV lines to be energized at a much earlier phase in the restoration process. This in turn will allow electrical islands to be formed more rapidly with much greater capacity and geographic scope. As a consequence restoration times could be reduced from days to hours. The ideas are presented at this stage as concepts rather than methods. The concepts have been tested with very preliminary simulations and appear promising. Significant more study is required to further validate the feasibility of each concept with detailed simulations and analyses with due consideration to all the practical issues including control, communication, security, impact on protection systems, impact on operating procedures and consequences of false operations. ©2010 IEEE.

Incremental Systems Corporation | Date: 2012-09-11

Electric Utility Grid Operations and Modeling Software for training electric system operators.

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