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Niculescu M.-D.,INCDTP Leather and Footwear Research Institute Division
Revista de Chimie

This study demonstrates the ability of mineral complexes, resulting from chemical modirication of red mud waste, of capturing various substances found in wastewaters from the preliminary operations of natural leather tanning process. Red mud is a waste of alumina manufacturing from bauxite using the Bayer process, containing a mixture of minerals with ion exchange properties. Experiments have revealed that, besides its intrinsic ability to capture ionic chromium from wastewater and sludge, the mineral complex of chemically modified and conditioned red mud has an affinity for other compounds found in effluents resulting from leather processing. The current study has shown that, by treating individual wastewaters from preliminary operations of leather tanning, using a mineral complex based on red mud, the phosphate content of washing, soaking, liming, and pickling wastewater can be reduced by 80-99%, depending on their pH, and sulphate content in the pickling float by 88%. Simultaneously, the possibility of reducing silicon content, which may be found in washing and soaking wastewaters, by 93%, while the presence of silicon in other wastewaters is insignificant. The transfer of these substances into the mineral complex is simple, effective, and reproducible. Source

Niculescu M.-D.,INCDTP Leather and Footwear Research Institute Division | Gaidau C.,INCDTP Leather and Footwear Research Institute Division
Revista de Chimie

This study demonstrates that collagen hydrolysates obtained by associated enzymatic and chemical processes for high-yield extraction of collagen from leather waste, under mild reaction conditions, are fit for application in agriculture. Collagen polydispersions have the ability to form thin films on the surface of cereal seeds and, on the long term, to release amino acids, including essential amino acids, known as growth stimulators and organic nitrogen sources, ensuring increase of viability and of cereal seed and plant protection. Free amino acids have a stimulating effect on germination, while the amino acids released over time from the rüm matrix have a nutritional role. The amphoteric nature of collagen films, as well as their permeability to air and water vapours, provides beneficial physiological properties for cereal seeds. The synergy of collagen hydrophilicity, its known biodegradability, bio-active potential and film-forming properties recommend collagen polydispersions for applications in mixtures for seed treatment against pests. Source

Gaidau C.,INCDTP Leather and Footwear Research Institute Division | Epure D.-G.,Probstdorfer Saatzucht Romania SRL | Niculescu M.,INCDTP Leather and Footwear Research Institute Division | Stepan E.,Romanian National Institute for Research and Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry | And 2 more authors.

The use of collagen hydrolysate in cereal seed treatment adds value to both agriculture and leather industry. The collagen extraction from chrome shavings and characterization as bioactive additive with amino acid content for seed treatment is presented as a result of application at pilot and field experimental level. The main characteristics of different collagen hydrolysate extracts were analyzed for peptide and amino-acid composition by GC/MS, the particle sizes were measured with DLS techniques and the evaluation of the surface tension was performed on cereal seed by using VGA Optima XE device. The concentration of collagen hydrolysate for seed treatment is different for every type of cereal and showed an early emergence. The most promising results were for autumn wheat seed treatment. The study of emergence density on wheat seed in experimental field as a function of soil pH showed that at pH 6 the average density was increased by 9%. The study showed that the treatment of wheat seed with collagen hydrolysate reduces the number of abnormal germs and the biomass increases as compared to untreated seeds. The experimental on reduction of pesticide concentration for wheat seed treatment was successful for 33% replacement with collagen hydrolysate. The study of gibberellic acid concentration in seeds germinated in collagen hydrolysate solution suggests that the nutrition of seeds with organic nitrogen allows a healthy growth and self protection with ecological impact regarding the reduction of pesticides and production increasing. Source

Gaidau C.,INCDTP Leather and Footwear Research Institute Division | Niculescu M.,INCDTP Leather and Footwear Research Institute Division | Stepan E.,Romanian National Institute for Research and Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry | Epure D.-G.,Science Probstdorfer Saatzucht Romania SRL | Gidea M.,University of Bucharest
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Gaidau C.,INCDTP Leather and Footwear Research Institute Division | Martinescu T.,Science Nappa Com LTD | Simion D.,INCDTP Leather and Footwear Research Institute Division | Mocioiu A.M.,INCDTP Leather and Footwear Research Institute Division | And 3 more authors.
Revista de Chimie

The study of using a new solvent, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane, for dry cleaning of natural leather and fur articles, has shown improvements regarding: maintaining or increasing colour intensity and brightness of dermis and hair, increasing softness and hydrophobicity of the dermis substrate, provided that the two substrates have been efficiently degreased. The correlation of non-destructive (colorimetry, softness measurement, contact angle), micro-destructive (SEM, EDAX, MHT) and destructive (fat content, tear strength) analysis has proven that the effects of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane are due to its deposition in the dermis structure or on the hair surface, after cleaning, improving their structure without the known disadvantages of tetrachloroethene (discolouration, hardening, toxicity, increased soil affinity). Source

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