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Arrieta O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Nunez-Valencia C.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Alvarado S.,Sub direccion de Medicina Interna | Flores-Estrada D.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | And 2 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2012

Introduction: Lung cancer (LC) is the first cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a fundamental outcome for evaluating treatment results. Our objective was to validate the Mexican-Spanish versions of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life QLQ-LC13 disease-specific questionnaire module in Mexican patients with LC; and to explore the possible prognostic role of HRQL data. Methods: Translation procedures followed EORTC guidelines. Both instruments were completed by patients with LC. Tests for reliability and validity were performed. A subset of patients was administered HRQL evaluations before and after chemotherapy. HRQL was associated with prognosis in chemotherapy-naïve patients. The protocol was approved by the Institute's Ethics Committee. Results: One hundred fifty three patients (mean age, 60.3 years; 84 females and 69 males) completed both questionnaires. Compliance rates were high, and the questionnaires were well accepted. Nine of 10 multi-item scales of both questionnaires presented Cronbach's alpha coefficients > 0.7. Multi-trait scaling analysis demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Patients with better Karnofsky or Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status reported better functional HRQL scores. Different scales in the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-LC13 questionnaires were accurately related with clinical characteristics. Functional as well as disease-symptom scales improved after chemotherapy, but treatment side-effects scales worsened in test-retest analysis. Better role functioning and absence of thoracic pain scales were associated with longer overall survival (OS) (p= 0.009 and p= 0.035, respectively). Conclusion: The Mexican-Spanish versions of the EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-LC13 questionnaires are reliable and valid for HRQL measurement in Mexican patients with LC and can be used in clinical trials. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Rojas-Puentes L.L.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Of Mexico Incan | Gonzalez-Pinedo M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Of Mexico Incan | Crismatt A.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Of Mexico Incan | Ortega-Gomez A.,Translational Medicine Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Radiation Oncology | Year: 2013

Background and purpose: Chloroquine (CLQ), an antimalarial drug, has a lysosomotropic effect associated with increased radiationsensibility, which is mediated by the leakage of hydrolytic enzymes, increased apoptosis, autophagy and increased oxidative stress in vitro. In this phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of radiosensibilization using CLQ concomitant with 30 Gray (Gy) of whole-brain irradiation (WBI) to treat patients with brain metastases (BM) from solid tumors.Methods: Seventy-three eligible patients were randomized. Thirty-nine patients received WBI (30 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks) concomitant with 150 mg of CLQ for 4 weeks (the CLQ arm). Thirty-four patients received the same schedule of WBI concomitant with a placebo for 4 weeks (the control arm). All the patients were evaluated for quality of life (QoL) using the EORTC Quality of Life (QoL) Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) (Mexican version) before beginning radiotherapy and one month later.Results: The overall response rate (ORR) was 54% for the CLQ arm and 55% for the control arm (p=0.92). The progression-free survival of brain metastases (BMPFS) rates at one year were 83.9% (95% CI 69.4-98.4) for the CLQ arm and 55.1% (95% CI 33.6-77.6) for the control arm. Treatment with CLQ was independently associated with increased BMPFS (RR 0.31,95% CI [0.1-0.9], p=0.046).The only factor that was independently associated with increased overall survival (OS) was the presence of< 4 brain metastases (RR 1.9, 95% CI [1.12-3.3], p=0.017). WBI was associated with improvements in cognitive and emotional function but also with worsened nausea in both patients groups. No differences in QoL or toxicity were found between the study arms.Conclusion: Treatment with CLQ plus WBI improved the control of BM (compared with the control arm) with no increase in toxicity; however, CLQ did not improve the RR or OS. A phase III clinical trial is warranted to confirm these findings. © 2013 Rojas-Puentes et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Mendoza J.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Martinez J.,INCan | Hernandez C.,Hospital Regional Presidente Juarez | Perez-Montiel D.,INCan | And 12 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Background:Cisplatin cures over 80% of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), and nucleotide-excision repair (NER) modifies the sensitivity to cisplatin. We explored the association between NER proteins and their polymorphisms with cisplatin sensitivity (CPS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with non-seminomatous (ns)-TGCTs.Methods:The expression of ERCC1 and XPA and the presence of γH2AX were evaluated in cancer cell lines and in fresh ns-TGCTs. The ERCC1 protein was also determined in ns-TGCTs. The differences between CPS and non-CPS cell lines and patients were analysed by Student's t- or χ 2 -tests. The differences in OS were analysed using the log-rank test, and the hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using the Cox model.Results:High ERCC1 expression was observed in the non-CPS cells, and both ERCC1 and γH2AX expressions were augmented after cisplatin treatment. Increased ERCC1 expression was also identified in non-CPS patients. Neither polymorphism was associated with either CPS or OS. The presence of ERCC1 was associated with non-CPS (P=0.05) and adjusted in the prognosis groups. The HR in ERCC1-negative and non-CPS patients was >14.43, and in ERCC1-positive and non-CPS patients the HR was >11.86 (P<0.001).Conclusions:High levels of ERCC1 were associated with non-CPS, suggesting that ERCC1 could be used as a potential indicator of the response to cisplatin and prognosis in ns-TGCTs. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan, INCan, Cancer Genomics Laboratory and Instituto Nacional Of Medicina Genomica Inmegen
Type: | Journal: Respiratory research | Year: 2016

Tobacco-smoke is the major etiological factor related to lung cancer. However, other important factor is chronic wood smoke exposure (WSE). Approximately 30 % of lung cancer patients in Mexico have a history of WSE, and present different clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics compared to tobacco related lung cancer, including differences in mutational profiles. There are several molecular alterations identified in WSE associated lung cancer, however most studies have focused on the analysis of changes in several pathogenesis related proteins.Our group evaluated gene expression profiles of primary lung adenocarcinoma, from patients with history of WSE or tobacco exposure. Differential expression between these two groups were studied through gene expression microarrays.Results of the gene expression profiling revealed 57 statistically significant genes (p<0.01). The associated biological functional pathways included: lipid metabolism, biochemistry of small molecules, molecular transport, cell morphology, function and maintenance. A highlight of our analysis is that three of the main functional networks represent 37 differentially expressed genes out of the 57 found. These hubs are related with ubiquitin C, GABA(A) receptor-associated like protein; and the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways.Our results reflect the intrinsic biology that sustains the development of adenocarcinoma related to WSE and show that there is a different gene expression profile of WSE associated lung adenocarcinoma compared to tobacco exposure, suggesting that they arise through different carcinogenic mechanisms, which may explain the clinical and mutation profile divergences between both lung adenocarcinomas.

Lara-Medina F.,National Cancer Institute INCan | Lara-Medina F.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia | Perez-Sanchez V.,INCan | Saavedra-Perez D.,Laboratory of Experimental Oncology | And 14 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined as breast cancer that is negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. TNBC represents 15% of all invasive breast cancers, but some studies have suggested that its prevalence differs between races. To the authors' knowledge, no previous studies have determined the prevalence of TNBC and its risk factors among Hispanic women. METHODS: The authors identified 2074 Hispanic women with breast cancer who attended the National Cancer Institute in Mexico City from 1998 to 2008. All histopathologic and immunohistochemical diagnoses were rereviewed by a breast cancer pathologist. The prevalence of TNBC, its association with clinicopathologic characteristics, and its prognostic impact were determined. RESULTS: The median patient age at diagnosis (±standard deviation) was 50 ± 12 years. The overall prevalence of TNBC was 23.1%. Younger age (P <.001), premenopausal status (P =.002), increased parity (P =.029), hormonal contraceptive use (P =.04) high histologic grade (P <.001), and advanced disease (P <.001) were associated independently with TNBC. Postmenopausal patients who had a body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m2 (P =.027) or <30 kg/m2 (P <.001) were more likely to have TNBC. In multivariate analysis, patients with TNBC had a higher risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR), lower disease-free survival (DFS) (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.32; P =.009), and a lower cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.30; P =.002) than patients with non-TNBC. CONCLUSIONS: The median age at diagnosis of Hispanic women with breast cancer was 11 years younger than the average age reported in the United States. The prevalence of TNBC in this study population was higher than that reported in white women with breast cancer. TNBC was associated with a higher risk of LRR and with lower DFS and CSS than those in patients with non-TNBC. © 2011 American Cancer Society.

Arrieta O.,Clinica de Tumores Toracicos | Arrieta O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Medina L.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Estrada-Lobato E.,INCan | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: Chemotherapy based on platinum is the standard treatment for unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Liposomal doxorubicin (LD) consists of pegylated phospholipid vesicles that encapsulate doxorubicin-enhancing liposome deposition in the tumour. We evaluated the toxicity profile and anti-tumour activity of cisplatin plus LD in untreated patients with MPM, as well as 99mTc-LD distribution in MPM lesions after chemotherapy administration. Methods: A total of 38 patients with non-resectable MPM received LD 40 mg m -2 and cisplatin 60 mg m -2 every 21 days. Gamma camera images of 99mTc-LD were acquired to evaluate LD accumulation in measurable tumour tissue. The study was registered in Clinical Trials (NCT00886028). Results :In all, 72% of patients were stage III and 28% were stage IV. Eighty four percent and 16% have high and low risk acording EORTC respectively. The median time to progression was 4.6 months (95% confidence interval (95% CI: 3.4-5.9 months), and median overall survival (OS) was 19.6 months (15.2-37.2 months). Patients that responded to chemotherapy treatment had better survival than patients who did not. Functional physical scales, dysnea, cough, and chest/arm pain demonstrated improvement. The accumulation ratio of LD in tumour and soft tissues vs liver was 0.78±0.16 and 0.29±0.09, respectively. After 1 h of administration, LD uptake in tumour tissue was higher than in soft tissue (P<0.001). Conclusion: The combination of LD and cisplatin Results in an active therapeutic regimen for unresectable MPM, with an acceptable toxicity profile and improvement in quality of life. 99mTc-LD showed higher levels of tumour uptake as compared with surrounding tissues. © 2012 Cancer Research UK All rights reserved.

Villarreal-Garza C.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | De La Mata D.,INCan | Zavala D.G.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | MacEdo-Perez E.O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Lung Cancer | Year: 2013

Between 30% and 50% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) will develop cerebral metastases in the course of their illness. As improvements are made in the local brain treatment, the question arises on how to manage patients with NSCLC who have solely stable brain metastatic disease and if treatment should be considered for the primary lung lesion. The present article will review published series of patients with NSCLC and with brain metastases treated with aggressive thoracic management, with either lung tumor resection or thoracic radiation with or without chemotherapy as definitive treatment. We will also assess which prognostic factors may be useful in the identification of the subset of patients who could benefit from this more aggressive approach. For patients treated with surgical resection for the primary lung tumor, median survival ranged from 19 to 27 months, and the 1-, 2-, and 5-year survival reached 56%-69%, 28%-54%, and 11%-24%, respectively. Patients treated with aggressive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, achieved a median survival of 15.5-31.8 months, with a 1-year survival of 50%-71%, and a 2-year survival of 16%-60%. Well-selected patients with NSCLC and with exclusively oligometastatic cerebral disease represent a subgroup of patients with stage IV NSCLC that might achieve long-term survival after treatment directed to the brain and lung tumor lesions. Patients with N0 or N1 disease may be selected for surgical thoracic treatment, whereas those with N2 or N3 disease may benefit from combined chemoradiotherapy in the absence of progression after induction chemotherapy. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Arrieta O.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Arrieta O.,Experimental Oncology Laboratory | Arrieta O.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Villarreal-Garza C.,Experimental Oncology Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Radiation Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: Brain metastases occur in 30-50% of Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and confer a worse prognosis and quality of life. These patients are usually treated with Whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) followed by systemic therapy. Few studies have evaluated the role of chemoradiotherapy to the primary tumor after WBRT as definitive treatment in the management of these patients.Methods: We reviewed the outcome of 30 patients with primary NSCLC and brain metastasis at diagnosis without evidence of other metastatic sites. Patients were treated with WBRT and after induction chemotherapy with paclitaxel and cisplatin for two cycles. In the absence of progression, concurrent chemoradiotherapy for the primary tumor with weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin was indicated, with a total effective dose of 60 Gy. If disease progression was ruled out, four chemotherapy cycles followed.Results: Median Progression-free survival (PFS) and Overall survival (OS) were 8.43 ± 1.5 and 31.8 ± 15.8 months, respectively. PFS was 39.5% at 1 year and 24.7% at 2 years. The 1- and 2-year OS rates were 71.1 and 60.2%, respectively. Three-year OS was significantly superior for patients with N0-N1 stage disease vs. N2-N3 (60 vs. 24%, respectively; Response rate [RR], 0.03; p= 0.038).Conclusions: Patients with NSCLC and brain metastasis might benefit from treatment with WBRT and concurrent thoracic chemoradiotherapy. The subgroup of N0-N1 patients appears to achieve the greatest benefit. The result of this study warrants a prospective trial to confirm the benefit of this treatment. © 2011 Arrieta et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Soto-Reyes E.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Gonzalez-Barrios R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Cisneros-Soberanis F.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Herrera-Goepfert R.,INCan | And 6 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2012

Background: In cancer cells, transcriptional gene silencing has been associated with genetic and epigenetic defects. The disruption of DNA methylation patterns and covalent histone marks has been associated with cancer development. Until recently, microRNA (miRNA) gene silencing was not well understood. In particular, miR-125b1 has been suggested to be an miRNA with tumor suppressor activity, and it has been shown to be deregulated in various human cancers. In the present study, we evaluated the DNA methylation at the CpG island proximal to the transcription start site of miR-125b1 in cancer cell lines as well as in normal tissues and gynecological tumor samples. In addition, we analyzed the association of CTCF and covalent histone modifications at the miR-125b1 locus.Methods: To assess the DNA methylation status of the miR-125b1, genomic DNA was transformed with sodium bisulfite, and then PCR-amplified with modified primers and sequenced. The miR-125b1 gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR using U6 as a control for constitutive gene expression. CTCF repressive histone marks abundance was evaluated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays.Results: The disruption of CTCF in breast cancer cells correlated with the incorporation of repressive histone marks such H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 as well as with aberrant DNA methylation patterns. To determine the effect of DNA methylation at the CpG island of miR-125b1 on the expression of this gene, we performed a qRT-PCR assay. We observed a significant reduction on the expression of miR-125b1 in cancer cells in comparison with controls, suggesting that DNA methylation at the CpG island might reduce miR-125b1 expression. These effects were observed in other gynecological cancers, including ovarian and cervical tumors.Conclusions: A reduction of miR-125b1 expression in cancers, correlated with methylation, repressive histone marks and loss of CTCF binding at the promoter region. © 2012 Soto-Reyes et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Candelaria M.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Herrera A.,INCan | Labardini J.,Instituto Nacional Of Cancerologia Incan | Gonzalez-Fierro A.,INCan | And 9 more authors.
Annals of Hematology | Year: 2011

Decitabine and azacitidine, two DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors, are the current standard of treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are also being tested against MDS. Both drug classes synergize in their gene reactivating and anticancer activities. The combination of hydralazine and valproate (Transkrip®), a DNMT and HDAC inhibitor, respectively), has been developed as epigenetic therapy under the drug repositioning concept. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of hydralazine and valproate against MDS, an open phase-II study for previously treated patients with MDS was conducted. The hydralazine dose was given according with the acetylator phenotype, and valproate was dosed at 30 mg/kg/day. Response was graded with International Working Group criteria. Toxicity was evaluated by the Common Toxemia Criteria-National Cancer Institute version 3 scale. From November 2007 to January 2010, 12 patients were included. Median age ± SD was 53±19.78 years (range, 23-79 years); median time from diagnosis to inclusion in the study was 7.9 months (range 2.6-36.1 months). Median of previous treatment was 2 (range, 1-6). Refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia was diagnosed in ten cases, and refractory anemia with excess of blasts in two. Overall response was documented in six (50%) of 12 cases, including one CR, one PR, and four hematological improvements of the erythroid series. Two patients (16.6%) progressed to acute myeloid leukemia. Hemoglobin increased from 7.4 to 10.3 g/dL (in 13 weeks), neutrophils, from 1.1 to 2.0 (in 3 weeks), and platelets, from 66±109 to 72±109/L (in 2 weeks). Transfusional requirements decreased from 2.3 to 0 U bi-monthly for red blood cells and from 0.5 to 0 U bi-monthly for platelets in responding patients. Main toxicities were mild, including somnolence and nausea. Preliminary results of this phase-II study suggest that the combination of hydralazine and valproate is a promising non-toxic and effective therapy for MDS. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

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