Geelong West, Australia
Geelong West, Australia

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Suter H.C.,University of Melbourne | Pengthamkeerati P.,University of Melbourne | Pengthamkeerati P.,Kasetsart University | Walker C.,Incitec Pivot Ltd | Chen D.,University of Melbourne
Soil Research | Year: 2011

Incubation experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) for inhibiting hydrolysis of urea in three wheat-growing soils and one pasture soil in south-eastern Australia, under a range of temperatures (5, 15, 25°C). The effectiveness of NBPT decreased with increasing temperature and with increasing urease activity. In the acidic pasture soil with high urease activity (186 μN/g soil.h) and high organic carbon content (11%), NBPT (0.1% w/w urea) had little impact on urea hydrolysis rates over all temperatures, with <1% urea remaining at Day 14. In the alkaline, wheat-cropping soils with lower urease activity (54-90g μN/g soil.h) and lower organic carbon content (<1.5%), NBPT was able to effectively reduce urea hydrolysis over 14-15 days at 5°C and 15°C (>55% urea remaining). At 25°C in the wheat soils, NBPT slowed the rate of urea hydrolysis, but by Days 14 and 15, <2% of the urea remained. NBPT applied at a rate of 0.1% urea would be an effective tool for slowing urea hydrolysis in the wheat-cropping soils under cool-climate conditions. The delay in urea hydrolysis in the pasture soil still provides the opportunity for increased flexibility in farm management, such as irrigation scheduling. © 2011 CSIRO.


News Article | November 23, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Rising demand for explosives and industrial chemicals is expected to drive the Australian ammonia market as explosive manufacturers demanding ammonium nitrate is on the rise. Rising demand from the agriculture sector is also expected to boost the market as nitrogen-rich fertilizers such as DAP, MAP, and urea witness increasing demand. Ammonia is also used as a commercial refrigerant alternative for hydrofluorocarbons, driving the volume growth in the ammonia market. On the flipside, growing fertilizer imports and mutable prices of natural gas are major restraints in the Australian ammonia market. According to a new report published by Persistence Market Research, “Australia Market Study on Ammonia: Industry Analysis and Forecast 2016-2024”, the Australian ammonia market is estimated to value US$ 680.1 Mn at the end of 2016, rising by 5.8% over 2015. The market is projected to expand at a CAGR of 6.3% through the forecast period in terms of value. The Australian ammonia market consumption figures recorded 1,324.9 KT in 2015. In terms of product type, the Australia ammonia market is segmented as anhydrous ammonia, and aqua ammonia. The anhydrous ammonia segment is the leading segment and is expected to continue dominating the Australia market in terms of both value and volume, through the forecast period. The rising demand for explosives and fertilizers is a major driving factor for the expected market trend. In terms of application, the ammonia market in Australia is segmented as agrochemicals, industrial chemicals, explosives, and others. The industrial chemicals segment is the leading segment followed by explosives segment. The explosives segment is projected to reach the value of US$ 298.2 Mn at the end of 2024, registering a CAGR of 7.5% through the forecast period. In terms of end-use, the market for ammonia in Australia is segmented as ammonium nitrate, nitric acid, ammonium sulphate, urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and others. Nitric acid segment is projected to register strong growth through the forecast period to account for majority share in the Australia ammonia market in terms of both value and volume. The segment is estimated to account for 46.2% value share at the end of 2024, registering a CAGR of 7.9% through the forecast period. Ammonium nitrate segment is estimated to reach a value of US$ 172.0 Mn at the end of 2016, registering 7.3% growth over 2015. The Australia ammonia market is segmented on the basis of region into New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, and Rest of Australia. Western Australia is the leading region with 33.8% share in 2015 and is estimated to value US$ 230.7 Mn at the end of 2016. Western Australia is followed by New South Wales with 28.4% share in the same period and is projected to register the highest CAGR of 7.2% in terms of value through the forecast period. For More Information Request TOC (desk of content material), Figures and Tables of the report @ http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/market-research/australia-ammonia-market/toc Orica Limited, CSBP Limited (Wesfarmers), Yara Pilbara Holdings Pty Ltd., and Incitec Pivot Ltd. are some of the major players in the Australia ammonia market. The market is consolidated with limited manufacturers and suppliers as companies are focusing towards production of ammonium nitrate for manufacturing of industrial explosives for the mining industry.


News Article | November 30, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

According to a new report published by Persistence Market Research, “Australia Market Study on Ammonia: Industry Analysis and Forecast 2016-2024”, the Australian ammonia market is estimated to value US$ 680.1 Mn at the end of 2016, rising by 5.8% over 2015. The market is projected to expand at a CAGR of 6.3% through the forecast period in terms of value. The Australian ammonia market consumption figures recorded 1,324.9 KT in 2015. Rising demand for explosives and industrial chemicals is expected to drive the Australian ammonia market as explosive manufacturers demanding ammonium nitrate is on the rise. Rising demand from the agriculture sector is also expected to boost the market as nitrogen-rich fertilizers such as DAP, MAP, and urea witness increasing demand. Ammonia is also used as a commercial refrigerant alternative for hydrofluorocarbons, driving the volume growth in the ammonia market. On the flipside, growing fertilizer imports and mutable prices of natural gas are major restraints in the Australian ammonia market. In terms of product type, the Australia ammonia market is segmented as anhydrous ammonia, and aqua ammonia. The anhydrous ammonia segment is the leading segment and is expected to continue dominating the Australia market in terms of both value and volume, through the forecast period. The rising demand for explosives and fertilizers is a major driving factor for the expected market trend. In terms of application, the ammonia market in Australia is segmented as agrochemicals, industrial chemicals, explosives, and others. The industrial chemicals segment is the leading segment followed by explosives segment. The explosives segment is projected to reach the value of US$ 298.2 Mn at the end of 2024, registering a CAGR of 7.5% through the forecast period. In terms of end-use, the market for ammonia in Australia is segmented as ammonium nitrate, nitric acid, ammonium sulphate, urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and others. Nitric acid segment is projected to register strong growth through the forecast period to account for majority share in the Australia ammonia market in terms of both value and volume. The segment is estimated to account for 46.2% value share at the end of 2024, registering a CAGR of 7.9% through the forecast period. Ammonium nitrate segment is estimated to reach a value of US$ 172.0 Mn at the end of 2016, registering 7.3% growth over 2015. The Australia ammonia market is segmented on the basis of region into New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, and Rest of Australia. Western Australia is the leading region with 33.8% share in 2015 and is estimated to value US$ 230.7 Mn at the end of 2016. Western Australia is followed by New South Wales with 28.4% share in the same period and is projected to register the highest CAGR of 7.2% in terms of value through the forecast period. For More Information Request TOC (desk of content material), Figures and Tables of the report @ http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/market-research/australia-ammonia-market/toc Orica Limited, CSBP Limited (Wesfarmers), Yara Pilbara Holdings Pty Ltd., and Incitec Pivot Ltd. are some of the major players in the Australia ammonia market. The market is consolidated with limited manufacturers and suppliers as companies are focusing towards production of ammonium nitrate for manufacturing of industrial explosives for the mining industry.


News Article | November 17, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Rising demand for explosives and industrial chemicals is expected to drive the Australian ammonia market as explosive manufacturers demanding ammonium nitrate is on the rise. Rising demand from the agriculture sector is also expected to boost the market as nitrogen-rich fertilizers such as DAP, MAP, and urea witness increasing demand. Ammonia is also used as a commercial refrigerant alternative for hydrofluorocarbons, driving the volume growth in the ammonia market. On the flipside, growing fertilizer imports and mutable prices of natural gas are major restraints in the Australian ammonia market. For More Information Request TOC (desk of content material), Figures and Tables of the report @ http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/market-research/australia-ammonia-market/toc According to a new report published by Persistence Market Research, “Australia Market Study on Ammonia: Industry Analysis and Forecast 2016-2024”, the Australian ammonia market is estimated to value US$ 680.1 Mn at the end of 2016, rising by 5.8% over 2015. The market is projected to expand at a CAGR of 6.3% through the forecast period in terms of value. The Australian ammonia market consumption figures recorded 1,324.9 KT in 2015. In terms of product type, the Australia ammonia market is segmented as anhydrous ammonia, and aqua ammonia. The anhydrous ammonia segment is the leading segment and is expected to continue dominating the Australia market in terms of both value and volume, through the forecast period. The rising demand for explosives and fertilizers is a major driving factor for the expected market trend. In terms of application, the ammonia market in Australia is segmented as agrochemicals, industrial chemicals, explosives, and others. The industrial chemicals segment is the leading segment followed by explosives segment. The explosives segment is projected to reach the value of US$ 298.2 Mn at the end of 2024, registering a CAGR of 7.5% through the forecast period. In terms of end-use, the market for ammonia in Australia is segmented as ammonium nitrate, nitric acid, ammonium sulphate, urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), and others. Nitric acid segment is projected to register strong growth through the forecast period to account for majority share in the Australia ammonia market in terms of both value and volume. The segment is estimated to account for 46.2% value share at the end of 2024, registering a CAGR of 7.9% through the forecast period. Ammonium nitrate segment is estimated to reach a value of US$ 172.0 Mn at the end of 2016, registering 7.3% growth over 2015. The Australia ammonia market is segmented on the basis of region into New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, and Rest of Australia. Western Australia is the leading region with 33.8% share in 2015 and is estimated to value US$ 230.7 Mn at the end of 2016. Western Australia is followed by New South Wales with 28.4% share in the same period and is projected to register the highest CAGR of 7.2% in terms of value through the forecast period. Orica Limited, CSBP Limited (Wesfarmers), Yara Pilbara Holdings Pty Ltd., and Incitec Pivot Ltd. are some of the major players in the Australia ammonia market. The market is consolidated with limited manufacturers and suppliers as companies are focusing towards production of ammonium nitrate for manufacturing of industrial explosives for the mining industry.


Nayak R.,Sydney | Pattabathula V.,Incitec Pivot Ltd
Ammonia Plant Safety and Related Facilities | Year: 2014

This paper looks at some of the incidents that have occurred in ammonia plants and the hydrocarbon industry, and discusses the breakdowns in the safety management system which caused such incidents. The failures related to Start-up Override Switch/System, Process Override Switch/System and Maintenance Override Switch/System are essentially systematic failures and hence a robust audit and verification system is necessary to prevent these failures. A brief description of interlock configurations is included. This paper also discusses some of the nuances associated with the interlock configuration, immediate causes including scope creep and root causes of failures, practices currently undertaken in many of plants and new solutions.


Turner D.A.,University of Melbourne | Edis R.B.,University of Melbourne | Chen D.,University of Melbourne | Freney J.R.,University of Melbourne | And 4 more authors.
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2010

This study conducted in the Wimmera, a major cropping area in western Victoria Australia, evaluated a backward Lagrangian stochastic (bLs) dispersion model for measuring ammonia (NH3) loss and compared NH3 losses from a wheat crop after top-dressing with urea or "Green Urea". Green Urea contained 45.8% nitrogen (N) as urea and "Agrotain" (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphorictriamide) @ 5.0 L/t. The two products (80 kg N ha-1) were applied to circular plots of 25 m radius and losses were determined for a period of 23 days using mass balance micrometeorological methods. When the NH3 concentration in the air at the stability independent height, 0.8 m above the crop, was used there was a strong relationship between the vertical flux density of NH3 as determined by the full profile method and that determined by the bLs method (r = 0.86). Rates of ammonia loss from the urea treatment ranged from 0.2 to 2.1 μg N m-2 s-1, while those from the Green Urea treatment never exceeded 0.35 μg N m-2 s-1. Cumulative NH3 losses for the urea and Green Urea treatments were 7.6 kg N ha-1 (9.5% of applied N) and 0.8 kg N ha-1 (1.0% of applied N), respectively. The results indicate that use of Green Urea instead of regular urea in Victorian wheat growing could substantially reduce NH3 emission. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Suter H.,University of Melbourne | Sultana H.,University of Melbourne | Turner D.,University of Melbourne | Davies R.,Incitec Pivot Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2013

This paper reports the results of experiments to determine whether ammonia (NH3) loss can be reduced and nitrogen (N) use efficiency improved by using two relatively new commercial urea formulations rather than granular urea and urea ammonium nitrate. Four nitrogen treatments were applied at a rate of 40 kg N ha-1: granular urea, 'Green Urea™ 14' [containing 45.8 % N as urea and 'Agrotain®' (N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide) @ 5 L t-1 of urea as a urease inhibitor], 'Nhance', a fine particle spray [containing 46 % N as urea, 'Agrotain' @ 1 L t-1 of urea and gibberellic acid (applied at a rate of 10 g ha-1)] and urea ammonium nitrate in solution (UAN) surface applied. Ammonia loss was determined in autumn and spring using a micrometeorological method. In autumn, use of the Green Urea and Nhance reduced NH3 loss from the 30 % of applied N lost from the granular urea to 9 and 23 % respectively. Loss from all treatments in spring was very small (<2 % of applied N), because 4 mm of rain fell within 24 h of application onto an already wet site. The use of the Nhance and Green Urea instead of granular urea did not result in increased agronomic efficiency or recovery efficiency of the applied N, and this is most likely due to the presence of sufficient available N from both fertiliser application and the soil. A 15N study recovered 72.8 % of the applied N in the plants and soil, and showed that 30 % of the total N taken up by the plant was derived from the fertiliser, and 70 % from the soil. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Pattabathula V.,Incitec Pivot Ltd. | Richardson J.,Clariant
Ammonia Plant Safety and Related Facilities | Year: 2015

The first Ammonia Plant Safety Symposium was held in 1956 as part of the Boston, Massachusetts AIChE National Meeting. Papers related to air separation plants safety were presented at a session titled "Air and Ammonia Plants Safety". Since then, the AIChE "Ammonia Safety Symposium" has been held annually with little change in its format. That it still functions today is a tribute to its effectiveness in reporting accidents, safety developments and technology improvements relating to the international community of fertilizer producers, suppliers and technology providers. In this paper, a history of the beginning of the symposium, symposium papers, technical manuals, the Ammonia Safety Committee, roundtable sessions and special awards are discussed. All the safety incidents that have occurred during the 10 years since the 50th anniversary celebration of the symposium in Toronto, Canada in 2005 are listed in a table and also significant incidents reported in the last decade are highlighted.


Li Y.,University of Melbourne | Chen D.,University of Melbourne | Walker C.N.,Incitec Pivot Ltd. | Angus J.F.,CSIRO
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

Spectral reflectance of cereal canopies measured with a digital camera correlated closely with N status during the vegetative and early stem elongation phases. Photos of the crops taken at a height of about 1m were processed to indicate the canopy cover (CC) on a 0-1 scale representing the proportion of pixels that met a criterion of greenness, (1+L)Green-RedGreen+Red+L>0, where Green and Red are reflectance values of the green and red bands of the camera's colour detector and L is a soil base line. The values of CC measured at one site were closely correlated with values of leaf area index (LAI), above-ground biomass and N content for two wheat cultivars with different growth habits. The functions obtained by calibration were validated on cereal crops at other sites and with different cultivars. The estimate of N content was more precise than the other crop properties, with a root mean square error of 16% of the range of values. Similar values of CC were obtained with three different brands of digital cameras. The CC values were closely correlated (R2>0.86) with the normalised difference vegetation indices (NDVI) from the commercial GreenSeeker® and Yara N-Sensor, which detect the red and near infra-red reflectances of the crop canopy. We conclude that estimates obtained from a digital camera or specialised sensors provide equivalent information about crop-N supply to a crop. However information is needed about crop-N demand as well as N supply in order to estimate fertilizer-N requirement. The use of a handheld computer with an inbuilt digital camera offers a method of combining N supply and demand data to estimate fertilizer-N requirement. © 2010.


Patent
Incitec Pivot Ltd | Date: 2012-11-13

There is provided a liquid urease inhibitor formulation comprising an urease inhibitor and a primary solvent selected from the group consisting of dialkyl sulfones, polymethylene cyclic sulfones, and mixtures thereof. A method for inhibiting urease hydrolysis of urea containing fertiliser or waste using said liquid urease inhibitor formulation is also described.

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