Mexico City, Mexico
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Certain criteria are examined for infarctions currents defined as inferior or inferolateral. To do this, certain considerations on the anatomical aspects of isolated and in situ heart are laid out. The topographical relationship of the in situ heart with other adjacent thoracic organs is described. The heart is schematically represented as a pyramid with a triangular base and its walls and borders are related to walls of the thorax. The spatial orientation of the main resulting vectors from ventricular depolarization and repolarization are summarized also. Usefulness of registering the unipolar thoracic leads V 7, V8, V9 or a complete electrocardiographic thoracic circle, is underlined. This method allows to detect for of the existence of an acute myocardial infarction in the inferior and inferolateral segments in as third basal and mid cardiac regions previously denominated posterolateral. On the base of previous electroanatomical comparisons, it is concluded that the thoracic posterior leads V7 - V9, as well as the magnetic resonance images, explore the same heart regions. Therefore, these two methods: electrocardiography which is an essentially functional method and magnetic resonance that especially focus on structural changes are not contradictory but rather complementary tests. © 2010 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez.

Villarreal-Molina T.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Genomica Inmegen | Posadas-Romero C.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio Chavez Incich | Romero-Hidalgo S.,INMEGEN | Antunez-Arguelles E.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Genomica Inmegen | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: ABCA1 genetic variation is known to play a role in HDL-C levels and various studies have also implicated ABCA1 variation in cardiovascular risk. The functional ABCA1/R230C variant is frequent in the Mexican population and has been consistently associated with low HDL-C concentrations. Although it has been associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, it is not known whether it is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). Aim: The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the ABCA1/R230C variant is associated with premature CAD in a case-control association study (GEA or Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease), and to explore whether BMI modulates the effect of the C230 allele on other metabolic traits using a population-based design. Results: The C230 allele was significantly associated with both lower HDL-C levels and a lower risk of premature CAD as compared to controls (OR = 0.566; Padd = 1.499×10-5). In addition, BMI modulated the effect of R230C on body fat distribution, as the correlation between BMI and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) was negative in RR homozygous individuals, but positive in premenopausal women bearing the C230 allele, with a statistically significant interaction (P = 0.005). BMI-R230C interaction was also significant for triglyceride levels in women regardless of their menopausal status (P = 0.036). Conclusion: This is the first study assessing the effect of the R230C/ABCA1 variant in remature CAD. C230 was associated with both decreased HDL-C levels and a lower risk of premature CAD, and gender-specific BMI-R230C interactions were observed for different metabolic traits. These interactions may help explain inconsistencies in associations, and underscore the need to further analyze interactions of this functional and frequent variant with diet, exercise and other environmental factors. © 2012 Villarreal-Molina et al.

Flores-Dorantes T.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Arellano-Campos O.,INCMNSZ | Posadas-Sanchez R.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio Chavez Incich | Villarreal-Molina T.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 13 more authors.
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

Background: The effect of ABCA1 genetic variation on HDL-C levels has been widely documented, although studies in children are scarce. We recently found a frequent non-synonymous ABCA1 variant (R230C) exclusive to populations with Native American ancestry, associated with low HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits in adults. Methods: We genotyped R230C variant in 1253 healthy unrelated Mexican school-aged children aged 6-15. years (595 boys and 658 girls) to seek associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. HDL subclass distribution was analyzed in a subgroup of 81 age, gender and BMI-matched children. Results: Individuals carrying the C230 allele showed a significantly lower HDL-C levels (P=2.9×10-8), and higher TC/HDL-C ratio, BMI, BMI z-score and percent fat mass (P=0.001, 0.049, 0.032 and 0.039, respectively). HDL size was smaller in R230C heterozygotes as compared to R230R homozygotes (P<0.05). Moreover, the proportion of HDL2b was lower, while the proportion of HDL3a and HDL3b particles was higher in R230C heterozygous and/or C230C homozygous individuals as compared to R230R homozygotes (P<0.05). Conclusions: Our data suggest that the R230C ABCA1 gene variant plays an important role in HDL-C level regulation and HDL subclass distribution in healthy Mexican school-aged children. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Martinez-Rodriguez N.,Instituto Nacional Of Cardiologia Ignacio Chavez Incich | Martinez-Rodriguez N.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Posadas-Romero C.,INCICH | Villarreal-Molina T.,Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Genomica Inmegen | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Aim:To explore the role of the ACE gene polymorphisms in the risk of essential hypertension in Mexican Mestizo individuals and evaluate the correlation between these polymorphisms and the serum ACE levels.Methods:Nine ACE gene polymorphisms were genotyped by 5′ exonuclease TaqMan genotyping assays and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 239 hypertensive and 371 non- hypertensive Mexican individuals. Haplotypes were constructed after linkage disequilibrium analysis. ACE serum levels were determined in selected individuals according to different haplotypes.Results:Under a dominant model, rs4291 rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362, and rs4363 polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of hypertension after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Five polymorphisms (rs4335, rs4344, rs4353, rs4362 and rs4363) were in strong linkage disequilibrium and were included in four haplotypes: H1 (AAGCA), H2 (GGATG), H3 (AGATG), and H4 (AGACA). Haplotype H1 was associated with decreased risk of hypertension, while haplotype H2 was associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR = 0.77, P = 0.023 and OR = 1.41, P = 0.004 respectively). According to the codominant model, the H2/H2 and H1/H2 haplotype combinations were significantly associated with risk of hypertension after adjusted by age, gender, BMI, triglycerides, alcohol consumption, and smoking (OR = 2.0; P = 0.002 and OR = 2.09; P = 0.011, respectively). Significant elevations in serum ACE concentrations were found in individuals with the H2 haplotype (H2/H2 and H2/H1) as compared to H1/H1 individuals (P = 0.0048).Conclusion:The results suggest that single nucleotide polymorphisms and the "GGATG" haplotype of the ACE gene are associated with the development of hypertension and with increased ACE enzyme levels. © 2013 Martínez-Rodríguez et al.

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