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Yoon C.-G.,Yonsei University | Yoon C.-G.,Incheon Workers Health Center | Kang M.-Y.,Seoul National University | Yoon J.-H.,Yonsei University | Yoon J.-H.,Incheon Workers Health Center
Journal of Occupational Health | Year: 2015

Is suicidal ideation linked to working hours and shift work in Korea? : Chang-Gyo YOON, et al. Department of Preventive Medicine, Armed Forces Medical Command, Republic of Korea-Objective: This study attempted to use the community health survey (CHS) to identify the effect of long working hours (long WHs) and night/shift work on suicidal ideation among the employed population of Korea. Methods: This study used data from 67,471 subjects who were administered the 2008 CHS which obtained information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors and working environment, using structured questionnaires and personal interviews. We adopted multiple logistic regression models for gender and employment stratification. Results: Among male employees, suicidal ideation was significantly associated with only moderately long WHs (51-60 hours), after controlling covariates (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.07 to 1.57). Self-employed/male employer populations had higher suicidal ideation when they had moderately long WHs (aOR, 1.23; 95%CI, 1.01 to 1.50) and very long WHs (over 60 hours) (aOR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.08 to 1.59). Among the female population, suicidal ideation was significantly association with moderately long WHs in the employee group (aOR, 1.31; 95%CI, 1.08 to 1.58) and moderately (aOR, 1.35; 95%CI, 1.08 to 1.69) and very (aOR, 1.33; 95%CI, 1.07 to 1.65) long WHs in the self-employed/employer group. Shift work was a significant predictor only in the female population in the employee groups (aOR, 1.45; 95%CI, 1.23 to 1.70). Conclusions: Long WHs and shift work were associated with suicidal ideation when taking into account gender and employment differences. The harmful effects of exceptionally long WHs in Korea, among other Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, raise concerns about public and occupational health. To address the issue of long WHs, labor policies that reduce maximum working hours and facilitate job stability are needed.

Yoon J.-H.,Yonsei University | Yoon J.-H.,Incheon Workers Health Center | Jung P.K.,Yonsei University | Roh J.,Yonsei University | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background Long working hours are a worldwide problem and may increase the risk of various health issues. However, the health effects of long working hours on suicidal thoughts have not been frequently studied. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between long working hours and suicidal thoughts in the rapidly developing country of Korea. Methods Data from 12,076 participants (7,164 men, 4,912 women) from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used for the current analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts. Combined effects of long working hours and lower socioeconomic status or sleep disturbance were also estimated. Results Compared to groups who worked less than 52 hours per week, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for suicidal thoughts in groups who worked 60 hours or more per week were 1.36 (1.09-1.70) for males and 1.38 (1.11-1.72) for females, even after controlling for household income, marital status, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, health-related behaviors, and past two weeks' experience of injury, intoxication, or acute or chronic diseases, as well as type of work. The combined effects of long working hours with lower socioeconomic status, or with sleep disturbance, were also significantly higher compared to participants who worked less than 52 hours per week with higher socioeconomic status, or with 6-8 hours of nighttime sleep. Conclusion In this study, long working hours were linked to suicidal thoughts for both genders. Additionally, the odds of those suicidal thoughts were higher for lower socioeconomic groups. To prevent adverse psychological health problems such as suicidal thoughts, a strategy regarding long working hours should be investigated. © 2015 Yoon et al.

Kang M.-Y.,Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute | Kang M.-Y.,Seoul National University | Kang Y.-J.,Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute | Lee W.,Center for Infectious Disease Control | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Occupational Health | Year: 2016

Objectives: Our prospective study aimed toelucidate the effect of long-term experience of nonstandardemployment status on the incidence of depressionin elderly population using the Korean Longitudinal Studyof Ageing (KLoSA) study. Methods: This study used thefirst- to fourth-wave cohorts of KLoSA. After the exclusionof the unemployed and participants who experienceda change in employment status during the followupperiods, we analyzed a total of 1,817 participants.Employment contracts were assessed by self-reportedquestions: standard or nonstandard employment. Theshort form of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies DepressionScale (CES-D) served as the outcome measure.Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals(CIs ) were calculated using Cox proportional hazardsmodels to evaluate the association between standard/nonstandard employees and development of depression.Results: The mean age of the participants was 53.90 (±7.21) years. We observed that nonstandard employmentsignificantly increased the risk of depression. Comparedwith standard employees, nonstandard employees had a1.5-fold elevated risk for depression after adjusting forage, gender, CES-D score at baseline, household income,occupation category, current marital status, numberof living siblings, perceived health status, and chronicdiseases [HR=1.461, 95% CI=(1.184, 1.805)]. Moreover,regardless of other individual characteristics, the elevatedrisk of depression was observed among all kindsof nonstandard workers, such as temporary and dayworkers, full-time and part-time workers, and directly employedand dispatched labor. Conclusions: The 6-yearfollow-up study revealed that long-term experience ofnonstandard employment status increased the risk of depressionin elderly population in Korea.

Yoon J.-H.,Yonsei University | Yoon J.-H.,Catholic University of Korea | Yoon J.-H.,Incheon Workers Health Center | Kim I.,Yonsei University | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Human Biology | Year: 2015

Background: Most humans are exposed to environmental contaminants via inhalation. Various toxic inhalants cause lung damage with pathologic changes to the airway system. Lung function decline is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide.Aim: To consider the potential burden of cadmium on pulmonary disease, this study examined the relationship between blood cadmium levels and airflow obstruction in a Korean general population.Subjects and methods: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 2008-2011 were used. Male participants were selected who were older than 40 years, who had completed a reliable pulmonary function test and for who measurements of blood cadmium levels were available (n = 1974). The pulmonary function tests were undertaken and airflow obstruction was defined when forced vital capacity/forced expiratory volume in 1 second ratio < 0.7.Results: In an age-adjusted logistic regression model, blood cadmium levels correlated with the risk of obstructive airflow pattern in total participants as well as in smokers or never smokers. Further adjustment for BMI, current occupation and educational level did not attenuate these associations among total participants, smokers and never smokers (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.83-3.50 in total; OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.55-3.02 in smokers; OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 1.48-9.33 in never smokers).Conclusions: In conclusion, blood cadmium level was associated with airflow obstruction independently of smoking history and that association was still significant in never smokers. Careful attention is needed for the general population who are potentially exposed to cadmium. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.

Seok H.,Yonsei University | Yoon J.-H.,Yonsei University | Won J.-U.,Yonsei University | Won J.-U.,Incheon Workers Health Center | And 5 more authors.
Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine | Year: 2015

Concealing emotions at work can cause considerable psychological stress. While there is extensive research on the adverse health effects of concealing emotions and the association between allergic diseases and stress, research has not yet investigated whether concealing emotions at work is associated with allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis is a common disease in many industrialized countries, and its prevalence is increasing. Thus, our aim was to determine the strength of this association using data from three years (2007-2009) of the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants (aged 20-64) were 8,345 individuals who were economically active and who had completed the questionnaire items on concealing emotions at work. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated for allergic rhinitis using logistic regression models. Among all participants, 3,140 subjects (37.6%) reported concealing their emotions at work: 1,661 men and 1,479 women. The OR (95%CIs) for allergic rhinitis among those who concealed emotions at work versus those who did not was 1.318 (1.148-1.512). Stratified by sex, the OR (95% CIs) was 1.307 (1.078-1.585) among men and 1.346 (1.105-1.639) among women. Thus, individuals who concealed their emotions at work were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of AR in comparison to those who did not. Because concealing emotions at workhas adverse health effects, labor policies that aim to reduce this practice are needed. © 2016 Tohoku University Medical Press.

Jung P.K.,Yonsei University | Kim I.,Yonsei University | Kim I.,Incheon Workers Health Center | Kim I.,Severance Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Livestock breeders including poultry workers are exposed to various agricultural chemicals including pesticides and/or organic solvents. Multiple myeloma is a rare disease in Korea, and few reports have investigated the influence of occupational exposures on multiple myeloma occurrence.Case presentation: A 61-year-old male poultry farm worker presented with bone pain and generalized weakness. A bone marrow biopsy was performed, and he was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. The patient had worked in a poultry farm for 16 years and was exposed to various pesticides and organic solvents such as formaldehyde without any proper personal protective equipment. Results of the work reenactment revealed that the concentration of formaldehyde (17.53 ppm) greatly exceeded the time-weighted average (0.5 ppm) and short-term exposure limit (1.0 ppm) suggested in the Korean Industrial Safety and Health Act.Conclusions: This case report suggests that poultry workers may be exposed to high levels of various hazardous chemicals including pesticides and/or organic solvents. Numerous previous studies have suggested an association between multiple myeloma and exposure to agricultural chemicals; thus, multiple myeloma in this patient might have resulted from the prolonged, high exposure to these chemicals. © 2014 Jung et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Jung P.K.,Sahmyook Medical Center | Won J.-U.,Yonsei University | Won J.-U.,Incheon Workers Health Center | Roh J.,Yonsei University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2015

Workplace violence is related to various health effects including mental illness such as anxiety or depression. In this study, the relationship between the experience of workplace violence and depression in substitute drivers in Korea, namely, daeri drivers, was investigated. To assess workplace violence, questions regarding types and frequency of the experience of violence over the past year were asked to the daeri drivers. In order to assess the risk of depression, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale was used. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals of depression were estimated using multiple logistic regression analysis. All of the daeri drivers had experienced instance of verbal violence while driving and 66 of the drivers (34.1%) had been in such a situation more than once in the past quarter of a year. Sixty-eight daeri drivers (42.2%) had experienced certain type of physical violence over the past year. Compared to daeri drivers who had experienced workplace verbal violence less than 4 times and who had not experienced workplace physical violence over the past year, higher odds ratio was observed in daeri drivers who had experienced workplace verbal violence or physical violence, more than 4 times and more than one time respectively, after adjustment. Experience of verbal or physical type of workplace violence over the past year increased the risk of depression in the daeri drivers. Because violence against drivers can compromise the safety of the driver, the customer, and all the passengers, it is imperative that the safety and health of daeri drivers be highlighted. © 2015 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

Lee W.,Yonsei University | Lee W.,Incheon Workers Health Center | Lim S.-S.,Yeongdong Goon Health Center | Won J.-U.,Yonsei University | And 8 more authors.
Sleep Medicine | Year: 2015

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between sleep duration and dry eye syndrome (DES) symptoms. Methods: We investigated 15,878 subjects (male = 6684; female = 9194) aged 20 years and older who underwent physical examinations and completed a self-report questionnaire and other anthropometric variables from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for DES according to sleep duration were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Results: Compared to that in an optimal sleep group (6-8 h/day), OR (95% CI) DES prevalence after adjusting for age, gender, sociodemographic factors (educational level, occupation, household income, and residence), and health behaviors (smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and level of exercise) was 1.20 (1.05-1.36) for a mild short sleep group (5 h/day) and 1.29 (1.08-1.55) for a severe short sleep group (≤4 h/day). Conclusion: Our results revealed that DES increased at shorter sleep durations. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..

Seok H.,Yonsei University | Yoon J.-H.,Yonsei University | Yoon J.-H.,Incheon Workers Health Center | Lee W.,Yonsei University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Korean Medical Science | Year: 2016

We aimed to examine whether there is a correlation between the health recovery of industrial accident victims and their perceived socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the first Panel Study of Worker's Compensation Insurance, which included 2,000 participants. We performed multivariate regression analysis and determined the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and for those with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status using 95% confidence intervals. An additional multivariate regression analysis yielded the odds ratios for participants with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status and those with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic class using 95% confidence intervals. Of all participants, 299 reported a full recovery, whereas 1,701 did not. We examined the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for participants' health recovery according to their subjective socioeconomic status while controlling for sex, age, education, tobacco use, alcohol use, subjective state of health prior to the accident, chronic disease, employment duration, recovery period, accident type, disability status, disability rating, and economic participation. The odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively lower middle socioeconomic status were 1.707 times greater (1.264-2.305) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Similarly, the odds of recovery in participants with a subjectively upper middle socioeconomic status were 3.124 times greater (1.795-5.438) than that of those with a subjectively lower socioeconomic status. Our findings indicate that participants' perceived socioeconomic disparities extend to disparities in their health status. The reinforcement of welfare measures is greatly needed to temper these disparities. ©2016 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

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